Term papers can take several forms, ranging from historiographical surveys of a particular topic to focussed analyses using a body of primary sources (journals, plantation records, newspapers). The UF Library has an extremely strong Caribbean history collection, probably the best anywhere; the term paper gives you an opportunity to use a world-class resource base to explore a topic of your choosing. The following points should be taken into account:

    The subject chosen must lie (primarily) within the chronological and geographical limits of the course. Listed below are some questions and reading material that might help you formulate a topic. If you choose a topic we have covered in class, you will be held to a higher standard than than if you have to research a subject from scratch.

    You ought to have selected a topic by mid-term; this involves reading ahead in the course material. Students frequently encounter heavy demand for the same books; if library books are on loan, fill out a recall form. Discuss your choice with me; I can usually help. Aim to write several drafts; allow time to polish the writing and adjust balance and coverage. An essay needs to be crafted, not just poured out on to paper. Ten to twelve pages of text, not counting notes and bibliography, is sufficient. However, students wishing to write a longer piece preparatory to an honors thesis (and who have a 3.5 UDGPA) are encouraged to do so.

    The merit of the paper partly will be judged on whether it lives up to the expectations created by its title. Don't call a paper "Jamaican slave resistance" and write only about maroons or 19th century revolts. Hence, choose your title carefully, and adjust it, if necessary.

    Aim for an analytic rather than purely descriptive approach. One way to do this is to adopt a "compare and contrast" framework. E.g. look at the same phenomenon in different colonies or different periods. Also, while you may feel unable to criticize the opinions of published scholars, if you read two or three works on the same subject, you should start to notice differences in content or interpretation, about which you can form your own opinions. Conversely, you need to be able to justify your criticisms. In evaluating a book, take into account when it was published, who published it, and what sources it used. Beware of popular, unscholarly accounts, especially on the internet; material is only as reliable as the person who put in there. Books published by university presses and written by academics are likely to be the most reliable. It may be helpful to read reviews of the work, published in journals such as American Historical Review (available on-line via JSTOR) and New West Indian Guide.

    Remember history is in large measure concerned with cause and effect; that is, how and why things change, especially why they do so at a particular point in time. So, if you want to write about Haitian voodoo, do not simply describe it. Rather, examine how it has developed and what roles it has played through history.

    Include a bibliography and use end- or, preferably, foot-notes to reference controversial ideas, obscure pieces of information, and all quotations.  However, avoid frequent or lengthy quotations. There is no reason to quote any author directly, unless the precise form of words is crucial. This should be your writing not someone else's.  Use a recognized citation style, preferably Chicago Manual of Style, and note that notes and bibliographies use a different format.  

    Consider using materials contemporary with the topic you are studying, either as a source of data to analyze or for evidence of attitudes specific to a time and place. For example, colonial era newspapers carried not just news and opinion but also lists of fugitive slaves, shipping and price data, and adverts of plantations for sale. The library has abundant correspondence in French and Spanish by participants in the Haitian Revolution, plantation accounts from Jamaica and Saint Domingue, and extensive government papers from the Bahamas, Surinam and the Danish West Indies. See me, if you are interested in working with historical documents; also Geggus, The Caribbean Collections at the University of Florida: A Brief Description.

    In writing papers, be certain to give proper credit whenever you use words, phrases, ideas, arguments, and conclusions drawn from someone else’s work.  Failure to give credit by quoting and/or footnoting is plagiarism and is unacceptable. Please review the University’s honesty policy at http://www.dso.ufl.edu/Academic_Honesty.html.

    Part of your grade is determined by spelling, grammar, use of words, and punctuation. Pay close attention to the attached list. Do not use the "historical present" tense; use the past tense for past events, i.e. not, "In 1492 the Spanish reach the Americas and a demographic catastrophe begins."  And note that the vast majority of students vastly overuse the word "vast."



Spain, Spanish, Spaniard,                     Caribbean
Portugal, Portuguese,                         Britain
Hispaniola, Española,                         Indian

    receive                                   hierarchical
    seize                                     monarchical
    foreign                                   bureaucracy
    siege                                     bourgeois
    priest                                    bourgeoisie

independent, independence,                    privilege
a phenomenon, two phenomena,                  separate

explanation, explain
occur, occurrence

principle [noun]; principal [adj.]           A lack of principle
                                             A principal reason

lose/loose.  A loose screw
             To lose your mind

too/to/two.  Two is too many to invite.

there [place]/their [possessive]             There is their dog.

its [possessive]/it's [it is]                It's in its kennel.

one country, two countries
one country's trade, two countries' trade
 [singular possess. / plural possess.]

effect [noun]                             An important effect
affect [verb: to influence]               that affected many people

effect [(rarer), verb: to carry out]      To effect a change

fewer [plural]/less [singular]            Fewer people, less population
                                                                                                                    Fewer workers, less work
                                          Fewer jobs, less employment

a capital city; the Capitol in D.C.

Never "off of"; just "off."

Spain's power declined. It [NOT "they"] became weaker.
[countries are singular not plural nouns]

Commas and periods go inside quotation marks in U.S. (not British) punctuation. Known to the Spanish as "pirates," they are usually called by British writers "privateers."


I. CARIBBEAN TO 1800. LAH 4471 AND LAH 3470.

 Possible Term Paper Questions With Suggested Reading

NB. Always start with the course texts and Recommended Reading. A good general study is D. Watts, West Indies: Patterns of Development (historical geography). Key journals New West Indian Guide; Slavery & Abolition; J of Caribbean History. An excellent source for exploring the full range of pre-1850 Caribbean material in the library is this library guide. Further details on manuscript and newspaper holdings can be found here.      

How and why have interpretations of the Caribbean Amerindians (OR, of Carib cannibalism) changed over the last thirty years?

