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Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
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Vaillant, Sebastien

1. Dates: Born: Vigny, Val d'Oise, 26 May 1669; Died: Paris, 20 May 1722 (Niceron says 26 May); Datecode: Lifespan: 53
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Vaillant came from a family of farmers. Niceron says the father was a merchant, but I am sticking with the later sources. Niceron says that the father had very little wealth and worried about his son's interest in a subject lacking utility. I am accepting the statement, which seems to be borne out by Vaillant's career; they were poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France;
4. Education: None Known; At the age of six he was a boarder studying under M. Subtil, a priest with whom he made regular botanical trips. At eleven he was the organist at a Benedictine monastery. He studied medicine and surgery at the hospital in Pontoise.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; After he got to Paris, Vaillant came in from Neuilly, where he practised as a surgeon, every Wednesday to attend Tournefort's courses at the Jardin du Roi. He also made several botanical expeditions with him. He became an astute plant analyst and began a systematic anatomical study of all the plants in Tournefort's Institutiones. Over a fourteen year period many scientists accompanied Vaillant on botanical excursions notably along the coasts of Normandy and Brittany. Apart from his fieldwork he concentrated on careful dissections of plants. His premature death prevented the publication of some of his manuscripts, notably his inaugural lecture in which he presented irrefutable evidence on the existence of plant sexuality. He was the first in France to promote the theory of sexuality of plants. When he was near death he gave his notes and plates to Boerhaave for publication. In 1727 Boerhaave published Botanicon parisiense, the culmination of thirty-six years of Vaillant's botanical research.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Government Official; In 1688, Vaillant began to practice surgery at Evreux under supervision. Two years later Marquis de Goville convinced Vaillant to become the surgeon to his company of troops. The following year, after the death of the Marquis, Vaillant moved to Paris to become an intern at the Hotel Dieu. He met Tournefort at once. In 1692, while still working at the Hotel Dieu, he established himself as a surgeon in Neuilly. He soon left Neuilly to become secretary to Pere de Valois, a Jesuit, who was confessor to the Duke de Bourgogne. Fagon met Vaillant, and soon he became Fagon's personal secretary. His position with Fagon allowed him to continue his botanical research and to give well-attended lectures at the Jardin du Roi. In 1699 he received the post of 'brevet de garde du cabinet des drogues du Jardin du Roi', i.e. herbarium keeper. Niceron says that Fagon put Vaillant in change of the Jardin, but I think this is not accurate. In 1702 upon the recommedation of Fagon, Vaillant received his first official post as a botanist and six years later, again through Fagon, he became 'sous demonstrateur des plantes'. (Ramsbottom says that Tournefort selected Vaillant for this position, but everyone else attributes it to Fagon.); In 1717 he substituted for the titular professor at the Jardin, Antoine de Jusieu. Vaillant was such a success that he was allowed to continue giving lectures to the students. He was a member of the Académie after 1716.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Medicine; Court Patronage; The Marquis de Goville took Vaillant as surgeon to his company of troops. Through Fagon (the powerful court physician, who was also involved with the Jardin) Vaillant received his post at the Jardin du Roi. Louis XIV ordered Vaillant to create a Cabinet de Drogues. Fagon obtained permission from the king for Vaillant to direct the building of the first greenhouse in France. Three years later in 1717 another greenhouse, two times larger, was built. Everyone seems agreed that Fagon was Vaillant's special protector, but Louis himself seems to have been involved enough for me to list 'Court' as well.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1716-22; Among his correspondents were Sherard, Micheli, and Boerhaave. After much negotiation, Vaillant's personal herbarium remained in France at the Jardin du Roi. Vaillant had made arrangements to sell it to Sherard. Louis XIV offered Vaillant's widow 12000 livres for the herbarium to remain on French soil, and she conceded.

