History of Science Bibliography, History of Science, Technology & Medicine, Robert A. Hatch, University of Florida
S C I E N C E   -   T E C H N O L O G Y   -   M E D I C I N E
History of Science - Technology - Medicine - An Annotated Bibliography
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
 GENERAL WORKS

Bernal, J. D. Science in History, 4th ed. MIT Press. 1970. 4 vols. Standard survey of the social context of science by a prominent Marxist historian. 

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Discoverers. Random House 1983. Eminently readable and wide-ranging interpretation of the role of science in western civilization by a Pulitzer Prize winning historian. 

Bronowski, Jacob. The Ascent of Man. Little, Brown. 1974. Provocative 'personal view' of the history of science in the broader context of western culture; handsomely illustrated. 

Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed London 1985. Witty popular interpretation of science for readers in an age of uncertainty; well illustrated. 

Butterfield, Herbert. The Origins of Modern Science 1300-1800. Free Pr. Rev. ed. 1965. Classic study emphasizing the central role of science in western civilization and the discontinuity associated with the scientific revolution. 

Cohen, I. Bernard. Revolution in Science Harvard Univ. Pr. 1985. Ambitious study of the concept of revolution arguing for incremental transformations in thought rather than discontinuous paradigm shifts. 

-----. Album of Science: From Leonardo to Lavoisier, 1450-1800. Scribner's. 1980. Handsome pictorial overview of science from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. 

Daumas, Maurice (ed.) A History of Technology and Invention: Progress Thought the Ages. Vol. I: The Origins of Technological Civilization. Vol. II: The First Stages of Mechanization. Vol. III: The Expansion of Mechanization, 1725-1860. Crown 1969. Comprehensive multiauthored survey treating all aspects of technology; well illustrated. 

Dampier, W. C. A History of Science Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1965. Useful but somewhat dated single-volume survey. 

Derry, T. K. and T. I. Williams. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to A. D. 1900. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1961. Perhaps the best single-volume survey of technology. 

Dijksterhuis, E. J. The Mechanization of the World Picture. Trans. C. Dikshoorn. Oxford 1961. Examines the development of physical science from antiquity to Newton, arguing mechanization of nature led to mathematization of science. 

Gillispie, Charles C. The Edge of Objectivity. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1960. Classic study of modern science, written with wit and insight, arguing that science offers a world embraced by measurement rather than penetrated by sympathy. 

Hall, A. R. and M. Boas Hall. A Brief History of Science. Signet Library Books. 1964. Compact survey written by two founders of the discipline. 

Holton, Gerald. Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1973. Traces themes in the physical sciences emphasizing the role of creativity. 

Jaffe, Bernard. Men of Science in America: The Role of Science in the Growth of our Country. (edited by I. Bernard Cohen) Arno. 1980. Standard introductory survey from colonial times to the early 20th century; somewhat dated. 

Mason, Stephen F. A History of the Sciences. (rev. ed. of Main Currents of Scientific Thought, 1956) Collier Books (Macmillan). 1962. Enduring single-volume survey of the sciences, Antiquity to the 20th century. 

Nasr, S. H. Science and Civilization in Islam. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1968. Standard single-volume introduction to Arabic science. 

Needham, Joseph. The Grand Titration: Science & Society in East & West. Univ. of Toronto Press. 1979. Excellent collection of essays introducing the history of science in China and providing a comparative approach to its nature and development. 

-----. Science & Civilization in China. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1954-1970. Vol. 1: Introductory Orientations; Vol. 2: History of Scientific Thought; Vol. 3: Mathematics & the Sciences of the Heavens & the Earth; Vol. 4: Physics & Physical Technology--Pt. 1: Physics, Pt. 2: Mechanical Engineering, Pt. 3: Engineering & Nautics; Vol. 5: Spagyrical Discovery & Invention. Monumental study of Chinese science and technology by the acknowledged authority. 

Ronan, Colin A. & Joseph Needham. The Shorter Science & Civilization in China. Vol. 1 Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1980. Useful abridgment of the magisterial parent edition. 

Singer, C., E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall and T. I. Williams, eds. History of Technology. 6 vols. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1955-79. Monumental study ranging over the breadth and depth of the technical arts, technics, and technology from antiquity to the late 19th century. 

Taton, Rene, ed. A General History of the Sciences. 4 vols. (English trans. Thames and Hudson, 1963-66). Useful multi-authored survey translated from the original French. 

Thorndike, Lynn. A History of Magic and Experimental Science. 8 vols. Columbia Univ. Pr. 1923-1958. Monumental study, dated but rich in detail on minor figures and primary sources, placing the occult and pseudo sciences in historical context. 

Whewell, W. History of the Inductive Sciences from the Earliest to the Present Times. 3 vols. 1837; repr. Frank Cass. 1967. Classic and still largely dependable study. 

Whitehead, Alfred North. Science and the Modern World. Macmillan (Distrib. for Free Pr.) 1967. Classic philosophical perspective on the role of science in western thought and culture. 

Wightman, W. P. D. The Growth of Scientific Ideas. Greenwood Pr. 1974 (repr. of 1966 ed.). Dated survey of the development of science from antiquity to the 20th century. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHICAL TOOLS

Black, George W., Jr. American Science & Technology: A Bicentennial Bibliography. Southern Illinois Univ. Pr. 1979. 

Brush, Steven G. and Lanfranco Belloni The History of Modern Physics:

An International Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1983. 

Brush, Stephen G., Helmut E. Landsberg, and Martin Collins. The History of Geophysics and Meteorology: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1985. 

Dauben, Joseph W. The History of Mathematics From Antiquity to the Present: A Selective Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1985. 

DeVorkin, David H. The History of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing, 1982. 

Dunbar, Gary S. The History of Modern Geography: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works. Garland Publishing 1985. 

Durbin, Paul T., ed. A Guide to the Culture of Science, Technology & Medicine. Free Pr. 1980. 

Erlen, Jonathan. The History of the Health Care Sciences and Health Care, 1700-1980: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1984. 

Gascoigne, Robert M. A Historical Catalogue of Scientific Periodicals, 1665-1900, With a Survey of their Development. Garland Publishing 1985. 

Hahm, David E. (with assistance of John Scarborough and G. J. Toomer). The History of Greek and Roman Science: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing (forthcoming). 

Hahn, Roger. Bibliography of Quantitative Studies on Science & Its History. Univ. of California, Office of History of Science & Technology. 1980. 

Home, R. W. (with Mark J. Gittins). The History of Classical Physics: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1984. 

Isis Cumulative Bibliography: A Bibliography of the History of Science formed from Isis Critical Bibliographies 1-90, 1913-1965, ed. Magda Whitrow, Vol. I, Part I: Personalities A-J; Vol. II, Part I: Personalities K-Z; Part II: Institutions, 1975, Vol. III: Subjects, 1979. 

-----. Isis Cumulative Bibliography 1966-1975: A Bibliography of the History of Science formed from Isis Critical Bibliographies 91-100 indexing literature published from 1965 to 1974, Vol. II, Part I: Personalities and Institutions, ed. John Neu, 1981. Authoritative and comprehensive index of articles and books in the history of science and related fields, listed by person, institution, and subject. Knight, David. Natural Science Books in English, 1600-1900. David & Charles. 1972. 

-----. Sources for the History of Science, 1660-1914. 1977. 

Kren, Claudia. Medieval Science and Technology: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1985. 

Kronick, David A. A History of Scientific and Technical Periodicals. 2nd ed. Scarecrow Pr. 1976. 

May, Kenneth O. Bibliography and Research Manual of the History of Mathematics. 1974? 

Molloy, Peter M. The History of Metal Mining and Metallurgy: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1986. 

Multhauf, Robert P. The History of Chemical Technology: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1984. 

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (comp.). An Annotated Bibliography of Islamic Science. Vol. I, 1978. 

Neu, John (ed.) Chemical, Medical and Pharmaceutical Books Printed before 1800. Madison, WI 1967? 

Oleson, John Peter. Bronze Age, Greek, and Roman Technology: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing . 

Overmier, Judith. The History of Biology: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing (forthcoming). 

Porter, Roy Sydney. The History of the Earth Sciences: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1983. 

Rothenberg, Marc. The History of Science and Technology in the United States: A Selective and Critical Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1982. 

Stapleton, Darwin H. (with assistance of Roger L. Shumaker). The History of Civil Engineering Since 1600: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing 1986. 

Sturchio, Jeffrey L. The History of Chemistry: A Critical Bibliography. Garland Publishing (forthcoming). 

Watson, Robert I., ed. The History of Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences: A Bibliographic Guide. Springer Pub. 1978. 

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London: Subject Catalogue of the History of Medicine and Related Sciences. 18 vols. Kraus International Publications. 1979-80. Useful multivolume guide to secondary sources in medicine and the life sciences. 

Wilkinson, Ronald Sterne. The Historiography of Natural History: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing. 


BIOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS

Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. Doubleday. 2nd rev. ed. 1982. Biographical guide arranged by birth date, antiquity to the 20th century. 