W. Keegan, L. Carlson, Talking Taíno: Essays on Caribbean Natural History from a Native Perspective; L. Newsom, E. Wing, On Land and Sea: Native American Uses of Biological Resources; C. Mann, 1493: Uncovering the New World that Columbus Created; David Watts, West Indies, ch. 2 (1987); Robert Paquette, The Lesser Antilles, ch. 1-3; C. Sauer, Early Spanish Main; Peter Hulme, Colonial Encounters, Wild Majesty, and Cannibalism and the Colonial World; Samuel Wilson, Hispaniola; J. Arrom, Taino; Irving Rouse, The Tainos; Ricardo Alegría, Ball Courts; William Keegan, People Who Discovered Columbus; "Contact Population of Hispaniola," Hispanic American Historical Review (1978); William Arens, Man-Eating Myth; R. Myers, "Island Carib Cannibalism," in New West Indian Guide (1984); Philip Boucher, Cannibal Encounters; C. Coll y Toste, Prehistoria de Puerto Rico; Jalil Sued Badillo, Los Caribes (1978); Kacike: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology (December 2002) [on Taino survival) .

Why did buccaneering disappear from the Caribbean in the period 1660-1720? OR Examine the evolution of privateering in the Caribbean from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

Karen Kupperman, Providence Island; Peter Earle, Sack of Panama; Archibald P. Newton, European Nations in the West Indies; Nellis Crouse, French Struggle for the West Indies; V. Barbour, "Privateers & Pirates of the West Indies," Am.Hist.Rev. (1911); N. Zahedieh, "Trade, Plunder & Economic Development," Ec.Hist.Rev. (1986), and "Privateering in Jamaica" J. Imperial & Commonwealth Hist (1990); C. Haring, Buccaneers in the West Indies; A. Esquemelin, History of the Buccaneers; B. Burg, Sodomy and the Perception of Evil; C. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean; Jenifer Marx, Pirates and Privateers; Michael Craton, Islanders in the Stream, ch. 8-9; Daniel Defoe, History of the Pirates; Marcus Rediker, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea and Villains of All Nations; Richard Pares, War and Trade; essay by Bromley in F. Krantz, History From Below; Kris Lane, Pillaging the Empire and Blood and Silver; Zahedieh’s articles in  and Econ. Hist. Review (1986); Richard Pennell, Bandits at Sea; http://www.history.unimelb.edu.au/coursematerials/pirates/index.htm

Any topic concerning slavery.

The following reference works are a good place to start: Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery; Historical Guide to World Slavery; S. Engerman, R. Paquette, Slavery; Joseph Miller, Slavery & Slaving in World History: A Bibliography.  Also S. Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery; J. Walvin, Black Ivory or Questioning Slavery.

What roles did religion play in Caribbean slave societies. OR
How much did the culture of slaves and of slaveowners have in common? OR
What elements of African cultures were best able to survive in the Caribbean, and why?

J. Handler, "Slave Medecine and Obeah," New West Indian Guide 74 (2000); Atlantic Studies 12:1 (2015), issue on Obeah; articles on obeah in Slavery & Aboltion (2001) by Handler & Bilby, and (2004) by de Barros; Nathaniel Murrell, Afro-Caribbean Religions; E. Edmonds, M. Gonzalez, Caribbean Religious History; Karol Weaver, Medical Revolutionaries: the Enslaved Healers of Saint Domingue; Edward Brathwaite, Folk Culture of Jamaican Slaves, and Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, ch. 15, and pp. 252-265; H. Orlando Patterson, Sociology of Slavery, ch. 7 & 8; Herbert Klein, African Slavery in Latin America, ch. 7 & 8; S. Mintz, Birth of Afro-American Culture; Roger Abrahams, After Africa; Robert Thompson, Flash of the Spirit; M. Laguerre, Voodoo and Politics in Haiti, chs. 2-4; Geggus, "Haitian Voodoo in the 18thC" Jahrbuch fur Geschichte Lateinamerikas (1991) (& 4th floor reserve); J. Sensbach, Rebecca's Revival; S. Frey, Come Shouting to Zion; M. Turner, Slaves and Missionaries; CGA Oldendorp, A Caribbean Mission; H. Gossai, Religion, Culture, and Tradition; Gwendolyn Hall, Social Control in Slave Plantation Societies, ch.3; M. Crahan, Africa and the Caribbean; T. Falola, Yoruba Disapora; M. Warner-Lewis, Central Africa in the Cbn. and African Diaspora; L. Heywood, Central Africans; G. Debien, Les esclaves des Antilles françaises, ch. 14 (religion); P. Pluchon, Vaudou, Sorciers, Empoisonneurs; M. Fernandez, Creole Religions of the Caribbean; M. Barnet, Afro-Cuban Religions; D. Hall, Santeria Enthroned; G. Brandon, Santeria From Africa to the New World; A. Pollak-Eltz, Cultos Afroamericanos.

Examine the incidence of resistance to slavery (or of maroonage) in the Caribbean and explain the patterns you find.

Richard Price, Maroon Societies, To Slay the Hydra, and First-Time; Kofi Agorsah, Maroon Heritage; H.O. Patterson, Sociology of Slavery, ch.9; G. M. Hall, Social Control in Slave Plantation Societies, ch.4; J. Fouchard, The Haitian Maroons; D. Geggus, Slave Resistance Studies, and, A Turbulent Time; H. Klein, African Slavery, ch.9; D. Geggus,“Slave Rebellion During the Age of Revolution” in Wim Klooster, Curaçao in the Age of Revolution; W. Zips, Black Rebels; M. Campbell, Maroons of Jamaica; M. Mullin, Africa in America; Richard Hart, Blacks in Rebellion; Gad Heuman, Out of the House of Bondage; M. Laguerre, Voodoo and Politics, chs. 1-4; Eugene Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution; M. Craton, Testing the Chains; H. Beckles, Natural Rebels; Vera Rubin, Comparative Perspectives on Slavery, part 6; Steeve Buckridge, Language of Dress; Gary Okihiro, In Resistance, ch. 7 & 8; Frederick Rodriguez, Cimarrón; Carlos Deive, Los guerrilleros negros.

To what extent did men and women experience slavery differently?