Jean-Francois Leroy, 'La Botanique au Jardin des Plantes (1626-1970),' Adansonia, 2nd series, 11, 225-50. Jacques Rousseau, 'Sébastien Vaillant, an Outstanding 18th Century Botanist,' in P. Smit and R. J. Ch. V. ter Laage, eds., Essays in Biohistory, Utrecht, 1970), pp. 195-228. John Ramsbottom, 'S. Vaillant's Discours sur la structure des fleurs (1718),' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 4 (1963), 194-6. W.L. Tjaden, 'Sebastien Vaillant's Flora of Paris, Botanicon parisiense, 1717,' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 8 (1976), 11-27. J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s), 8, 234-49.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Schierbeek, 'Een merkwaardig boekje. De rede van Seb. Vaillant van 1717,' in In het voetspoor van Thijsse, (Wageningen, 1949), pp. 175-82. While I found this reference, I have not been able to find any trace of the volume.

Valerio [Valeri], Luca

1. Dates: Born: Naples, 1552; Died: Rome, 17 January 1618; Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Unknown; We are told that Giovanni Valeri was from Ferrara. Valerio's mother was from a noble family of Corfu. No clear evidence of the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Collegio Romano; PD, DD; Valerio's mother was of Greek extraction, from the island of Corfu, and there he was initially reared. He attended the Collegio Romano, where Clavius was his teacher in mathematics. He earned a doctorate in philosophy and theology, apparently at the Collegio. Although a bachelor's degree is not mentioned, I assume it. Toward 1590 he was in Pisa The sources say he was studying there, but I did not see any evidence that testified to more than his presence there. (He and Galileo both later acknowledged becoming acquainted in Pisa.) Note that Valerio would have been thirty-eight at that time.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Disciplines: Mathematics; Valerio contributed to quadratures. De centro gravitatis, 1604, applied Archimedean methods to the problems of volumes and centers of gravity of solids of revolution. Quadratura parabolae, 1606, was in the same tradition.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Mis; Valerio spent most of his life in Rome as a teacher, private and public. He taught rhetoric and Greek at the Collegio Greco. Among his pupils at some point was the future Clement VIII (Aldobrandini). In 1591 he began to teach rhetoric at the Sapienza, and from 1600 until his death he taught mathematics there. At some point he added the position of corrector of Greek at the Valican library: he was on the role of the library in 1611. At some point Valerio, who by every account was a very withdrawn and isolated person, became the lover-almost love slave according to the accounts-of the flamboyant Margherita Sarrocchi, poetess and littérateur.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Clement VIII was Pope from 1592 to 1605. He was a Cardinal at the time of Valerio's initial appointment at the Sapienza, ands Pope a year later. Valerio dedicated De centro gravitatis, 1604, to Clement, and in the dedication he indicated the favor of the Papal nephew, Cardinal Petro Aldobrandini. He owed the position in the Vatican library to Cardinal Antonio Colonna. I consider his membership in Cesi's Accademia dei Lincei an act of patronage. The first part of his Quadratura parabolae, 1606, took the form of a letter to 'Marco Columnae Lagaroli duci.'
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: Acad dei Lincei Leopoldina; Having met Galileo in Pisa about 1590, Valerio corresponded with him from 1609 until 1616. Cesi enrolled Valerio in the Accademia dei Lincei in 1602 (I think this is a typo for 1612). Valerio was thoroughly frightened by the Copernican affair in 1616 and submitted his resignation. The Accademia did not accept the resignation but voted to bar him from participation.

Giuseppe Gabrieli, 'Luca Valerio linceo e un episodo memorabile della vecchia Accademia,' Rendiconti della R. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, 6th ser., 9 (1933), 691-728. H. Bosmans, 'Les démonstrations par l'analyse infinitésimale chez Luca Valerio,' Annales de la Société scientifiques de Bruxelles, 37 (1912-13), 211-28.