Bullough, Vern L. and Olga Church. Biographical Dictionary of American Nurses. Garland Publishing (forthcoming). 

Chambers Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. Ed. by John Daintith, Sarah Mitchell, Elizabeth Tootill. Chambers 1983. 

Concise Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons 1981. Standard quick reference; alphabetically arranged entries for 5000 figures from the multivolume parent set. 

Daintith, John et al. A Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. 2 vols. Facts on File 1981. 

Debus, A. G., ed. World Who's Who in Science: A Biographical Dictionary of Notable Scientists from Antiquity to the Present. Western Publishing Co. 1968. Comprehensive dictionary containing brief entries for some 30,000 scientists, most from the 20th century. 

Elliott, Clark A. Biographical Dictionary of American Science: The Seventeenth Through the Nineteenth Centuries. Greenwood Pr. 1979. Provides detailed entries omitted from the multivolume classic, American Men of Science

Gillispie, Charles D., ed. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 16 vols. Scribner. 1970-1980. Monumental reference source for the history of science. Alphabetically arranged with excellent biographical entries and bibliographies for some 5000 non-living scientists throughout the world. 

Herzenberg, Caroline. Women Scientists from Antiquity to the Present: An Index. Locust Hill Pr. 1986. 

Ogilvie, Marilyn B. Women in S Antiquity through the Nineteenth Century: A Biographical Dictionary with Annotated Bibliography. Contains useful introductory essay and bibliography. 

Pelletier, Paul A. (ed.) Prominent Scientists: An Index to Collective Biographies. 2nd ed., Neal-Schumann 1985. 

Who Was Who in American History: Science and Technology. Marquis Who's Who. 1976. Contains perhaps ten thousand brief sketches on Americans prominent in all fields of science, invention, and technology. 

Williams, Trevor I. A Biographical Dictionary of Scientists. 3rd ed. Black 1982. Contains excellent entries for some 1000 scientists, emphasizing the period since 1800, with brief lists of suggested readings. 


PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE & METHODS OF SCIENCE

Blackwell, Richard J. A Bibliography of the Philosophy of Science, 1945-1981. Greenwood Pr. 1983. 

Duhem, Pierre. To Save the Phenomena: An Essay on the Idea of Physical Theory from Plato to Galileo. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1969. Brief but brilliant study by the pioneering historian of science applying his instrumentalist philosophy of science in examining the historical rift between descriptive astronomy and physical cosmology. 

Feyerabend, Paul. Against Method. Schocken. 1978. The philosopher's first and perhaps boldest statement that 'anything goes,' that science is neither developed nor defended on rational grounds. 

Gutting, Gary, ed. Paradigms & Revolutions: Applications & Appraisals of Thomas Kuhn's Philosophy of Science. Univ. of Notre Dame Pr. 1980. Excellent selection of essays evaluating Thomas Kuhn's concepts and contributions. 

Hanson, Norwood Russell. Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1965. Classic study emphasizing the role of perception in the act of observation, suggesting that perception is directed and restricted by theoretical expectation. 

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1979. Selection of articles, essays, and lectures written between 1959-1974 on historiographic and metahistorical themes. 

-----. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd ed. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1970. Highly influential study of scientific and historical change, arguing that science normally develops cumulatively but periodically undergoes discontinuous paradigm shifts, that is, revolution. 

Lakatos, Imre, and Musgrave, Alan, eds. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1970. Traces the shift in themes and issues in the history and philosophy of science from Karl Popper to Thomas Kuhn. 

Popper, Karl R. Conjectures & Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Harper & Row. 1968. Classic study providing an excellent introduction to Popper's philosophy of science. 

Toulmin, Stephen. Foresight & Understanding: An Inquiry into the Aims of Science. Harper & Row. 1963. Classic introduction to Toulmin's approach, which argues for the historical underpinnings of a philosophy of science and the evolution of thought through conceptual natural selection. 


HISTORIES OF INDIVIDUAL SCIENCES

Mathematics

Ball, Walter W. Rouse. A History of the Study of Mathematics. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1889. Classic survey tracing developments from medieval times to the early 20th century. 

Boyer, Carl B. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development. Dover Pubs. 1959. Standard and most comprehensive introduction to the history of the calculus. 

-----. A History of Mathematics. Wiley. 1968. Standard survey for students from primitive times to the 20th century; includes problem exercises for students. 

Cajori, Florian. History of Mathematical Notations. Open Court. 1951-1952. Vol. I: Notations in Elementary Mathematics; Vol. II: Notations Mainly in Higher Mathematics. Still the best historical introduction to mathematical notation and the controversies surrounding their acceptance. 

-----. A History of Mathematics. 3rd. ed., (edited by A. G. Nim) Chelsea Pub. 1979. 

David, Florence N. Games, Gods & Gambling: The Origins & History of Probability & Statistical Ideas from the Earliest Times to the Newtonian Era. Hafner. 1962. Excellent introduction to the origins and early history of probability and statistical thought. 

Edwards, C. H., Jr. The Historical Development of the Calculus. Springer-Verlag. 1979. Introduction for students; includes problem exercises. 

Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: An Introductory History. Duckworth (Biblio Distributors). 1980. Multi-authored volume consisting of six chapters on theories of the infinite. 

-----. The Development of the Foundations of Mathematical Analysis from Euler to Riemann. 1970. Deals with the contributions of Euler, d'Alembert, Lagrange, Cauchy, and others; excellent bibliography. 

Hacking, Ian. The Emergence of Probability. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1975. Examines the philosophical context of early probability, emphasizing the 17th century. 

Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1972. Perhaps the most comprehensive single-volume introduction from antiquity to the early decades of the 20th century. 

-----. Mathematics and the Search for Knowledge. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1985. 

-----. Mathematics in Western Culture. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1953. Lively and well-written introduction for the non-specialist, arguing that mathematics is central to the development of western culture. 

Osen L. M. Women in Mathematics. MIT Pr. 1974. Popular biographical approach from Hypatia to Emmy Noether. 

Scott, J. F. History of Mathematics: From Antiquity to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century. 2nd ed. Barnes & Noble. 1975 (repr. of 1960 ed.). Solid survey particularly strong on English mathematics. 

Smith, David Eugene. History of Mathematics. Peter Smith (repr. 1925 ed.) 2 vols.; Dover Pubs. 1958 (2 vols.). Introduction to the key figures and concepts of mathematics. 

Struik, Dirk J., ed. A Source Book in Mathematics, 1200-1800. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1969. Useful primary selections in algebra, geometry, and forms of analysis from Oresme to Monge. 

Todhunter, Isaac. History of the Calculus of Variations in the Nineteenth Century. Chelsea. 1962 (repr. of 1861 ed.). Dated but still useful study. 

Van Heijenoort, Jean. From Frege to Godel: A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1967. 

Physical Sciences: Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry

Berry, Arthur. A Short History of Astronomy, From Earliest Times Through the Nineteen Century. Dover Pubs. 1961 (repr. of 1898 ed.). Excellent single-volume survey through the 19th century. 

Cantor, G. N. & M. J. S. Hodge, eds. Conceptions of Ether: Studies in the History of Ether Theories, 1740-1900. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1981. Multi-authored volume including ten original essays and a useful bibliography. 

Dick, Steven J. Plurality of Worlds: The Origin of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1982. Provocative survey of the philosophic, religious, and scientific issues in the history of this debate. 

Dreyer, J. L. E. A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler. Dover. 1953 (reprint of 1906 ed.) and Peter Smith. Still the most authoritative one-volume survey of planetary theory for the period up to ca. 1650. 

Durham, Frank. Frame of the Universe: A History of Physical Cosmology. Columbia Univ. Pr. 1983. Useful introduction by practicing astronomer-cosmologists. 

Grant, Robert. History of Physical Astronomy. Johnson Repr. 1966 (repr. of 1852 ed.). Detailed factual survey emphasizing post-Newtonian mechanics. 

Heilbron, John L. Electricity in the 17th & 18th Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics. 1981. A model study of the development of physical sciences. 

Herrmann, Dieter B. The History of Astronomy from Herschel to Hertzsprung. Trans. and rev. by Kevin Krisciunas. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1984. Examines classical astronomy, the development of astrophysics, and technological developments since the discovery of electromagnetic energy, ca. 1780-1930. 

Hoskin, M. A., ed. General History of Astronomy. 4 vols. Cambridge. in prep. Authoritative multiauthored study. 

Ihde, A. The Development of Chemistry. 1964. Classic encyclopedic survey with an excellent bibliographic essay. 

King, Henry C. Geared to the Stars: The Evolution of Planetariums, Orreries and Astronomical Clocks. 1980. Comprehensive and handsomely illustrated study of clocks and clock-driven instruments; excellent bibliography. 

-----. The History of the Telescope. London. 1955. Still the best single-volume study of telescopes, observational instruments and techniques from antiquity to the 20th century. 

Leicester, Henry M. and Herbert S. Klickstein (eds.). A Source Book in Chemistry 1400-1900. Harvard 1952. Useful primary selections from V. Biringuccio to Marie Curie. 