C. Robertson, Women and Slavery in Africa, ch. 2; D.Gaspar, More Than Chattel; T. Burnard, Mastery, Tyranny & Desire, or his article in M. Smith, Sex & Sexuality; M. Craton, Searching for the Invisible Man; Barbara Bush, Slave Women in Caribbean Society; M. Morrissey, Slave Women in the New World; B. Higman, Slave Population of the Br. Caribbean; P. Mohammed, “Visual Grammars”; G. Okihiro, In Resistance, ch. 8; H. Beckles, Natural Rebels and Centering Women; A. Gautier, Les soeurs de Solitude; C. Albert, Mujer y esclavitud en Sto. Domingo; J. Morgan, Laboring Women; D. Hall, In Miserable Slavery; V Shepherd, Women in Caribbean History; Ira Berlin, Cultivation & Culture, ch. 1&2; "Black Women and Survival: a Maroon Case" in F. Steady, The Black Woman Cross-CulturallySlavery & Abolition 26:2 (Aug. 2005), several articles; N. Phillip, “Producers, Reproducers and Rebels: Grenadian Slave Women 1783-1830” at www.uwichill.edu.bb/bnccde/grenada/conference/paperdex.html; Pamela Scully, Gender and Slave Emancipation in the Atlantic World. On enslaved children, see Slavery & Abolition (Aug 2006)

How profitable was plantation slavery? OR What problems were involved in running a plantation in the Tropics?
Barry Higman, Plantation Jamaica, 1750-1850, Jamaica Surveyed, and Montpelier, Jamaica: A Plantation Community; Betty Wood, Travel, Trade and Power; M. Craton, J. Walvin, Jamaican Plantation; M. Craton, Sinews of Empire; J.R. Ward, British West Indian Slavery; S. Carrington, The Sugar Industry; Simon Smith, Slavery, Family and Gentry Capitalism; F. Smith, Caribbean Rum; N. Zacek, Settler Society in the English Leeward Islands; David Ryden, West Indian Slavery and British Abolition; Robert Stein, The French Sugar Business; Geggus, “Une Famille de La Rochelle et ses plantations de Saint-Domingue” in D. Buisseret, ed. France in the New World; M. Moreno Fraginals, The Sugar Mill; P. Tornero Tinajero, Crecimiento económico

Did Britain's industrial revolution depend on Caribbean slavery? 

Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery; R. Sheridan, Sugar and Slavery; B. Solow, S. Engerman, British Capitalism and Caribbean Slavery; J. McCusker, R. Menard, The Economy of British America; D. Ryden, West Indian Slavery and British Abolitionism; S. Drescher, "Capitalism and Slavery after 50 Years," Slavery & Abolition 18 (1997); D. Eltis, S. Engerman, "The importance of slavery and the slave trade to industrializing Britain," J. of Economic History 60 (2000); J. Mokyr, The British Industrial Revolution; K. Morgan, Slavery, Atlantic Trade and the British Economy; Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery; R.P. Thomas, "The sugar colonies of the old empire: profit or loss?" Economic History Review 21 (1968);  T. Burnard, "Prodigious Riches: The Wealth of Jamaica before the American Revolution," Economic History Review 54 (2001); Joseph Inikori, Africans and the Industrial Revolution

How did the nature of warfare in the Caribbean change during the eighteenth century? OR
Examine the relations of the military and society in the West Indies.

Richard Pares, War and Trade in the West Indies; Colin Jones, Britain and Revolutionary France, ch. 2; Michael Duffy, Soldiers, Sugar and Seapower; Geggus, Slavery, War and Revolution, ch. 10(v) & 13, and Turbulent Time ch1; A. Kuethe, Cuba; Duncan Crewe, Yellow Jack and the Worm; Lowell Ragatz, Fall of the Planter Class; R. Buel, In Irons; S. Conway, War of American Independence; Roger Buckley, British Army in the West Indies, Slaves in Red Coats and Haitian Journal of Lt. Howard; R. Harding, Amphibious Warfare; M. Smelser, Campaign for the Sugar Islands; Cooper Willyams, Account of the Campaign...1794; John Stedman, Narrative..Surinam.

In what ways did the American Revolution affect the development of the (French and) British Caribbean?

L. Ragatz, Fall of the Planter Class; E. Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, ch. 6; S.Drescher, Econocide, chs. 1-6; Geggus in Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution; S. Carrington, The British West Indies during American Revolution and The Sugar Industry (review in J.Interdisciplinary History 34:3 (2004): 489-491); Knight in I. Berlin, Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution; "The Stamp Act Crisis" William & Mary Quarterly 1994); W. Brown, "The Loyalists" in Revista/Rev. Interamericana (1975); S. Conway, War of American Independence; B. Tuchman, First Salute; James Lewis, Final Campaign; R. Buel, In Irons; T. Claypole, "Why Jamaica did not rebel," Historical Journal (1986); R. Hoffmann, Economy of the Revolutionary Period; C. Frostin, "Saint-Domingue et la Révolution américaine," Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire de la Guadeloupe (1974); L. Langley, The Americas in the Age of Revolution

How, why, and with what effect on the Caribbean did the European powers adjust their commercial policies in the 18th century?

Richard Sheridan, Sugar & Slavery: An Economic History; Frances Armytage, Free Port System; L. Ragatz, Fall of the Planter Class; Ronald Hoffmann, Economy of the Revolutionary Period; J. Israel, Empires and Entrepots; J. Tracy, Political Economy of Merchant Empires; Allan Kuethe, Cuba, 53-55, 65-74; Jean Tarrade, Commerce coloniale, chs. 14-17; Johannes Postma & Victor Enthoven (eds), Riches from Atlantic Commerce; Dutch Transatlantic Trade and Shipping, 1585-1817; Wim Klooster, Illicit Riches: Dutch Trade in the Caribbean .

In what ways and why did the free colored communities of the Caribbean differ from one another?