Valsalva, Anton [Antonio] Maria

1. Dates: Born: Imola, 17 January 1666; Died: Bologna, 2 February 1723; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Merchant; Aristocrat; Pompeo Pini (who adopted the name Valsalva from the location of the family home) was both a goldsmith and the scion of a noble family. He is said to have been well-to-do, which I translate as affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Bologna; MD, PD. After initial education by the Jesuits, Valsalva went to Bologna to study philosophy and mathematics. There he studied also with Malpighi, whose favorite student he became. In a usual Italian way, both M.D. and Ph.D. in 1687.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Pharmacology; . Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Surgery; . Valsalva's most important work, De aure humana, on the ear, treated both its anatomy and physiology and also its pathology and therapy. His contributions to anatomy and physiology, always with pathology and therapy woven in, were far from confined to the ear. He experimented on the origins of hemiplegia and studied internal secreting glands. As a physician he was an expert clincian. He was also an innovative surgeon, especially in the handling of aneurisms. He was also a reformer of the treatment of the insane, opposing the harsh treatment that was common. Valsalva was responsible as well for improvements in medical education in Bologna.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic. Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; In 1687, immediately upon the completion of his degree, Valsalva was appointed Inspector of Public Health in Bologna, on the occasion of an epidemic, and about twelve years later, when there was an epidemic among cattle, the Senate of Bologna set him in charge of containing it. He practised at the Ospedale degli Incurabili in Bologna for twenty-five years. He is said to have been consulted by the most eminent people from many places for his diagnoses. In 1694 the Senate elected him Professor for Dissecting and Demonstrating Anatomy. (In Latin, Incissionem et Ostensionem Anatomicam Professore, which for some reason people render as Engraver of Anatomy, which surely cannot be correct.); In 1705, despite the fact that he was not a native born Bolognese, the Senate appointed Valsalva Lecturer and Demonstrator in Anatomy at the University, where he continued until his death.
8. Patronage: Magistrate; Valsalva does not appear to have been one of the frantic pursuers of patronage. Nevertheless he won the favor of the Senate which created a special position for him in 1694. In 1704 he dedicated his magnum opus, De aure, to the Senate and the following year, despite not being a born Bolognese, he received the chair at the university. The Pope (I forget his name, but I assume it was the one from Bologna late in the century) wished to appoint Valsalva as his personal physician; Valsalva chose to remain at the university.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; In addition to his active practice, Valsalva invented surgical instruments that were of great use.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Instit. Bologna; Royal Society (London); Valsalva is said to have been enrolled in the register of Bolognese physicians in 1687; I interpret this to mean the College of Medicine. He carried on an extensive correspondence with Italian scientists of his age: Vallisnieri, Lancisi, Pacchioni, Morgagni (who was his student), Manfredi, et al., and also with Vieussens in Montpellier. In Bologna he joined with Guglielmini, Beccari, Manfredi, et al., to organize the Accademia degli Inquieti. Later he was three times president of the Academy of Sciences in the Institute of Bologna. With Malpighi he was named a fellow of the Royal Society.

P. Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1928) 1, 92-4. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, and vol. 2 from the first. I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. D. Barduzzi, 'Di un maestro insigne precursore della medicina moderna nel secolo XVII,' Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 19 (1928), 123-32. G. Bilancioni, 'La figura e l'opera di Valsalva,' Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 14 (1923), 319-40. A. Castiglioni, 'Antonio Maria Valsalva,' Medical Life, 39 (1932), 83-107. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 4, 306. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Morgagni, De vita et scriptis . . . Valsalva, (Venice, 1740).  R. Barocini, tr. Vita di A.M. Valsalva scritta da Morgagni, (Imola, 1887). Terzo centenario della nascita de A.M. Valsalva, (Imola, 1966). This does not appear to exist in the U.S. Paride Ravanelli, A.M. Valsalva (1666-1723), (Imola, 1966). Serafino Gaddoni, La famiglia del medico imolese Antonio Maria Valsalva, (Imola, 1932). A.M. Valsalva, Tratto del orecchio umano, tr. V. Mangano, intro. G. Bilancioni, (Rome, 1931). G. Bilancioni, Valsalva. Le opere e l'uomo, (Rome, 1911).