Magie, W. F. A. A Source Book in Physics. McGraw-Hill. 1935. 

Multhauf, Robert P. The Origins of Chemistry. Neale Watson. 1967. Traces themes from antiquity to the 18th century; excellent bibliography. 

Pannekoek, A. A History of Astronomy. Rowman & Littlefield. 1961. Perhaps the most comprehensive single-volume survey. 

Partington, James R. A History of Chemistry. St. Martin's Pr. 4 vols. Erudite and classic multi-volume reference source. 

Shapley, H. and H. E. Howarth, eds. A Source Book in Astronomy. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1929. Collection of primary readings and extracts emphasizing the 19th century. 

Smith, R. W. A History of Modern Astronomy. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1982. 

Toulmin, Stephen & June Goodfield. The Architecture of Matter. Univ. Chicago Pr. 1976. Eminently readable and intelligent study of theories of matter, alchemy, and the emergence of physical theories in chemistry and physics. 

Toulmin, Stephen & June Goodfield. The Fabric of the Heavens: The Development of Astronomy and Dynamics. Harper & Row. 1961. Dependable and provocative survey of astronomy, physical cosmology, and the emergence of modern dynamics. 

Van Helden, Albert. Measuring the Universe: Cosmic Dimensions from Aristarchus to Halley. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1985. Superb study of the size and distances of planets and the limits of the cosmos, emphasizing the period after Kepler. 

Van Melsen, Andrew G. From Atomos to Atom: The History of the Concept of Atom. Duquesne Univ. Pr. 1952. Surveys the concept of 'atom' from antiquity to the 20th century in philosophy and physical science; dated but still useful. 

Warner, Deborah Jean. The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography, 1500-1800. Alan R. Liss. 1979. Handsomely illustrated survey of celestial cartography. 

Earth Sciences: Geology, Geography, Meteorology etc

Adams, Frank D. The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences. Dover 1956. Survey of geological thought from antiquity to the early 19th century. 

Blouet, Brian W. (ed.) The Origins of Academic Geography in the United States. Archon 1981. 

Bowen, Margarita. Empiricism and Geographical Thought from Francis Bacon to Alexander von Humboldt. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1981. Surveys the impact of modern scientific methods on geography from 1600-1860. 

Brown, Eric H. (ed.) Geography, Yesterday and Tomorrow. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1980. 

Deacon, Margaret. Scientists and the Sea 1650-1900. A Study of Marine Science. Academic Pr. 1971. Traces the development of marine science from antiquity to the 20th century, emphasizing the period since the 17th century and the interest in tides, navigation, and the gradual emergence of oceanography. 

Frisinger, H. H. The History of Meteorology to 1800. Science History Publications. 1977. Brief introduction from Greel antiquity to about 1800. 

Geikie, A. The Founders of Geology. 1897. Classic survey still useful for breadth of perspective. 

James, Peston E., and G. J. Martin. All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas. Wiley & Sons 1981. Introductory survey from antiquity thought the 20th century, focusing on the last century. 

Kish, George (ed.). A Source Book in Geography. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1978. Selections with notes from original geographical writings from Hesiod to von Humboldt. 

Mather, Kirtley F. & Shirley L. Mason, eds. A Source Book in Geology, 1400-1900. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1970. Contains brief selections on geological topics from L. da Vinci to C. R. Van Hise, from the origin of earth to glaciation. 

Middleton, W. E. Knowles. The History of the Barometer. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. 1964. Standard survey based on primary printed sources. 

-----. A History of the Thermometer and Its Uses in Meteorology. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. 1966. Traces the development of the thermometer from the 17th century emphasizing the problem of graduating scales. 

Porter, Roy. The Making of Geology: Earth Science in Britain, 1660-1815. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1977. Authoritative study arguing that attitudes toward Earth, and the foundations of geological thought, underwent great change in Britain prior to the flowering of geology as a science in the 19th century. 

Schlee, Susan. The Edge of an Unfamiliar World: A History of Oceanography. E. P. Dutton & Co. 1973. Traces developments in Europe and America from the mid-19th century through WWII, focusing on the scientific content but not excluding relevant instrumentation and technique; well illustrated. 

Shirley, Rodney W. The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700. Holland Press 1983. 

Tinkler, Keith J. A Short History of Geomorphology. Croom Helm 1985. 

Wood, Robert Muir. The Dark Side of the Earth: The Battle for the Earth Sciences, 1800-1980. Allen & Unwin 1985. Recounts the heroic age of 19th century geology before arguing that the 20th century decline was reversed only in the 1960s with plate tectonics. 

Biological Sciences: Biology, Botany, Zoology, etc.

Andrews, Henry N. The Fossil Hunters: In Search of Ancient Plants. Cornell Univ. Pr. 1980. 

Bulloch, William. History of Bacteriology. Dover Pubs. 1938. 

Clay, Reginald S. & T. H. Court. The History of the Microscope. Longwood Pr. 1977. 

Cole, Francis J. History of Comparative Anatomy: From Aristotle to the 18th Century. Dover Pubs. 1975. Chronicals the emergence of comparative anatomy through three stages, the recognition of the importance of the minutiae of anatomy, the development of technics for investigating and accumulating these details, and integrating the data into coherent patterns. 

Farber, Paul. The Emergence of Ornithology as a Scientific Discipline: 1760-1850. D. Reidel (distrib. Kluwer) 1982. Argues that ornithology should be interpreted in the context of natural history and broader social and institutional developments. 

Greene, Edward Lee. Landmarks of Botanical History. Ed. by Frank N. Egerton with contributions by Robert P. McIntosh and Rogers McVaugh. 2 vols. Stanford Univ. Pr. 1983. 

Hall, Thomas S. History of General Physiology, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1900. 2 vols. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1969. Volume one traces the development of physiology from ancient Greece throught the 18th century; volume two continues the survey to the end of the 19th century. 

-----. Ideas of Life & Matter. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1969. 2 vols. Encyclopedic survey from antiquity to 1900. 

-----. Source Book in Animal Biology. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1971. Comprehensive selection of topically and chronologically arranged excerpts from original sources on all phases of animal life, research, and science form antiquity to the 20th century. 

Leicester, Henry M. Development of Biochemical Concepts from Ancient to Modern Times. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1974. Traces concepts of the living organism and the emergence of biochemistry as a science, emphasizing developments since 1800. 

Mayr, Ernst. The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1982. Useful survey from antiquity to the 20th century, emphasizing the background, triumph, and defense of Darwinism. 

Mayr, Ernst & William B. Provine. Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1980. Collected symposium essays examining the background and emergence of the evolutionary synthesis. 

Medvei, Victor C. A History of Endocrinology. MTP 1982. 

Needham, Joseph. A History of Embryology. 2nd ed. Arno Pr. 1975 (repr.).

Nordenskiold, Erik. The History of Biology: A Survey. Trans. L. B. Eyre. Scholarly Pr. 1935 (repr.). Very dated but classic single-volume survey translated from the original Swedish. 

Persaud, T. V. N. Early History of Human Anatomy, from Antiquity to the Beginning of the Modern Era. C. C. Thomas Publ. 1984. Brief but useful survey of anatomical observation and investigation from earliest times to Vesalius in the 16th century; profusely illustrated. 

Rothschuh, Karl. History of Physiology (trans. by G. B. Risse). Krieger. 1973. Introductory survey from antiquity to the early 20th century, focusing on German developments in the 19th century. 

Rudwick, Martin J. S. The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology. 2nd ed. Neale Watson. 1977. Examines the interpretation of fossils from 16th century curiosities through 18th and 19th century debates touching on uniformity, revolution, progress, and the meaning of the fossil record in evolutionary theories. 

Sachs, Julius von. History of Botany, 1530-1860. rev. ed. (Isaac B. Balfour, ed. & Henry E. Carnsey, trans.) Russell & Russell (Atheneum). 1967 (repr. of 1890 ed.). Dated but still useful survey. 

Singer, Charles. A History of Biology. A General Introduction to the Study of Living Things. Rev. ed. Henry Schuman. 1959. Dated but still useful single-volume survey from Hippocrates to Mendel. 

-----. Short History of Anatomy & Physiology: From the Greeks to Harvey (original title: Evolution of Anatomy). Dover. 1957. 

Stresemann, Erwin. Ornithology: From Aristotle to the Present. Transl. H. J. and C. Epstein. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1975. Standard single-volume survey defining the place of ornithology in the development of systematics, evolutionary theory, and the emergence of modern biology. 

Thorpe, W. H. The Origins & Rise of Ethology: The Science of the Natural Behavior of Animals. Praeger. 1979. Toulmin, Stephen, and June Goodfield. The Discovery of Time. Univ. Chicago Pr. 1976. Provocative and graceful study of the central component of science and history, from myth and memories to 20th century concepts of time and understanding. 

Social Sciences

Ackerknecht, Erwin H. A Short History of Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Hafner. 1970. Standard brief introduction. 

Barnes, Harry E., ed. Introduction to the History of Sociology. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1948 and Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1966 (abr. ed.). Massive collaborative study tracing the development of sociological thought from antiquity through the early 20th century, emphasizing 19th century thinkers. 