Franklin Knight, The Caribbean, table 4; Jack Greene, Neither Slave Nor Free; J. Garrigus, Before Haiti; Gwendolyn Hall, Social Control in Slave Plantation Societies, ch.6; Geggus, Slavery, War and Revolution, ch.1 (ii); Edward Cox, Free Coloreds in the Slave Societies of St Kitts and Grenada; Jerome Handler, The Unappropriated People; Melanie Newton, Children of Africa in the Caribbean; Jane Landers, Against the Odds; J. Garrigus, Before Haiti and Struggle for Respect; Stewart King, Blue coat or lace collar?; G. Heuman, Between Black and White: Free Coloreds in Jamaica, 1792-1865; H. Klein "Colored militia of Cuba" Caribbean Studies (July 1966); Wim Klooster, 'Subordinate but proud; Curaçao’s Free Blacks and Mulattoes in the Eighteenth Century,' New West Indian Guide (1994) 68:283-300  

How did disease shape the development of the Caribbean in this period?

Adapting to Conditions: War and Society in the Eighteenth Century; J. McNeill, Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean; V. Brown Reaper’s Garden; N. Thode Jensen, For the Health of the Enslaved: Slaves, Medicine and Power in the Danish West Indies; C. Mann, 1493: Uncovering the New World; Noble David Cook, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650; S. Engerman, B. Higman, “The Demographic Structure of the Caribbean Slave Societies in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,” in F. Knight, ed., General History of the Caribbean, vol 3; Harold Cook, Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age; Carl Sauer, Early Spanish Main; Richard Dunn, Sugar and Slaves; Richard Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves; Kenneth Kiple, Caribbean Slave: a Biological History; Kenneth Kiple, Another Dimension of the Black Diaspora; Duncan Crewe, Yellow Jack and the Worm; Geggus, Slavery, War and Revolution, ch. 13; Barry Higman, Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, ch. 8; Michael Duffy, Soldiers, Sugar, Seapower, ch. 14; Childs, "Sir George Baker and the Dry Belly-Ache," Bulletin of the Hist. of Medicine 44 (1970); R. Paquette, Lesser Antilles, ch.3. 

How did Europeans adapt to/change the Carbbean Environment? (see above for disease)

L. Newsom, E. Wing, On Land and Sea: Native American Uses of Biological Resources; C. Mann, 1493: Uncovering the New World that Columbus Created; David Watts, West Indies: Patterns of Development; J. Diamond, Collapse; Richard H. Grove, Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860; Reinaldo Funes Monzote, From Rainforest to Cane Field in Cuba: An Environmental History since 1492; Matthew Mulcahy, Hurricanes and Society  in the British Greater Caribbean, 1624-1783; Sherry Johnson, Climate and Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution; A. Johns, ed., Dreadful Visitations: Confronting Natural Catastrophe in the Age of Enlightenment; K. Breisch, A. Hoagland, eds., Building Environments: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture; C. Shammas, ed., Investing in the Early Modern Built Environment; L. Gragg, “The Port Royal Earthquake,” History Today 50 (September 2000); Riva Berleant-Schiller & Lydia M. Pulsipher, “Subsistence Cultivation in the Caribbean,” New West Indian Guide  60 (1986).

Compare the impact of diet and workload on Caribbean slaves' health.

Robert Dirks, Black Saturnalia; Barry Higman, Slave Populations; Richard Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves; Kenneth Kiple, Caribbean Slave: a Biological History; Kenneth Kiple, Another Dimension of the Black Diaspora; A. Meredith John, Plantation Slaves of Trinidad; Robert Fogel, Without Consent or Contract, (re: Trinidad); I. Berlin, Cultivation and Culture, chapters by Geggus, Dunn; J.R. Ward, British West Indian Slavery.

To what extent did the nature of the Atlantic slave trade vary through time and according to the nationality of the carriers?

Emma Christopher, Slave Ship Sailors and Their Captive Cargoes, 1730-1807; Marcus Rediker, The Slave Ship: A Human History; Stephanie Smallwood, Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora; Eric Taylor, If We Must Die: Shipboard Insurrections; H. Klein, The Middle Passage; Patrick Manning, Slave Trades; David Eltis, Routes to Slavery, and Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade; B. Davidson, Black Mother/African Slave Trade; James Rawley, The Transatlantic Slave Trade; Roger Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition; Geggus, "Sex ratio, age and ethnicity," Journal of African History, (1989), and "French Slave Trade," William & Mary Qtrly (2001); J. Postma, The Atlantic Slave Trade  and The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade; Robert Stein, The French Slave Trade; P. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census; P. Gould, Barbaric Traffic; C. Palmer, Human Cargoes; R. Harms, Diligent; B. Mouser, Slaving Voyage; L. Svalesen, Slave Ship; E. O'Callaghan, Voyages of the slavers St. John and Arms of Amsterdam, 1659, 1663 (e-Book); contemporary accounts by Jean Barbot, John Atkins, Willem Bosman, Richard Jobson.

Compare and contrast the growth and function of any two (or three) Caribbean cities in the period to 1800.

Peggy Liss, Atlantic Port Cities, (use the bibliography); John McNeill, Atlantic Empires (Havana); Levi Marrero, Cuba; G. Saunders, Historic Nassau; P. Gosner, Plantation and Town; Colin Clarke, Kingston, Jamaica; David Buisseret, Port Royal; Geggus, "Urban development" (4th floor reserve); L. Rupert, Creolization and Contraband (Willemstad); Georges Corvington, Port au Prince, vol. 1; B. Higman, Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, ch. 7 (urban slavery); James Robertson, Gone is the Ancient Glory: Spanish Town, Jamaica; Verene Shepherd, Working Slavery, ch. by Zahedieh on Port Royal; Ciudades del Caribe; La Llave de las Indias; A. Pérotin, La ville aux iles.

Assess the impact of the Haitian Revolution on the Circumcaribbean or the Atlantic World.

E. Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution; Geggus, "French and Haitian Revolutions," Revue française d'hist. d'Outre-Mer (1989); Geggus, "Enigma of Jamaica," William & Mary Quarterly (1987), and Haitian Revolution: a Documentary History, Impact of the Haitian Revolution, Haitian Revolutionary Studies and World of the Haitian Revolution; Robin Blackburn, Overthrow of Colonial Slavery; Julius Scott, The Common Wind; Eleázar Córdova Bello, Haití y la independencia de Hispanoamérica; José L. Franco, Ensayos históricos; L. Dubois, A Colony of Citizens, and Avenging America; L. Langley, The Americas in the Age of Revolution; C. Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean/Surinam (1991); S. Buck-Morss, Hegel, Haiti and Universal History; S. Fischer, Modernity Disavowed; D. Geggus,“Slave Rebellion During the Age of Revolution” in Wim Klooster, Curaçao in the Age of Revolution; N. Naro (ed) Blacks, Coloureds and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America; Doris Garraway, Tree of Liberty: Cultural Legacies of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World; W.Klooster, Curaçao in the Age of Revolutions, 1795-1800; Matt Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba; Jane Landers, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolution;   Geggus & Fiering, World of the Haitian Revolution; L. Dubois, A Colony of Citizens; Drescher & Emmer, eds., Who Abolished Slavery?; L. Langley, The Americas in the Age of Revolution; F. Knight, Modern Caribbean, ch. 2; T. Ott, Haitian Revolution; José L. Franco, Revolución y conflictos and Ensayos históricos (on Aponte); C. Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean (1991); R. Blackburn, The American Crucible and Overthrow of Colonial Slavery; E. Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution; E. Córdova-Bello, Independencia de Haitì; Gaspar & Geggus, Turbulent Time: the French Revolution and the Greater Caribbean; A. Ferrer, El rumor de Haití en Cuba : temor, raza y rebeldía, 1789-1844 ,  and Freedom's mirror : Cuba and Haiti in the age of revolution  

 Did the United States do more to help or to hinder the emergence of an independent Haiti?

Donald Hickey, "America's Response to the Slave Revolt in Haiti," Journal of the Early Republic (1982); Rayford Logan, Diplomatic Relations of the US with Haiti; A. DeConde, Quasi-War; Charles Tansill, The US and Santo Domingo; Alfred Hunt, Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America; T. Matthewson, "Jefferson & Haiti," J Southern Hist 1995 [see also bibliography for the American Revolution question].

Compare C.L.R. James's approach to the Haitian Revolution with:-

Thomas Ott, Haitian Revolution; P. Girard, Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon; R. Heinl, Written in Blood; Pierre Pluchon, Toussaint Louverture (in French) ; Robin Blackburn, Overthrow of Colonial Slavery; Wim Klooster, Revolutions in the Atlantic World; Colin Palmer, Modern Caribbean, ch. 2; Ralph Korngold, Citizen Toussaint; T. Stoddard, French Rev. in SD; M. Ros, Night of Fire; C. Fick, Making of Haiti; A. Carpentier, Kingdom of this World

How have archaeologists contributed to knowledge of Caribbean history?

L. Ferguson, Archaeology and Early African America (1992); J. Milanich, First Encounters (1989); Charles Ewen, Puerto Real; Douglas Armstrong, The Old Village and the Great House (1990); articles in Jamaica Journal for 1972, '73 and '89, Social Science Hist. 1986, J. Interdisciplinary Hist. 1983; African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter (http://www.diaspora.uiuc.edu/newsletter.html); D. Buisseret, Port Royal; J. Handler, Plantation Slavery in Barbados (1978); Kofi Agorsah, Maroon Heritage; Theresa Singleton, Archaeology of Slavery and Plantation Life; E.Jordan, "Unrelenting toil,"Slavery & Abolition 26:2 (Aug. 2005); Jay Haviser, African Sites; K.Kelly, M. Hardman, French Colonial Archaeology.

Examine the debates among historians about slavery and economic change in Britain, or in the Atlantic World.

Eric Williams, Capitalism & Slavery; Ian Steele, English Atlantic; Kenneth Morgan, Slavery, Atlantic trade and the British Economy, 1660-1800; Richard Sheridan, Sugar & Slavery; Barbara Solow, British Capitalism and Caribbean Slavery; Morgan's essay in H. Pietschmann, Atlantic History; D. Ryden, West Indian Slavery and British Abolitionism; Robin Blackburn, Making of New World Slavery; Dale W. Tomich, Through the Prism of Slavery: Labor, Capital, and World Economy



David Watts, The West Indies: Patters of Development, Culture and Environmental Change since 1492 (1987), ch. 1, 10, 11, an up-to-date and highly regarded historical geography; Franklin Knight, The Caribbean: Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism, 2nd ed. (1990); David Lowenthal, West Indian Societies (1972), wide-ranging, richly detailed, but excludes Spanish islands; Sidney Mintz, Caribbean Transformations (1974), important set of essays by the leading anthropologist; Sidney Mintz, Sally Price, eds. Caribbean Contours (1985), pluridisciplinary set of overviews; Gordon Lewis, Growth of the Modern West Indies (1968) (politics), and Main Currents in Caribbean Thought (1983). Mimi Sheller, Consuming the Caribbean (2003), a postmodern perspective; G. Heuman, The Caribbean (2006).  For primary sources in the library, see D. Geggus, Caribbean Collections at the U of F.

Leading journals: New West Indian Guide (NWIG) (especially good for anthropological and postcolonial perspectives); Social & Economic Studies (local scholarship); Slavery & Abolition; J of Caribbean History.


Eric Williams, Capitalism & Slavery; Seymour Drescher, Econocide and Capitalism & Antislavery; Barbara Solow, British Capitalism & Caribbean Slavery, part IV; Robin Blackburn, Overthrow of Colonial Slavery; David Davis, Slavery & Human Progress; M. Craton, Testing the Chains (revolts); Rebecca Scott, Slave Emancipation in Cuba; C. Deive, Esclavitud del Negro en Santo Domingo; Dale Tomich, Slavery in the Circuit of Sugar (Martinique);


Geggus, Impact of the Haitian Revolution, World of the Haitian Revolution, and Haitian Revolutionary Studies; F. Knight, Modern Caribbean, ch. 2; T. Ott, Haitian Revolution; José L. Franco, Revolución y conflictos and Ensayos históricos (on Aponte); C. Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean (1991); R. Blackburn, Overthrow of Colonial Slavery; E. Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution; S. Fischer, Modernity Disavowed; E. Córdova-Bello, Independencia de Haitì; Gaspar & Geggus, Turbulent Time.