Vallisnieri [Vallisneri], Antonio

1. Dates: Born: Trassilico (then in Modena), 3 May 1661; Died: Padua, 18 January 1730; Datecode: Lifespan: 69;
2. Father: Government Official; Aristocrat; Lorenzo Vallisnieri was governor of the territory of Camporgiano and then of Trassilico. Through his mother, Vallisnieri was related to C. Magati. The family were Parmese patricians of very long standing; there was another branch of the family in Reggio. The circumstances of Vallisnieri's youth and extended education, without evident compulsion quickly to earn a living, clearly indicate affluence at the very least. It is worth noting that Vallisnieri married a woman from a noble family. Franchini speaks, not of alluence, but of riches. I am accepting this.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Reggio; M.D., P.D. University of Bologna; Vallisnieri began his education at the Jesusit college in Modena and then went to a Catholic College (this was the term; it must refer to the university) in Reggio nell'Emilia. B.A. in 1682. In 1682 he went to Bologna for a time to study with Malpighi, but in obedience to a decree by the Duke of Modena that his subjects should take their laurels at home, he returned to Reggio for both M.D. and Ph.D. (a common Italian combination in that age). After completing the degrees, he continued to study for a couple of years at Bologna and then in 1687 in Venice. He visited Padua, but there is no reference to regular study there.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Entomology; Embryology; Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Medicine; Geology; While practicing in Regio, Vallisnieri collected, dissected, and observed. Especially he was interested in the generation of insects, leading to Sopra la curiosa origine di molti insetti, a work which followed Redi and Malpighi in its rejection of spontaneous generation. He did research as well on human and animal reproduction. In Padua he collected a considerable museum of natural history. Vallisnieri developed the theory of the chain of being with man, of course, at the pinnacle. He was also an admirer of Democritus, whom he considered the father of true natural philosophy, and along with that an exponent of iatromechanics and of mechanistic ideas of preformation. As a physician he was convinced that medicine must cease to depend upon philosophy, as in the past, but should look rather to biology. He also studied the etiology of infectious diseases. His interest in natural history led on to investigations of movements of the earth, the origin of springs, and the origin of alluvial valleys. He also investigated fossils. It is difficult to judge Vallisnieri. He ranged over a very large number of related fields. He could be listed also under anatomy, physiology, microscopy, zoology, botany, mineralogy, and paleontology. (Some of these are subsumed under medicine and some under natural history.) At the same time it is not wholly clear that he was an important original scientist, but may have been more a reflection of the dominant trends of his age.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; After completing his medical education, Vallisnieri practiced in Reggio for more than ten years, beginning in 1689. His book (or paper) on insects came to the attention of one of the Riformatori of Padua, who arranged for his appointment to the chair of experimental philosophy in 1700, with an initial salary of 350 florins. Even before he arrived he was moved to the chair of practical medicine. After 1709 he occupied the chair of theoretical medicine. Vallisnieri was the heir of his uncle, the personal physician of the Dukes of Modena, and from the uncle, in 1681, he inherited what is described as a considerable fortune. The following year, 1682, another uncle left his estate to Vallisnieri's father; Vallisnieri received half of it. After 1713 he had a salaried position in the hospital of Padua. He declined an invitation to succeed Lancisi as physician to the Pope, and he also declined a chair at the University of Torino at what is described as an enormous salary. It is clear that he continued to practice medicine during his academic tenure in Padua.
8. Patronage: Government Official; City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Vallisnieri dedicated his undergraduate thesis to Luigi d'Este, Governor of Reggio. The Este family recommended him to Malpighi. I also found a reference to a dedication in 1682 (which was the year of his B.A.) to Andrea Lombardini, the Governor of Scandiano; frankly I am puzzled by the reference. I include Federico Marcello, one of the Riformatori of Padua and Procuratore di San Marco, who engineered Vallisnieri's appointment at Padua. This is the essence of patronage, to recognize talent and to promote it. And when the old guard at Padua attacked Vallisnieri's promotion of recent science and medicine, Marcello came to his defense. In 1718 Duke Rinaldo of Modena made Vallisnieri a member of the hereditary nobilty (i.e., a knight). Reggio also ennobled him. Vallisnieri, who was a member of the Leopoldina, dedicated his History of Generation to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Vallisnieri became physician to the Emperor (though he did not leave Padua for Vienna), and from him he received a golden necklace. He dedicated many of his books to the various academies of which he was a member. There are vague general references to his medical attendance of aristocrats and rulers, but no one is named. He dedicated his book about sea fossils to Contessa Clelia Grillo Borromeo, who was his friend and supporter. There are hints that she was also his lover. Like Redi, Vallisnieri, who was apparentlay wealthy as well as very successfull, became something of a patron; that is, according to Tiraboschi, many books were dedicated to him. Tiraboschi does not, however, supply even one name.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Lp, Instit. Bologna; Medical College (Any One); FRS in 1705. A member of the Accademia Cesarea Leopoldina de' Curiosi (to use its name as I found it in an Italian source). A fellow in 1707 of the Istituto delle Scienze of Bologna. He was a member of the medical colleges of Venice, Padua, and Reggio. Vallisnieri was a member also of a considerable array of local Italian academies that were not scientific-such as the Accademia de' Fisiocritici of Siena, the Accademia degli Ricovrati of Padua, the Accademia Fiorentina, the Arcadia of Rome, the Accademia di Rosana (I don't know what city), the Arconti d'Italia, and others that I did not choose to write down. Vallisnieri apparently corresponded with most of the leading scientists (mostly but not entirely life scientists) of his time, including Bellini, Lister, Leibniz, and Marsili. His extended correspondence with Cestoni has been published.