Boring, Edwin G. A History of Experimental Psychology. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall. 1950. Standard but dated single-volume survey from ca. 1860-1940. 

Ellenberger, Henri F. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History & Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. Basic Books. 1970. Expansive study of dynamic psychiatry focusing on contributions of Janet, Freud, Adler, and Jung. 

-----. A History of Anthropological Thought (ed. by Andre Singer). Basic Books. 1981. 

Harris, Marvin. The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture. Harper & Row. 1968. Interpretive survey from the Enlightenment through 20th century cultural materialism. 

Herrnstein, Richard J. & Edwin G. Boring, eds. Source Book in the History of Psychology. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1965. Excellent topical selections from original sources reflecting all phases of psychology Aristotle to the early 20th century. 

Hodgen, Margaret T. Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 1964. Traces anthropological concepts from medieval times through the nineteenth century, focusing on 16th and 17th century developments. 

Hothersall, David. History of Psychology Random House 1984. Introduction for students surveying developments from antiquity to the neo-behaviorists. 

Klein, D. B. A History of Scientific Psychology: Its Origins and Philosophical Backgrounds. Basic Books 1970. Traces the emergence of psychology as a science from antiquity to the modern period. 

Leahey, Thomas Hardy. A History of Psychology: Main Currents of Psychological Thought. Prentice-Hall 1980. Introduction for students surveying all aspects of psychology from antiquity to the 20th century. 

Leakey, Louis S. B. & William S. Bester, eds. Adam or Ape: A Sourcebook of Discoveries About Early Man. Schenkman 1981. Collected primary selections and essays on anthropology and paleontology, from Darwin to the 20th century. 

Murphy, Gardner. Psychological Thought from Pythagoras to Freud: An Informal Introduction. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1968. Popular survey and introduction. 

-----. & J. K. Kovach. Historical Introduction to Modern Psychology. rev. 3rd ed. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1972. Focuses on 19th and 20th century developments and the transition to an experimental science based on research. 

Penniman, T. K. A Hundred Years of Anthropology. William Morrow. 1974. Standard survey of anthropological thought emphasizing the period ca. 1835-1935. 

Reisman, John M. A History of Clinical Psychology. enlarged ed. Irvington. 1976. Traces themes in clinical theory, technique, practice, and professional organization from the late 18th to 20th century. 

Robins, R. H. A Short History of Linguistics. 2nd ed. Longman. 1980. Brief survey of linguistics from Greek antiquity to the mid-20th century. 

Seidman, Steven. Liberalism and the Origins of European Social Theory. Univ. California Pr. 1983. 

Watson, Robert I. The Great Psychologists: From Aristotle to Freud. Lippincott. 2nd ed. 1968, and Harper & Row, 4th ed. 1978. 

Wingewood, Alan. A Short History of Sociological Thought. St. Martin's Pr. 1984. 

Medicine & the Medical Sciences

Ackerknecht, Erwin H. Therapeutics: From the Primitives to the 20th Century. Hafner. 1973. Surveys therapeutics, antiquity to present, focusing on internal diseases, diet, chemotherapy, etc. 

Cartwright, Frederick F. A Social History of Medicine. Longman 1977. Introduction to the history of medical science, 18th-20th centuries. 

Castiglioni, A. A History of Medicine. Aronson, 1973. Excellent survey of the history of medicine from antiquity to the 20th century, particularly strong on the contributions of Italy and Britain. 

Clendening, L., ed. Source Book of Medical History. Peter Smith, repr. of 1942 ed., and Dover Pubs. 1960. 

Duffy, John. The Healers: Rise of American Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1976 and Univ. of Illinois Pr. 1979. 

Earle, A. Scott (ed.) Surgery in America: From the Colonial Era to the 20th Century. 2nd ed. Praeger 1983. 

Hopkins, Donald R. Princes and Peasants: Smallpox in History. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1983. Traces the history of smallpox from Elizabethan times through the 20th century and its virtual eradication. 

King, Lester. Medical Thinking: A Historical Preface. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1982. 

Leavitt, Judith and Ronald Numbers (eds.) Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health. 1979. Provides reprints and selections from authorities on all aspects of American medicine. 

Levine, Murray. The History and Politics of Community Mental Health. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1981. 

Parscandola, John (ed.) The History of Antibiotics: A Symposium. 1982? 

Rosen, George. A History of Public Health. 1978. Standard survey from Greek antiquity to the mid-20th century. 

Shryock, Richard H. Development of Modern Medicine: An Interpretation of the Social & Scientific Factors Involved. Univ. of Wisconsin Pr. 1980. Surveys medical developments from 1600 to the early 20th century in Europe and America. 

-----. Medicine & Society in America: 1660-1860. New York Univ. Pr. 1960. Brief introduction to the origins of the profession, medical thought and practice, concepts of disease, and the modern transition, 1820-1860. 

Sigerist, Henry. A History of Medicine. Vol. 1: Primitive & Archaic Medicine; Vol. 2: Early Greek, Hindu & Persian Medicine. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1951-61. Introductory survey of early medical practice and treatment; well illustrated. 

Singer, Charles & Ashworth E. Underwood. Short History of Medicine. 2nd ed. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1962. Standard survey of the practice and science of medicine from prehistory to the early 20th century. 

Spillane, John D. Medical Travellers: Narrative from the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1984. 

Spink, W. Wesley. Infectious Diseases: Prevention & Treatment in the Nineteenth & Twentieth Centuries. Univ. of Minnesota Pr. 1979. 

Wagensteen, Owen H. & Sarah D. Wagensteen. The Rise of Surgery: From Empiric Craft to Scientific Discipline. Univ. of Minnesota Pr. 1979. 

Waterson, James D. An Introduction to the History of Virology. 1980? 

Technology

Agassi, Joseph. Technology: Philosophical and Social Aspects. Reidel 1985. 

Braun, Ernest, and Stuart MacDonald. Revolution in Miniature: The History and Impact of Semiconductor Electronics Re-explored in an updated and revised second edition. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1982. 

Calhoun, Daniel H. The American Civil Engineer: Origins and Conflict. MIT Pr. 1960. Standard study tracing the emergence of the profession in America to 1840; excellent bibliography. 

Calvert, Monte A. The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910: Professional Cultures in Conflict. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. 1967. Provides an overview and social analysis of the process of professionalization, emphasizing the role of activists and those who resisted reform. 

Crouch, Tom D. A Dream of Wings: Americans & the Airplane, 1875-1905. Norton. 1981. 

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications & Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1979. Vol. 1, Vol. 2. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 2 vols. in 1. Pioneer study of the power of the printed word in the growth and dissemination of scientific ideas. 

Emme, Eugene M., ed. Two Hundred Years of Flight in America: A Bicentennial History. American Astronautical Society. 1979. 

Goldstine, Herman H. The Computer from Pascal to Von Neumann. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1972. Provides a solid survey of computer technology from the 17th to 20th centuries. 

Klemm, Friedrich. A History of Western Technology. MIT Pr. 1964. Useful single-volume survey. 

Kranzberg, Melvin & Carroll W. Pursell, eds. Technology in Western Civilization. Vol. 1: The Emergence of Modern Industrial Society, Earliest Times to 1900; Vol 2: Technology in the Twentieth Century. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1967. The best compact survey of the history of technology. 

Landes, David S. Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1983. Stimulating survey of timepiece technology and changing conceptions and attitudes about time. 

Layton, E. T., Jr., et al., eds. The Dynamics of Science & Technology: Social Values, Technical Norms, & Scientific Criteria in the Development of Knowledge. Kluwer Boston. 1978. 

Leinwoll, Stanley. From Spark to Satellite: A History of Radio Communication. Scribner's. 1979. 

McNeill, William H. The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force, and Society Since 1000 A. D.. Univ. Chicago Pr. 1982. 

Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. Technology in America: A History of Individuals and Ideas. M.I.T. Pr. 1981. 

Rothschild, Joan (ed.) Machina Ex Dea: Feminist Perspectives on Technology. Pergamon 1983. 

Ritchie, David. The Computer Pioneers: The Making of the Modern Computer. Simon & Schuster 1986. 

Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Pr. 1984. 

Segal, Howard P. Technological Utopianism in American Culture. Univ. Chicago Pr. 1985. 

Von Braun, Wernher & Frederick I. Ordway, III. History of Rocketry & Space Travel. rev. ed. Thomas Y. Crowell. 1975. Well illustrated survey for the general reader. 

Williams, Michael R. A History of Computing Technology. Prentice-Hall 1985. 


CHRONOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

Ancient & Classical

Aaboe, Asger. Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (New Mathematical Library: 13). Mathematical Association of America 1975. Authoritative introduction for students. 

Aristotle. The Complete Works. The rev. Oxford trans., ed. Jonathan Barnes. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1984. 

Broch, Arthur J. (ed.) Greek Medicine: Being Extracts Illustrative of Medical Writing from Hippocrates to Galen. AMS Pr., repr. of 1929 ed. Intelligent selections of primary texts. 