Louis Pérez, Cuba; Manuel Barcia, Seeds of Insurrection: Domination and Resistance on Western Cuban Plantations, 1808‐1848; Rebecca Scott, Slave Emancipation in Cuba; Manuel Moreno Fraginals, The Sugarmill/El Ingenio; Robert Paquette, Sugar Is Made From Blood; David Murray, Odious Commerce; Laird Bergad, Sugar & Society; George Brandon, Santeria From Africa to the New World; José Luciano Franco, Ensayos históricos & Los palenques; Miguel Barnet, Autobiography of a Runaway Slave; G. Larosa Corzo, Los cimarrones de Cuba, and Runaway Slave Communities; Saul Vento, Rebeldías de esclavos en Matanzas; Pablo Tornero Tinajero, Crecimiento económico y transformaciones sociales.


(overview) F. Knight, Modern Caribbean, ch. 3; F. Cooper, Beyond Slavery; Williams, Columbus to Castro, ch. 18-21; Malcolm Cross, Peasants, Plantations and Rural Communities (1979); Jean Besson, Land and Development in the Caribbean; Stanley Engerman, Between Slavery and Free Labor (Sp.Cbn.); Malcolm Cross, Labour in the Caribbean; M. Shabuddeen, From Plantocracy to Nationalism; M. Turner, From Chattel Slaves; Craton & Emmer in New West Indian Guide 1994-5;  Mary Butler, Economics of Emancipation (Barbados); S. Drescher, ed. Meaning of Freedom: Economics, Politics and Culture.
(peasantries) Mintz, Cbn. Transformations, part 2; Bridget Brerereton, “Family Strategies”; Pamela Scully, Gender and Slave Emancipation in the Atlantic World; Paul Moral, Paysan haïtien; Mats Lundahl, Man and Land in Haiti; Thomas Holt, Problem of Freedom, S. Wilmot, Adjustments to Emancipation, G. Heuman, The Killing Time, and Abigail Bakan, Ideology and Class Conflict (1990) (Jamaica); Karen Olwig, Cultural Adaptation and Resistance on St John; Michel Trouillot, Dominica in the Modern World System; Douglas Hall, Five of the Leewards; M. Craton, Islanders in the Stream vol 2 (Bahamas); Brian Moore, Race, Power & Social Segmentation (Guyana); W. Rodney, History of the Guyanese Working People (1981);
see Indentured Servitude list


F. Knight, Modern Caribbean, ch. 9; L. Martínez, Torn Between Empires; Louis Pérez, Cuba, War of 1898, etc.; A. Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba, H. Thomas, Pursuit of Freedom; Raymond Carr, PR; O. Jiménez de Wagenheim, PR's Revolt for Indep.; H. Lidín, Hist. of the PR Indep Movement; S. Welles, Naboth's Vineyard (DR); H. Hoetink, The Dominican People; F. Moya Pons, Dominican Republic; A. Cambeira, Quisqueya La Bella; R. Crasweller, Trujillo; P. de San Miguel, Los campesinos; M. Baud, Peasants. see Cuban Revolution list


David Nicholls, From Dessalines to Duvalier; Mats Lundahl, Peasants and Poverty; Mats Lundahl, The Haitian Economy (1983); B. Plummer, Haiti & the Great Powers; Michel-Rolph Trouillot, State Against Nation (1989); Simon Fass,  Political Economy in Haiti; L.-F. Hoffmann, Haïti: lettres et l’être; G. Barthélemy, Dans la splendeur d’un après-midi; L. Hurbon, Comprendre Haïti; J. Dayan, Haiti, History & the Gods; M. Dash, Haiti Anthology, Haiti & the U.S; M, Renda, Taking Haiti; Matthew Smith, Red & Black in Haiti


General:Knight & Palmer, Mod. Cbn., ch. 4-6, 11-12; Gordon Lewis, Growth of the Modern West Indies; Mintz, Caribbean Contours, ch 1 & 7; O. Bolland, On the March; Brian Meeks, Radical Caribbean
  Jamaica: Thomas Holt, Problem of Freedom; George Beckford, Small Garden, Bitter Weed; Carl Stone, Class, State and Democracy in Jamaica; Carlene Edie, Democracy By Default; Trevor Munro, Jamaican Politics: A Marxist Perspective; Darrell Levi, Michael Manley.
  Trinidad: Selwyn Ryan, Race and Nationalism in Trinidad, and Muslimeen Grab for Power; Kelvin Singh, Race & Class; Bridget Brereton, History of Modern Trinidad; Susan Craig, Smiles and Blood; P. Hintzen, Costs of Regime Survival; Kevin Yelvington, Trinidad Ethnicity.
  Grenada: Gordon Lewis, Grenada; Paul Sutton, Grenada; Jorge Heine, ed., Revolution Aborted; Grenada Documents: A Overview; Tony Martin, In Nobody's Backyard; Kai Schoenals, Revolution and Intervention; Bryan Meeks, Caribbean Revolutions & Revolutionary Theory (Grenada, Cuba, Nicaragua).
  Federation: J. Modecai, The West Indies; Hugh Springer, Reflections;  E. Wallace, British Caribbean; A. Tuttle, West Indies Federation.