Giannartico di Porcia, 'Notizie della vita e degli studi del Kavalier Antonio Vallisneri,' in Vallisnieri's Opera fisico-mediche, (Venice, 1733), xli-lxxx. Joseph Franchini, 'A. Vallisnieri on the Second Centenary of his Death,' Annals of Medical History, n.s., 3, (1931), 58-68. Il metodo sperimentale in biologia da Vallisnieri ad oggie, a symposium on Vallisnieri at the University of Padua in 1962. A supplement to Atti e memorie dell'Accademia patavino di scienze, lettere ed arti, 73. P. Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1928) 1, 88-91. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, and vol. 2 from the first. I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Roberto Savelli, 'L'opera biologica di Antonio Vallisnieri,' Physis, 3 (1961), 269-308. G. Tiraboschi, Bibliotheca modense, 5, 322-36.  P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 168-9, and 27 (1901), 111. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnaire historique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 4, 304-6. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Bruno Brunelli, Figurine e costumi nella correspondenza di un medico del settecento (Vallisnieri), (Milan, 1938). Paolo Masat Lucchetta, 'Nuovi documenti per la biografia di Antonio Vallisnieri,' Quaderni stor. University Padua, 15 (1982), 131-45. I have not succeeded in identifying the journal in this reference. Ercole Ferrario, Su la vita e gli scritti di AntonioVallisnieri, (Milan, 1854). A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, (Pisa, 1778), 7, 9-90.