Dicks, D. R. Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. Cornell Univ. Pr. 1970. Provides a philosophical and textual emphasis rather than technical analysis. 

Euclid. Elements. (Trans. Thomas L. Heath). Dover Publs. 3 vols. 1956. 

Gillings, Richard J. Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs. 1972. Offers a solid, non-technical introduction. 

Heath, Thomas L. Aristarchus, the Ancient Copernicus. Contrary to indications in the title, Heath provides a brilliant study of ancient Greek astronomy through Aristarchus. 

Heath, Thomas L. A History of Greek Mathematics. Dover Pub 2 vols. Still the best introduction to Greek mathematics. 

Lloyd, G. E. R. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. 1968. Excellent introduction to 'The Philosopher.' 

-----. Early Greek Science: Thales to Aristotle. Norton. 1974. Now the standard source for Hellenic science. 

-----. Greek Science after Aristotle. Norton. 1973. Companion to the above, a standard source for Hellenistic science. 

-----. Magic, Reason & Experience: Studies of the Origin & Development of Greek Science. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1979. 

-----. Science, Folklore, and Ideology: Studies in the Life Sciences in Ancient Greece. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1983. 

Neugebauer, Otto. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. Brown Univ. Pr. 1970 (repr. of 2nd ed. 1957) and Dover. 1969. The best single volume for the technical rudiments of the exact sciences in antiquity. For advanced beginners. 

-----. A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Springer-Verlag. 1975. 3 vols. Definitive scholarly study by the acknowledged master. 

Pedersen, Olaf and Mogens Pihl. Early Physics and Astronomy: A Historical Introduction. 1974. Perhaps the best introduction to ancient and medieval astronomy. 

Sambursky, Samuel. The Physical World of Late Antiquity. 1964. 

Santillana, Giorgio de. Origins of Scientific Thought from Anaximander to Proclus, 600 B. C. --500 A. D. New American Library 195?. Brisk, breezy but often brilliant survey of early scientific ideas. 

Sarton, George. History of Science I: Ancient Science Through the Golden Age of Greece. Norton. 1970. 

-----. History of Science II: Hellenistic Science & Culture in the Last Three Centuries B.C. Norton. 1970. Standard but somewhat encyclopedic survey of ancient science. 

Scarborough, John. Roman Medicine. (ed. by H. H. Scullard). Cornell Univ. Pr. 1970. Solid introduction for serious students. 

Singer, Charles. Greek Biology & Greek Medicine. AMS Pr. 1976 (repr. of 1922 ed.). Useful but somewhat dated classic. 

Stahl, William. Roman Science. Univ. Wisconsin Pr. 1962. Provides all you need to know about Roman science in antiquity. 

Van der Waerden, B. L. Science Awakening. (trans. by A. Dresden). Oxford Univ. Pr. 1961. Excellent technical introduction to science in antiquity. 

-----. Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1974. Together with Neugebauer, the most authoritative source on ancient science. 

White, K. D. Greek and Roman Technology. Cornell Univ. Pr. 1984. Surveys all aspects of classical technology, from agriculture to water transportation; excellent illustrations and diagrams. 

Middle Ages

Clagett, Marshall. The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. Univ. of Wisconsin Pr. 1959. Classic scholarly study tracing developments in mechanics particularly impetus theory. 

Crombie, Alistair C. Medieval and Early Modern Science. 2 vols. 1959. Dated but still useful introduction to medieval science stressing the continuity from antiquity through the scientific revolution. 

DeKosky, Robert K. Knowledge & Cosmos: Development & Decline of the Medieval Perspective. Univ. Pr. of America. 1979. Survey of the conceptual foundations of the physical sciences from antiquity to the scientific revolution. 

Ferruolo, Stephen C. The Origins of the University: The Schools of Paris and their Critics, 1100-1215. Stanford Univ. Pr. 1985. 

Gilson, Etienne. Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages. 1938. Classic essay tracing the fundamental theme of knowledge and belief in medieval thought. 

Gimpel, Jean. The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages. 1978. Introduces medieval technology arguing that medieval people produced an industrial revolution. 

Grant, Edward. Physical Science in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, 1972. Introduction to major themes in medieval physical thought stressing the role of the condemnations of 1270 and 1277; standard student introduction to medieval science. 

-----. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1974. 

Contains selections from over 150 authors between the encyclopedic tradition and the fifteenth century. 

Haskins, Charles H. The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. 1927. Classic study on the revival of learning in the Latin West. 

-----. The Rise of the Universities. 1923. Brief introduction to the origin one of the worlds great inventions. 

Kibre, Pearl. Studies in Medieval Science: Alchemy, Astrology, Mathematics, and Medicine. Hamilton Pr. 1984. 

Knowles, David. The Evolution of Medieval Thought. 1962. Standard introduction to the intellectual context of medieval science and learning. 

Lindberg, David C. Studies in the History of Medieval Optics. Variorum 1983. Excellent collected edition of previously published articles. 

-----, ed. Science in the Middle Ages. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1978. Contains essays by authorities on all phases of medieval science and learning. 

Murdoch, John E. Album of Science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Scribner 1984. Superbly illustrated volume for an era dominated by the image rather than the written word. 

Nasr, Hosein. Science and Civilization in Islam. New American Library 1970. Presents the major developments of Islamic science and its legacy in the medieval Latin West. 

Sarton, G. Introduction to the History of Science. Vol. 2 Introduction to the History of Science from Rabbi Ben Ezra to Roger Bacon. Williams & Wilkins Co. 1931. 

-----. Introduction to the History of Science. Vol 3. Science and

Learning in the Fourteenth Century. Williams and Wilkins Co. 1948. Encyclopedic volumes for reference. 

Talbot, C. H. Medicine in Medieval England. 1967. Traces the roots of English medicine from Arabic and Italian influences through major figures and themes in England to about 1500. 

Weisheipl, James A. The Development of Physical Theory in the Middle Ages. Univ. of Michigan Pr. 1971. Surveys themes in physical theory emphasizing the work of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas. 

-----. Nature and Motion in the Middle Ages. Ed. William E. Carroll. Catholic Univ. of America 1985. 

White, Lynn, Jr. Medieval Technology and Social Change. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1962. Classic study tracing the social dimension of medieval innovations such as the horse stirrup, collar, and three-field crop rotation. 

Renaissance & Reformation, 1450-1600

Boas [Hall], Marie. The Scientific Renaissance, 1450-1630. Harper & Row 1962. Dated classic single-volume survey of Renaissance science. 

Copernicus, Nicolaus. Three Copernican Treatises: The Commentariolus, the Letter Against Werner of Copernicus, and the Narratio Prima of Rheticus. 3rd ed. (trans. from Latin ed. by E. Rosen). Octagon. 1971. Brief primary readings that provide an excellent introduction to Copernican thought. 

Debus, Allen G. The English Paracelsians. 1965. Evaluates the work and influence of Paracelsus on English thought, particularly chemistry and medicine. 

Debus, Allen G. Man and Nature in the Renaissance. Cambridge Univ. 

Pr. 1978. Traces occult philosophies and their impact on the emergence of early modern science. 

Drake, Stillman & I. E. Drabkin, trans. Mechanics in Sixteenth Century Italy: Selections from Tartaglia, Benedetti, Guido Ubaldo and Galileo. Univ. of Wisc. Pr. 1969. 

Dreyer, J. L. E. Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life & Work in the Sixteenth Century. Peter Smith. 19??. Authoritative study of the prominent Danish astronomer. 

Haydn, Hiram. The Counter-Renaissance. Peter Smith. Provides an intellectual context for interpreting the limits of Renaissance science and the "Scientific Reformation." 

Johnson, Francis R. Astronomical Thought in Renaissance England. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. 1937. repr. Octagon. Standard introduction to Tudor astronomy and cosmology, focused in part on the reception of Copernicus; now somewhat dated. 

Kocher, Paul H. Science and Religion in Elizabethan England. 1954. Traces themes of conflict and congruence in science and religion; cf. Westfall. 

Nauert, Charles G. Agrippa and the Crisis of Renaissance Thought. Univ. Illinois Pr. 1965. Examines the occult tradition from Ficino through Agrippa in light of the skeptical tradition. 

O'Malley, C. D. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels 1514-1564. Univ. of California Pr. 1964. Standard study of the famous anatomist. 

Popkin, Richard H. The History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza. Univ. California Pr. 1979. Brilliant study of the skeptical crisis and its impact on theology, philosophy, and science; argues that modern science was in part an intellectual compromise between dogmatism and skepticism. 

Rosen, Edward. Copernicus and the Scientific Revolution. Krieger 1984. Somewhat polemical introduction to Copernicus' achievement. 

Sarton, George. Six Wings: Men of Science in the Renaissance. Indiana Univ. Pr. 1977 (repr. of 1957 ed.). Dated but useful introduction to Renaissance science. 

Shirley, John W. Thomas Harriot: A Biography. Oxford: Clarendon Pr. 1983. Detailed but largely descriptive biography of the English mathematician and physicist. 

Shirley, John W., and F. David Hoeniger (eds.) Science and the Arts in the Renaissance. Folger Shakespeare Library 1985. 