See religion list
Margaret Crahan, Africa and the Caribbean; Monica Schuler, Alas, Alas, Kongo (Jamaica); Maureen Warner-Lewis, Guinea's Other Suns (Trinidad); Amy Garvey, Garvey and Garveyism; Rupert Lewis, Garvey: His Work and Impact; Winston James, Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia; Tony Sewell, Garvey's Children; Richard Burton, French and West Indian; Richard Burton, Afro-Creole and "Négritude to Antillanité," New West Indian Guide (1993), 8-28; Leslie Desmangles, Faces of the Gods and Sandra Barnes, Africa's Ogun (Haitian voodoo); Jean Stubbs, Afrocuba; George Brandon, Santeria From Africa to the New World; Robin Moore, Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo.  The works of Marcus Garvey; C. Price "Expressions of Ethiopianism in Jamaica" NWIG (2003):31-64..


Anthony Maingot, The United States & the Caribbean (1994); Thomas G. Paterson, Contesting Castro: The United States and the Triumph of the Cuban Revolution; David Healy, Drive to Hegemony (1988); Lester Langley, The US and the Caribbean in the 20th Century; C. Ayala, American Sugar Kingdom (Cuba, DR, PR); Brenda Plummer, Haiti and the Great Powers; Richard Weisskopf, Factories and Foodstamps  (Puerto Rico); Glenn Phillips, The Caribbean Basin Initiative (1987); Dana Munro, Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy; Bruce Calder, Impact of Intervention (DR); A. Lowenthal, Dominican Intevention; C. Ayala, American Sugar Kingdom..
   see Cuban Revolution list.


M. Pérez-Stable, Cuban Revolution (1993); Carmelo Mesa Lago, Cuba in the 1970s (1974); Jean Stubbs, Cuba The Test of Time (1989); Jorge Domìnguez, Cuba: Order and Revolution (1978); Jules Benjamin, The United States and the Origins of the Cuban Revolution (1990); Mario Llerena, Unsuspected Revolution; Tad Szulc, Fidel: A Critical Portrait; Mario Lazo, American Policy Failures in Cuba (1968); Peter Bourne, Fidel; G. Hagelberg, “Cuban Sugar in the Soviet Era,” Cambridge Journal of Economics (1994); The Cuban Revolution at Thirty; Gillian McGillivray, Blazing Cane: Sugar Communities, Class and State Formation in Cuba, 1868‐1959; Thomas G. Paterson, Contesting Castro: The United States and the Triumph of the Cuban Revolution.


Donald Hill, Calypso Calaloo; R. Gibbons, Calypso Triology; G. Rohlehr, Calypso and Society; John Cowley, Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso; J. Bettleheim, Caribbean Festival Arts; M. Crahan, Africa and the Caribbean, ch on Jonkonnu; Rex Nettleford, Caribbean Cultural Identity; D. Thomas, Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture; John S. Roberts, Black Music of Two Worlds; Peter Manuel, Caribbean Currents; S. Mintz, Caribbean Contours ch by Bilby (music); Carolyn Cooper, Noises in the Blood (gender, orality); Gage Averill, A Day for the Hunter (Haitian music); G. Béhague, Music and Black Ethnicity


General: Nathaniel Murrell, Afro-Caribbean Religions; E. Edmonds, M. Gonzalez, Caribbean Religious History; George Simpson, Religious Cults of the Caribbean; Robert Thompson, Flash of the Spirit; B. Gates, Afro-Caribbean Religions; A. Pollak-Eltz, Cultos Afroamericanos; S. Barnes, Africa's Ogun.

Cuba: Jean Stubbs, Afrocuba (1993); Michael Horowitz, Peoples & Cultures of the the Cbn (Bascomb ch on Santeria); Joseph Murphy, Working the Spirit, and Ritual Systems in Santeria; Fernando Ortiz, Los negros brujos (Cuba); G. Brandon, Santeria From Africa to the New World; Miguel Barnet, Afro-Cuban Religions; L. Cabrera, El Monte, La regla kimbisa, Yemayà y Ochùn.

Jamaica: on 19thC:  Mary Turner, Slaves and Missionaries; Philip Wright, Knibb the Notorious; Hope Waddell, Twenty-Nine Years in the West Indies; James Phillippo, Jamaica: Its past and Present State; Margaret Crahan, Africa and the Caribbean, ch on Myalism; Edward Brathwaite, "Kumina," Jamaica Journal 42 (1978); Robert Stewart, Religion and society in post- emancipation Jamaica; Catherine Hall, Civilising Subjects.
on Rastafari:  Ennis Edmonds, Rastafari; Barry Chevannes, in New West Indian Guide (1990 & 1992) & several books; Leonard Barrett, Sun and the Drum and The Rastafarians; Donald Hogg, Jamaica's Religions; George Cumper, The Potential of Rastafarians; Horace Campbell, Rasta and Resistance; Rupert Lewis, Garvey: His Work and Impact.

Trinidad: William Bascomb, Shango in the New World; Maureen Warner-Lewis, Guinea's Other Sons (1991); M. Klass, Singing with Sai Baba.

Haiti: L. Desmangles, Faces of the Gods; H. Courlander, Drum and the Hoe; Geggus, "Haitian Voodoo in the 18thC" (reserve); M. Laguerre, Voodoo and Politics in Haiti; A. Métraux, Haitian Voodoo; Rémy Bastien, Vodoun and Politics; B. Diederich, Papa Doc; L. de Heusch, "Kongo in Haiti," Man 27 (1989); K. McCarthy Brown, Mama Lola.; J. Dayan, Haiti, History & the Gods; Kate Ramsey, "Without one ritual note: folklore performance and the Haitian state, 1935-1946," Radical History Review 84 (2002).