Valverde, Juan de

1. Dates: Born: Amusco, Pelencia, Spain, c. 1525; Died: Rome, c. 1588; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 63
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Vld, University of Padua; It is believed that he studied at Valladolid University and went to Italy after his B.A. He studied anatomy at Padua under Vesalius and Colomba until about 1543.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine, anatomy, physiology; 1551, De animi et corporis sanitate tuenda libellus. 1556, Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano. There is much contention about this book which is often accused of plagiary from Vesalius, but seems to have rather made advances on what Vesalius accomplished. It was republished far more than Vesalius. Its plates are based on Vesalius' but apparently contain improvements. This work also first stated the lesser circulation.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He went to Pisa with Colombo in 1545 as his assistant and then accompanied him to Rome in 1548. Here he settled. De animi dedicated to Cardinal Verallo. He was physician to Card Alvarez de Toledo (the Duke of Alba's son); dedicated the Historia to him. He taught medicine at the Santo Spirito Hospital (at least in 1555). (Schoolmaster, in the broad sense in which I use it, seems to only appropriate category.)
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic officials, Court; See the dedications and position above. He dedicated the manuscript of the Historia to the Pope. He dedicated the Italian version of the Historia to Philip II.
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice.
10. Scientific Societies:

José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Francisco Guerra, 'Juan de Valverde de Amusco,' Clio medica, 2 (1967), 339-62. A.W. Meyer and S.K. Wirt, 'The Amuscan Illustration,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 14 (1943), 667-87. Anastasio Chincilla, Anales historicos de la medicina en general y biografico-bibliograficos de la Española en particular, 4 vols. (Valencia: Lopez et al, 1841-6), 1, 236-45.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Luis Alverti Lopez, La anatomia y los anatomistas españoles de siglo XVI, (Granada, 1902). Cesar Fernanez-Ruiz, 'Estudio biografico sobre el Dr. Valverde,' Clinica y laboratorio, 66 (1958), 207-40. Carlos del Valle-Inslan, 'El lexico anatomico de Montana y Valverde,' Archivos iberoamericanos de historia de la medicina, 1 (1949), 121-88.