Swerdlow, Noel M., and Otto Neugebauer. Mathematical Astronomy in Copernicus's De Revolutionibus. 2 vols. Springer-Verlag 1984. Scholarly analysis of Copernicus' magnum opus. 

Vickers, Brian (ed.) Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1984. Collection of essays assessing the role and significance of the occult tradition in the emergence of modern science. 

Walker, D. P. Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella. 1958. Classic study. 

Wear, A.; French, R. K.; and Lonie, I. M. (eds.) The Medical Renaissance of the 16th Century. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1985. 

Westman, Robert S., and J. E. McGuire. Hermeticism and the Scientific Revolution. Univ. of California Pr. 1977. Excellent essays reevaluating the so-called "Yates thesis" that Hermeticism and other occult modes of thought helped direct or give impetus to Copernicanism and modern science. 

Wightman, W. P. D. Science and the Renaissance. Hafner. 2 vols. 1962. Standard survey of Renaissance science. 

Yates, Frances. Giordano Bruno & the Hermetic Tradition. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1979 and Random House. 1969. Brilliant but controversial study arguing that the emergence of modern science was stimulated by Hermetic philosophy, which provided the human will to understand and transform the natural and social worlds. 

Seventeenth Century

Aiton, E. J. The Vortex Theory of Planetary Motions. American Elsevier 1972. Excellent study of the legacy of Descartes' vortex theory as a cosmological alternative to Newtonian mechanics and action-at-a-distance. 

Brown, Harcourt. Scientific Organizations in 17th Century France, 1620-1680. Johns Hopkins Pr. 1934. Classic study of the informal learned groups that gave rise to the French Academy of Sciences. 

Burtt, Edwin. A. The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science. Humanities Pr. 1967 (repr. of 1932 rev. ed.). Classic study arguing that the scientific revolution provided a new conception of truth, reality, God, man, and human value. 

Caspar, Max. Kepler. Trans. C. Doris Hellman. Abelard-Schuman 1959. Authoritative biography of the prominent German astronomer. 

Christianson, Gale E. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton and His Times. Free Pr. 1984. Lively study of Newton's personality and career describing his major scientific achievements. 

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. Norton 1985. Introduces the major themes in terrestrial and celestial physics during the scientific revolution. 

Descartes, Rene. The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. Trans. John Cottingham, Robert Soothoff, Dugald Murdoch. 2 vols. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1985. Destined to become the standard edition. 

-----. Le Monde, ou Traite de la lumiere. Trans. and intro. by Michael S. Mahoney. Arabis Books 1979. English translation of Descartes' magnum opus, modestly entitled 'The World.' 

-----. Principles of Philosophy. Trans. with notes V. R. Miller and R. P. Miller. Reidel 1983. Translated from the original Latin, the Principia was Descartes' most comprehensive statement of his physical hypotheses. 

Dobbs, Betty Jo Teeter. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or 'The Hunting of the Greene Lyon'. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1976. Provocative study of Newton's alchemical interests. 

Dobell, C. (ed.) Antony van Leeuwenhoek and His 'Little Animals.'1932 repr. Dover 1960. Standard introduction to Leeuwenhoek and his early microscopic studies. 

Drake, Stillman. Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1978. Provides a useful chronology of Galileo's published work and intellectual development. 

Eccles, Audrey. Obstetrics and Gynecology in Tudor and Stuart England. Kent State Univ. Pr. 1982. 

Frank, Robert G., Jr. Harvey and the Oxford Physiologist: A Study of Scientific Ideas. Univ. of California Pr. 1980. Comprehensive study of the "English School" of physiology from Harvey to Lower in intellectual and institutional context. 

Galilei, Galileo. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Ptolemaic & Copernican (trans. by S. Drake). Univ. of California Pr. 2nd ed. 1967 (first pub. in Italian, 1632) 3rd ed. 1980. Standard translation of Galileo's scientific classic; a masterpiece of science and literary style. 

-----. Discoveries & Opinions of Galileo (trans. with notes by S. Drake) Doubleday Anchor Books. 1957. Translations of Galileo's shorter writings on telescopic observation, science, and religion. 

Gassendi, Pierre. The Selected Works of Pierre Gassendi. ed. and trans. Craig B. Brush. Johnson Reprint 1972. Selections, in translation, written by Descartes' famous contemporary and critic. 

Hall, Alfred Rupert. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel Between Newton and Leibniz. 1981. Traces the war of words that erupted over the invention of the calculus, finally extending to the nature of God and the universe. 

-----. The Revolution in Science, 1500-1750. 3rd ed. Longman 1983. Revised and expanded version of a standard study. 

Harvey, William. De Motu Cordis: Anatomical Studies in the Motion of the Heart & Blood. 5th ed. (trans. C. D. Leake). C.C. Thomas 1978. Provides text and notes of Harvey's revolutionary On the Motion of the Heart and Blood

Heilbron, John L. Electricity in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics. Univ. of California Pr. 1979. Model study of experimental physics in the 17th and 18th centuries. 

Hooykaas, R. Religion and the Rise of Modern Science. Scottish Academic Pr. 1972. Perhaps the best study on the subject. 

Kargon, Robert H. Atomism in England from Hariot to Newton. Oxford 1966. Solid introduction to atomism, English science, and the mechanical philosophy. 

Kepler, Johannes. Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, Books IV and V. (trans. from Latin ed. of 1618-1621). Kraus Reprint. 1939. English translation of Kepler's most accessible work on astronomy. 

-----. The Secret of the Universe: Mysterium Cosmographicum. Trans. A. M. Duncan. Abaris 1981. Excellent translation of Kepler's first major work, with useful notes. 

King, Lester S. The Road to Medical Enlightenment, 1650-1695. MacDonald-Elsevier 1972. Standard study of 17th century English medical thought, emphasizing the works of Sylvius, Sydenham, Hoffmann, and others. 

Koestler, Arthur. The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. Macmillan 1959. Lively but controversial biographical study of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo, arguing that scientific discovery involves periods of intellectual/psychological 'sleepwalking.' 

Koyre, Alexandre. The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus--Kepler--Borelli. trans. R. E. W. Maddison. Cornell Univ. Pr. 1973. Scholarly study aimed at the heart of the scientific revolution, the problem of the planets. 

-----. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. 1968. Argues that the "geometrization of space" brought the destruction of Aristotle's closed cosmos. 

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican Revolution. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1957. Provides historical, conceptual, and interpretive background to the so-called Copernican Revolution. 

Mandrou, Robert. From Humanism to Science 1480-1700. trans. Brian Pearce. 1980.  Superb but much neglected study that provides a broad social and cultural framework for understanding the scientific revolution. 

Manuel, Frank E. A Portrait of Isaac Newton. 1970. Brilliant but controversial psycho-biography focusing on Newton's character and psychological development. 

Merton, Robert K. Science, Technology & Society in Seventeenth Century England. New York: Fertig. 1970 and Humanities Pr. 1978. Classic study by a prominent sociologist. 

Middleton, W. E. Knowles. The Experimenters: A Study of the Accademia del Cimento. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. 1972. Useful study of an early 17th-century scientific society. 

Newton, Isaac. Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections From His Writings. (ed. with notes by H. S. Thayer). Hafner. 1953. Convenient selections from Newton's Principia, Opticks, and correspondence. 

-----. Opticks. Dover. 1952. (repr. of 4th ed. 1730). 

Ornstein, Martha. The Role of Scientific Societies in the Seventeenth Century. Arno Pr. 1975. Remains the only inclusive one-volume study of 17th-century scientific societies;very dated. 

Sabra, A. I. Theories of Light from Descartes to Newton. 1967. Traces the revolutionary developments of Descartes, Huygens, and Newton. 

Santillana, Giorgio de. The Crime of Galileo. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1955. Lively but somewhat polemical account of Galileo's condemnation for his heliocentric beliefs. 

Shea, William R. Galileo's Intellectual Revolution: Middle Period, 1610-1632. Neale Watson. 1977. Focuses on Galileo's creative years, emphasizing his Aristotelianism against the Platonic interpretation of Koyre and the positivism of Drake. 

Webster, Charles. The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine and Reform, 1626-1660. Holmes & Meier 1975. Comprehensive study emphasizing the religious, social, and institutional underpinnings of the radical shift in mid-17th century English science, in which Puritan beliefs played a key role. 

Westfall, Richard S. The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1971. Excellent introduction to the scientific revolution, arguing that Newton reconciled the differences between the mechanical philosophy of Descartes and the mathematical tradition embodied by Galileo. 

-----. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1980. Brilliant and definitive study of the life, intellectual development, and scientific achievement of Newton. 

-----. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. Yale Univ. Pr. 1958. Argues English scientists were uncertain about aspects of Christianity but remained committed to the harmony of science and natural religion. 

Wolf, Abraham. A History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the 16th and 17th Centuries. 2 vols. Peter Smith 1968. Encyclopedic survey rich in useful detail. 