Francisco Scarano, Sugar and Slavery; Laird Bergad, Coffee and the Growth of Agrarian Capitalism; José Curet, De la esclavitud a la aboliciòn, 1979; Los amos hablan; Andrés Ramos Mattei, Hacienda azucarera 1981; Stanley Engerman, etc. Between Slavery and Free Labor; Fernando Picó, Libertad y servidumbre; Arturo Morales Carrión, Auge y decadencia de la trata negrera; Luis Martínez Fernández, article in New West Indian Guide 67:1 (1993); Guillermo Baralt, Esclavos rebeldes; Guillermo Baralt, La Buenavista; Luis Dìaz Soler, Historia de la esclavitud negra; Benjamin Nistal-Moret, Esclavos, profugos y cimarrones: PR 1780-1873, and El proceso abolicionista en PR, 1984; Teresita Martìnez-Vergne, Capitalism in Colonial PR...Late 19thC; L. Delgado, Puerto Rican Women’s History


Raymond Carr, Puerto Rico: A Colonial Experiment; Gordon Lewis, Puerto Rico; Juan Silén, Historia de la nación puertorriqueña; James Dietz, Economic History of PR; Jay Mandle, Patterns of Caribbean Development, 1982; Manuel Maldonado-Denis,  PR: A Socio-Historic Interpretation, 1972; Adalberto López, The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture and Society; Arturo Morales Carrión, PR: a Political and Cultural History, 1983; José González,  El país de cuatro pisos, 1980 (also in English); L. Delgado, Puerto Rican Women’s History; Frances Negrón‐Muntaner and Ramón Grosfoguel, PuertoRican Jam: Rethinking Colonialism and Nationalism


Intro: G. Oostindie, Caribbean Ethnicity; D.Lowenthal, West Indian Societies (ch. 3-5, 7); Hoetink in Mintz, Caribbean Contours; H. Hoetink, Cbn Race Relations; M. Harris, Patterns of Race in the Americas; D. Nicholls, Haiti in Caribbean Context, ch. 1 "Caste, Class & Color"; O. Cox, Caste, Class, and Race; M.G. Smith, Plural Society in the W.I. and Culture, Race & Class; R.T. Smith, Kinship & Class
Race & Slavery: F. Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen; H. Klein, Slavery in the Americas; L. Foner, Slavery in the Americas.; H. Hoetink, Slavery and Race Relations
Race & Colonialism: F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks; Aimé Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism; A. Memmi, Colonizer and the Colonized
Cases: David Howard, Coloring the Nation (D.R.); Aline Helg, Our Rightful Share (Cuba); R. Paquette, Sugar is Made with Blood, A. Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba, and V. Martinez-Alier, Marriage, Class, Color (19thC Cuba); A. De La Fuente, A Nation for All (20thC Cuba); K. Yelvington, Trinidad Ethnicity, and Producing Power; V. Munasinghe, East Indians & the Cultural Politics of Identity; Steven Vertovec, Hindu Trinidad (1993); David Dabydeen, Across Dark Waters; Donald Wood, Trinidad in Transition; W. Rodney, History of the Guyanese Working People; Brian Moore, Cultural Power; Brackette Williams, Stains on My Name (Guyana); D. Nicholls, Haiti in Cbn. Context ch. 8 (Syrians), ch 4 (Trinidad), ch 1 (Haiti); M. Klass, Singing with Sai Baba; M. Warner Lewis, Guinea's Other Suns (Africans in Trinidad); Giraud & Burton in R. Burton, French and West Indian
  see also, Indentured Servitude list


P. Wilson "Reputation and Respectability" Man 4 (1969): 70-84; V. Shepherd, Engendering History, and Women in Caribbean History; R. Reddock, Women Plantation Workers; J. Momsen, Women & Change; H. Beckles, Centering Woman; B. Bush, Slave Women; M. Morrissey, Slave Women; Celsa Albert Batista, Mujer y esclavitud en Sto. Domingo; M. Smith, West Indian Family Structure; R.T. Smith, Negro Family in Br. Guiana, and Matrifocal Family; A.Trotz, "Gender, Race & Family in Guyana" NWIG (2003):5-29; Bridget Brerereton, “Family Strategies”; P. Mohamed, [several titles: see LUIS]; V. Martìnez-Alier, Marriage, Class, Color (19thC Cuba); Eileen Findlay, Imposing decency : the politics of sexuality and race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920; Lois Smith, Sex & Revolution (20thC Cuba); Margaret Randall, Women in Cuba; H. Safa, Myth of the Male Breadwinner; Carolyn Cooper, Noises in the Blood; Olive Senior, Working Miracles; K. Hart, Women and the Sexual Division of Labor; C. Lopez Springfield, Daughters of Caliban; Christine Barrow, Family in the Caribbean; Gautier in R. Burton, French and West Indian; L. Delgado, Puerto Rican Women’s History; B. Silvestrini, Women & Resistance; R. Kanhai, Matikor…Indo-Caribbean Women; Errol Miller, Men at Risk; B. Chevannes, Learning to be a Man.


David Northrup, Indentured Labor (overview); W. Look Lai, Indentured Labor (Indians and Chinese); Lisa Yun, The Coolie Speaks (Chinese in Cuba); Mary Thomas, Jamaica and Voluntary Laborers from Africa, 1840-1865; Monica Schuler, Alas, Alas, Kongo (Free Africans in Jamaica); Alan Adamson, Sugar and Slaves (Br. Guiana); Hilary Beckles, V. Shepherd, eds. Caribbean Freedom, section 4 (chapters on Cuban Chinese, Indians in Br. Cbn., Portuguese in Br. Guiana, French Cbn. Indentureship); Max Sulty, Migration de l'hindouisme; M. Shahbuddeen, From Plantocarcy to Nationalism; Keith Laurence, Question of Labour; B. Brereton, Hist. of Modern Trinidad; articles in Itinerario (1997); Cuba Commission Report (Chinese); Moutouswamy and ?? on FWI


F. Taylor, To Hell With Paradise; P. Pattullo, Last resorts: the cost of tourism in the Caribbean; K. Kempadoo, Sun, Sex and Gold; L. Perez, On Becoming Cuban; R. Schwartz, Pleasure Island: Tourism and Temptation in Cuba; R. Robinson, Is Tourism a Viable Strategy?; Dawn Marshall, Tourism and employment in Barbados; Mimi Sheller, Consuming the Caribbean; G. Gmelch, Behind the Smile; S. Gmelch, Tourists and Tourism; J. Maerk Turismo en el Caribe; F. Babb, The Tourism Encounter

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