Eighteenth Century

Bedini, Silvio A. Thinkers and Tinkers: Early American Men of Science. Scribners 1975. Excellent survey of colonial science and instrumentation emphasizing the role of mathematical practitioners rather than 'pure' science; handsomely illustrated. 

Burkhardt, Richard, Jr. The Spirit of System: Lamarck & Evolutionary Biology. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1977. Examines the structure and legacy of Lamarckian science. 

Bury, J. B. The Idea of Progress. MacMillan 1920. Classic study in the history of ideas emphasizing the 18th-century conceptual shift from Providence to Progress. 

Cohen, I. Bernard. Franklin and Newton: An Inquiry into Speculative Newtonian Experimental Science and Franklin's Work in Electricity as an Example Thereof. American Philosophical Society 1957. Pioneering study tracing the impact of the Newtonian tradition exemplified by Newton's Opticks

Darnton, Robert. Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France. 1968. Lively study of science and pseudo-science in intellectual, institutional, and political context. 

Fox, Robert. The Caloric Theory of Gases from Lavoisier to Regnault. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1971. Emphasizes the caloric theories of Lavoisier, Laplace, and later Carnot. 

Gelfand, Toby. Professionalizing Modern Medicine: Paris Surgeons and Medical Science and Institutions in the 18th Century. Greenwood Pr. 1982. Using Paris as a case study, examines the complex intellectual, social, and institutional elements giving rise to modern professional medicine. 

Gillispie, Charles C. Science & Polity in France at the End of the Old Regime. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1980. Monumental study of the 'intersections' of the modern state and the emergence of modern science, pure and applied. Superb. 

Hahn, Roger. The Anatomy of a Scientific Institution: The Paris Academy of Sciences, 1666-1803. Univ. of California Pr. 1971. Detailed study of the Academy, from its informal origins to its transformation into the Institut de France. Contains a comprehensive bibliography of individual academicians. 

Hankins, Thomas L. Science in the Enlightenment. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1985. Succinct introduction to eighteenth-century science, with particular emphasis on French developments. 

-----. Jean d'Alembert: Science and the Enlightenment. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1970. Award-winning study of d'Alembert in the intellectual context of his times; superbly written. 

Hindle, Brooke. The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789. Norton, 1974. Standard survey of the emergence of science in America from colonial naturalists and physicians to the development of national societies and cultural nationalism. 

-----, ed. Early American Science. Neale Watson. 1976. Multiauthored selection of articles, previously published in Isis, treating the period before ca. 1815. 

Holmes, Frederick L. Claude Bernard & Animal Chemistry: The Emergence of a Scientist. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1974. Detailed study of Bernard's life, work, and influence. 

-----. Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life: An Exploration of Scientific Creativity. Univ. Wisconsin Pr. 1985. Definitive study of Lavoisier's achievement and individual genius. 

Hufbauer, Karl. The Formation of the German Chemical Community, 1720-1795. Univ. California Pr. 1982. Rigorous examination of some 65 German chemists and their institutional affiliations. 

King, Lester, The Philosophy of Medicine: The Early Eighteenth Century. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1978. Excellent introduction to emerging trends and themes in 18th-century medical theory and practice. 

Lavoisier, A. L. Elements of Chemistry, in a New and Systematic Order, Containing all the Modern Discoveries. 1790. (trans. R. Kerr. Repr. Dover 1965. The standard translation. 

Lyon, John, and Phillip R. Sloan (eds.) From Natural History to the History of Nature: Readings from Buffon and His Critics. Univ. of Notre Dame Pr. 1981. Translated selections from Buffon's Histoire naturelle and other writings prior to 1749. 

McClellan, James E., III. Science Reorganized: Scientific Societies in the 18th Century. Columbia Univ. Pr. 1985. Provides the first general survey of scientific academies and societies from the 1660 to 1793. 

Paul, Charles B. Science & Immortality: The Eloges of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1699-1791). Univ. of California Pr. 1981. Argues that published eulogies of the Academy created a new hero and the myth of the disinterested scientist. 

Porter, Roy, and Mikulas Teich (eds.) {add accents}. The Enlightenment in National Context. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1980. Collected essays by specialists tracing historiographic themes from the intellectual and social history of Enlightenment science. 

Roe, Shirley A Matter, Life, and Generation: Eighteenth-Century Embryology and the Haller-Wolff Debate. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1981. Scholarly study of a key debate spanning the century and exposing rival theories of matter and life. 

Rousseau, G. S. & R. Porter, eds. The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Eighteenth-Century Science. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1980. A useful series of essays appraising issues and historiographical themes in contemporary historical research. 

Schofield, Robert S. The Lunar Society of Birmingham: A Social History of Provincial Society and Industry in 18th Century England. Oxford: Clarendon Pr. 1963. Standard study of the informal group powering the English industrial revolution, Boulton, E. Darwin, Priestley, Watt et al. 

-----. Mechanism & Materialism: British Natural Philosophy in the Age of Reason. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1969. Traces Newton's impact in England arguing that a mechanist tradition eventually gave way to a materialist view based on fluid theories. 

Thackray, Arnold. Atoms & Powers: An Essay on Newtonian Matter-Theory and the Development of Chemistry. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1970. Examines the development of Newtonian theories of matter through the 18th century. 

Wiley, Basil. The Eighteenth Century Background, Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period. 1940. Classic introduction to the intellectual context of 18th century science. 

Woolf, Harry. The Transits of Venus: A Study of Eighteenth-Century Science. 1959. Presents a case study demonstrating the changing character of science through scientific institutions and expeditions.  Dated but still useful. 

Nineteenth Century

Appleman, Philip (ed.) Darwin. 2nd ed. Norton 1979. Provides excellent primary selections on the background and impact of Darwin's thought on science, theology, philosophy, society, and letters. 

Bowler, Peter J. Evolution: The History of an Idea. Univ. of California Pr. 1984. Excellent introduction surveying the history and impact of evolution and evolutionary concepts; excellent bibliography. 

Brooks, John L. Just Before 'The Origin': Alfred Russell Wallace's Theory of Evolution. Columbia Univ. Pr. 1984. Examines the contribution of the co-discoverer of "evolution." 

Brush, Stephen G. The Temperature of History: Phases of Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century. Franklin. 1978. Examines theories of heat and molecular motion in the context of romanticism, radicalism, and neo-romanticism. 

Burchfield, Joe D. Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth. Science History Publications 1975. Examines the controversy about the age of the earth in the later 19th century. 

Burrow, J. W. Evolution & Society: A Study in Victorian Social Theory. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1966. Traces developments in social thought in the wake of Darwinian evolutionary theory. 

Clark, Ronald W. The Survival of Charles Darwin: A Biography of a Man and an Idea. Random House 1984. Wide-ranging and useful introduction to Darwin's life, times, and work. 

Clerk, Agnes M. A Popular History of Astronomy during the 19th Century. 2nd e. Adam & Ch. Black 1887. Classic introduction to 19th-century astronomy and early astrophysics. 

Coleman, William. Biology in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1978. Standard single-volume survey tracing the emergence of modern biology through cell theory, the evolution debate, and issues surrounding form, function, and experiment. 

Cosslett, Tess (ed.) Science and Religion in the 19th Century. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1984. Excellent essays on a revitalized subject. 

Darwin, Charles. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin & Selected Letters. Peter Smith (repr. of 1892 ed.) and Dover. 

-----. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. 1st ed. (intro. by E. Mayr) Harvard Univ. Pr. 1975 (facsimile of 1859 ed.). The best edition for understanding Darwin's thoughts on evolution through natural selection. 

Dupree, A. Hunter. Asa Gray, 1810-1888. Atheneum. 1968. Standard study of the prominent American taxonomist and Darwinian. 

Eiseley, Loren. Darwin's Century: Evolution & the Men Who Discovered It. Doubleday 1958. Excellent introduction to 19th-century natural history and the issues surrounding Darwin's achievement; beautifully written. 

Fox, Robert & George Weisz, eds. The Organization of Science Technology in France, 1808-1914. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1980. Scholarly essays focusing on scientific research and educational institutions in 19th century France. 

Gillespie, Neal C. Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation. Univ. of Chicago Pr.1979. Best study of Darwin's religious beliefs. 

Gillispie, Charles C. Genesis and Geology. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1951. Standard introduction. 

Greene, John C. American Science in the Age of Jefferson. Iowa State Univ. Pr. 1984. Excellent introduction to American science in the early national period, stressing the slow development of institutional support and influence of Jefferson. 

-----. Death of Adam: Evolution & Its Impact on Western Thought. Iowa State Univ. Pr. 1959. Traces the idea of evolution from the 17th through the 19th century. 

Greene, Mott T. Geology in the 19th Century: Changing Views of a Changing World. Cornell Univ. Pr. 1982. Examines geological theories and controversies from Hutton and Werner to 20th-century theories of continental drift and global tectonics. 

Gregory, Frederick. Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth-Century Germany. Reidel 1979. Comprehensive study of German materialism in the second half of the 19th century, tracing the theme through Feuerbach, Buchner, and others. 

Harman, Peter M. Energy, Force, and Matter: The Conceptual Development of Nineteenth-Century Physics. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1982. Traces broad themes in the transformation of 19th-century physics; a standard student introduction. 

Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. 1960. Controversial study focusing on Darwin's method and the debate concerning the modern synthesis. 

Hofstadter, Richard. Social Darwinism in American Thought. rev. ed. George Braziller 1959. Standard study now seriously dated. 

Howson, Colin (ed.) Method and Appraisal in the Physical Sciences: The Critical Background to Modern Science, 1800-1905. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1976. Useful collection of essays. 

Hull, David L. Darwin & His Critics: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1973. Presents selections and excerpts from Darwin's critics with brief introductory notes. 

Huxley, Thomas H. Autobiography & Essays. Kraus Reprint Co. 1969 (repr. of 1919 ed.). Self-evaluation by "Darwin's Bulldog." 

Jones, Ernest. The Life & Work of Sigmund Freud. 3 vols. Basic Books 1953-57 & 1961. Detailed but classic study of the founder of psychoanalysis. 

Klein, Felix et al. Development of Mathematics in the Nineteenth Century. Math-.sci Pr. 1979. 

Kohn, David (ed.) The Darwinian Heritage. Princeton Univ. Pr. 1985. Multi-authored volume contains 31 chapters tracing Darwin's development as a theorist, the Victorian context of Darwinism, its global reception, and current historical perspectives. 

Lenoir, Timothy. The Strategy of Life: Teleology and Mechanics in 19th-Century German Biology. Reidel 1982. Scholarly study turning on the question of life, mechanism, materialism, and the problem of purpose. 

Merz, John Theodor. A History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century. Peter Smith, repr. of 1904 ed. 4 vols. Classic survey engulfing 19th-century thought; somewhat dated but yet to be replaced for breadth of vision. 

Moyer, Albert E. American Physics in Transition: A History of Conceptual Change in the Late 19th Century. Tomash 1983. 

Paul, Harry W. The Edge of Contingency: French Catholic Reaction to Scientific Change from Darwin to Duhem. Univ. Pr. of Florida. 1979. Examines the Catholic reception of the breakdown of classical science, focusing on Darwinism. 

-----. The Sorcerer's Apprentice: The French Scientist's Image of German Science, 1840-1919. Univ. Pr. of Florida. 1972. Analyzes French reevaluations of the nature of science in light of German developments. 

Pernick, Martin S. A Calculus of Suffering: Pain, Professionalism, and Anesthesia in 19th-Century America. Columbia Univ. Pr. 1985. 

Reingold, Nathan. Science in Nineteenth-Century America. Octagon. 1979 (repr. of 1964 ed.). A standard introduction. 

Rothstein, William G. American Physicians in the 19th Century: From Sects to Science. 1974? 

Ruse, Michael. The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw. Univ. Chicago Pr. 1979. Outlines themes and controversies surrounding the reception of Darwinism. Sulloway, Frank J. Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend. Basic Books 1979. 

Turner, Gerard L'E. Nineteenth-Century Scientific Instruments. Univ. California Pr. 1983. Certain to become the standard. 

Vorzimmer, Peter J. Charles Darwin: The Years of Controversy: The Origin of Species and Its Critics 1859-1882. Temple Univ. Pr. 1971. Examines the immediate reception of Darwinism. 

Williams, L. Pearce. Album of Science: The Nineteenth Century. Scribner's. 1978. Handsomely illustrated survey of the century of science. 

-----. The Origins of Field Theory. Univ. Pr. of America. 1980. Concise introduction to field theory and Faraday. 

Twentieth Century

Allen, Garland E.. Life Science in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1976. Standard single-volume study including post-Darwinian thought, embryology, heredity, genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. 

Beyerchen, A. B. Scientists Under Hitler: Politics & the Physics Community in the Third Reich. Yale Univ. Pr. 1977. Examines the response of prominent German scientists during the Third Reich. 

Bliss, Michael. The Discovery of Insulin. Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1982. 

Clark, Ronald W. Einstein: The Life and Times. Avon 1979. Comprehensive overview and introduction for the nonspecialist, with hundreds of photographs. 

Cline, Barbara Lovett. The Questioners: Physics and the Quantum Theory. Harvard Univ. Pr. 198?. Introduces the work of Thomson, Rutherford, Planck and Heisenberg, emphasizing the opposed views of Bohr and Einstein on quantum theory. 

Cravens, Hamilton. The Triumph of Evolution: American Scientists & the Heredity-Environment Controversy, 1900-1941. Univ. Pennsylvania Pr. 1978. 

Einstein, Albert. Relativity: The Special & General Theory. (trans. from 3rd ed. of 1918) Peter Smith, and Crown Pubs. 1961. 

Einstein, Albert and L. Infeld. The Evolution of Physics. Simon & Schuster. 1960. Provides background and an introduction to 20th century physics, particularly the theory of relativity. 

Gingerich, Owen (ed.) Astrophysics and 20th-Century Astronomy to 1950: Part A. (General History of Astronomy, vol. 4.). Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1984. Authoritative multi-authored study ranging through all aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. 

Heilbron, John L. The Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck as a Spokesman for German Science. Univ. California Pr. 1986. Recounts the dilemmas of a conservative thinker whose work had radical scientific and political implications. 

Hoffman, Banesh & Helen Dukas. Albert Einstein: Creator & Rebel. New American Library. 1973. Popular biography surveying Einstein's scientific and political activities. 

Holton, Gerald, ed. The Twentieth-Century Sciences:Studies in the Biography of Ideas. Norton. 1972. Collected essays both by and about major figures and themes in 20th century science including essays by Erickson and Pauling. 

Jammer, Max. Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics: The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics in Historical Perspective. Wiley 1974. Detailed study based on primary documents. 

Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Knopf 1985. Traces the development of eugenics and attendant social and ethical issues. 

-----. The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America. Knopf. 1978 and Random House. 1979. Examines the internal and institutional development of the American physics community from the late 19th century. 

Kuhn, Thomas S. Black-Body Theory & the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912. Oxford Univ. Pr. 1978. Scholarly study of the origins of the concept of quantum, emphasizing the contributions of Max Planck. 

Lang, Kenneth R. and Owen Gingerich (eds.) A Source Book in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1900-1975. Harvard Univ. Pr. 1979. Useful selection of original papers tracing the emergence of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. 

Layton, Edwin T., Jr. Revolt of the Engineers: Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession. Case Western Reserve Univ. Pr. 1971. Traces the profession from the late 19th century, focusing on its efforts to establish professional criteria for social responsibility. 

Mather, Kirtley F. (ed.) Source Book in Geology 1900-1950. Harvard Univ. Pr 1967. Contains primary selections from over fifty authors, with useful introductory notes. 

McDougall, Walter A. The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age. Basic Books 1985. Provides an excellent account of the space race in considering the broader issue of political involvement in technological and social change. 

Metropolis, N., J. Howlett, and Gian-Carlo Rota (eds.) A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century: A Collection of Essays. Academic Pr. 1979. 

Olby, R. C. The Path to the Double Helix. Univ. Washington Pr. 1974. Provides intellectual and institutional background to the study of DNA and the double helix. 

Paul, Harry W. From Knowledge to Power: The Rise of the Science Empire in France, 1860-1939. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1985. Evaluates the state-stimulated growth of French science since the Second Empire. 

Pais, Abraham. 'Subtle is the Lord...': The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Clarendon Pr. 1982. Scholarly biography filled with technical detail and insight. 

Provine, W. B. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Univ. Chicago Pr. 1971. Examines the resolution of the biometry-Mendelism controversy and the origins of theoretical population genetics in the early 20th century. 

Schlipp, Paul Arthur, ed. Albert Einstein, Philosopher-Scientist. Open Court. 1973. Collection of essays on Einstein's life, thought, and influence in science, philosophy, and culture. 

Skinner, B. F. The Shaping of a Behaviorist. Knopf 1979. Self analysis of the pioneering behavioral psychologist. 

Smith, Robert W. The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's "Great Debate", 1900-1931. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1982. 

Snow, Charles P. The Two Cultures & a Second Look. Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1969. Classic statement and reevaluation of the controversial claim that scientists and humanistically trained individuals represent distinct cultures. 

Struve, Otto, and Velta Zebergs. Astronomy of the Twentieth Century. Macmillan 1962. Comprehensive survey of astronomical research in the first half of the 20th century. 

Stuewer, Roger H. The Compton Effect: Turning Point in Physics. Neale Watson. 1975. Provides thorough analysis of the context and development of radiation physics culminating with Compton's discovery in 1922. 

Watson, James D. The Double Helix: A Norton Critical Edition. (ed. Gunther S. Stent) Norton 1981. Autobiographical account of one of the great scientific developments of the century. 

Will, Clifford M. Was Einstein Right? Putting General Relativity to the Test. Basic Books 1986. Popular introduction to general relativity and the experimental ingenuity involved in its demonstration. 

Williams, Trevor I. A Short History of 20th-Century Technology, c.1900-c.1950. Oxford: Clarendon Pr. 1982. Solid single-volume survey. 

  
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