Vanini, Giulio Cesare

1. Dates: Born: Taurisano, Lecce (Southern Italy), c. 1585; Died: Toulouse, France, 9 February 1619; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 34
2. Father: Government Position; Vanini was the son of Giovanni Battista Vanini, a local official, and a Spanish noblewoman. His father was seventy years old when he was born. Namer is unambiguous in saying that the parents were affluent. They had a fine house in Taurisano and other property as well. I will accept this. Nevertheless I do note that Vanini had to enter a religious order to be able to complete his university education. The situation is obscure. He entered the University of Naples in 1599; he took orders in 1603. Sometime near then his father died, and Vanini was not the eldest son. Perhaps this was involved in his entering the order.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; English; French; Death: French.
4. Education: University of Naples, LD; University of Padua; Vanini earned a doctorate in canon and civil law from the University of Naples on 6 June 1606. As with all such cases, I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. He enrolled in the faculty of theology in Padua in 1608, and was there until 1612. There is no record of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; Vanini became a Carmelite friar about 1603. When studying in Padua, Vanini showed himself unambiguously in favor of Venice in the republic's dispute with the Papacy. The general of his order commanded him to return to the house in Naples, where he would have been disciplined, probably severely. Instead Vanini sought refuge with the English ambassador to Venice in 1612, and he went secretly to England where he publicly renounced Catholicism. Already in 1613 the English experience had paled, and he appealed to the Pope to be received back in the Church, not as a friar, but as a secular priest. The request was granted by the Pope himself. When the Archbishop of Canterbury learned of Vanini's plans, he had him imprisoned, but Vanini succeeded in escaping to France. Well before this Vanini had been flirting with radical ideas, which found expression in two books published in France. He is known as the prince of libertins. He was accused of atheism. Whatever the truth of this, there seems no doubt that he held radically heterodox opinions. He advanced a naturalistic philosophy according to which the world is eternal and governed by immanent laws. For him all of nature with its immanent laws is what divine providence means. He held that the human soul, which is similar to animal souls is mortal. For these ideas Vanini's book was condemned and three years later, in 1619, known under the pseudonym, Pompeo Uciglio, he was savagely executed in Toulouse.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Vanini published two books in France after the English interlude-Amphitheatrum aeternae providentiae divino-magicum. Christiano-physicum, nec non astrologo-catholicum. Aversus veteres philosophos, 1615, and De admirandis naturae reginae deaeque mortalium arcanis, 1616. It was for these two, especially the second, that he was condemned and forced to flee Paris, and for opinions like those in the second that he was then executed in 1619. On the basis of these works Vanini can be seen as one of the first who began to treat nature as a machine governed by laws.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Schoolmaster; Medical Practioner; Vanini was originally a Carmelite friar. After completing his degree in Naples in 1606, he remained in the area of Naples for two years, apparently as a friar. He then went on to Padua in 1608, and there he lived in the monastery of his order. In 1612, as he waited on the negotiations that granted him asylum in England, he lived in Bologna, supporting himself as a teacher. The trip to England was financed by the patronage of the English ambassador, and in England he lived entirely (and increasingly unhappily) on the patronage of George Abbot, the Archbishop of Canterbury. After his escape from England he went to Genoa where he was the teacher of Giacomo Doria, of that prominent family. In Paris, 1615-16, he lived on the patronage of Arthur d'Epinay de Saint Luc; Abbé de Redon and Bishop of Marseille, and after he was forced to flee Paris he found refuge for several months at the monastery of Redon in Brittainy. After he fled on from Redon, Vanini supported himself for a time by practising medicine under an assumed name. In Toulouse he lived as the client of the highest aristocrats, especially the Comte de Caraman. Part of his function as client was teaching.
8. Patronge: Government Official; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Vanini was a charismatic character, and wherever he went he collected patrons like flies around honey. This started in Padua where he charmed the English ambassador to Venice, Sir Dudley Carleton, right out of his shoes. Carleton arranged for Vanini's escape to England in 1612 and financed the trip. In England the Archbishop of Canterbury agreed to receive Vanini on Carleton's recommendation. For a time Vanini exerted the same charm on Abbot, who arranged for his public conversion in June 1612, and supported him, though not in a way that pleased Vanini, during his stay in England. When Vanini decided to get out of England, Antonio Foscarini, the Venetian ambassador, provided support. Someone helped to arrange his escape, and it was probably Foscarini. After England he went briefly to Genoa where he became the teacher, and client, of Giacomo Doria. Vanini dedicated his Amphitheatrum, 1615, to Francesco di Castro, Conte di Castro, the protector of his family back in Taurisano. In the dedication Vanini refers to him as his generous maecenas. In Paris he became the client of the abbé de Redon, at whose house in stayed. When the storm broke in 1616, Vanini found refuge for a time in the monastery of Redon. Meanwhile he had dedicated the book that caused the storm, De admirandis arcanis, 1616, to the abbé's uncle, M. (soon to be maréchal) de Bassombpierre. As I said, Vanini collected patrons as he went. Apparently libertin aristocrats lapped up his radical ideas, served up as they were with verve, irreverence, and charm. He no sooner arrived in Toulouse, travelling under an assumed name, than he became the client of Jean de Bertier de Montrabe, the third president (there were first and second presidents at the same time) of the Parlement of Toulouse. More important than Bertier was the Comte de Caraman, of whose nephew Vanini became tutor. Namer's book gives a good account of his patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies:

Emile Namer, La vie et l'oeuvre de J.C. Vanini, prince des libertins, (Paris, 1980). Andrzej Nowicki, Giulio Cesare Vanini, 1585-1619, (Accademia Polacco della Scienze, Bibliotheca e centro di studi a Roma. Conferenze 39), (Wroclaw, 1968).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Emile Namer, Documents sur la vie de Jules-César Vanini de Taurisano (publ. dell'Istituto di Filosofia (1). University degli studi di Bari), (Bari, n.d.). _____, 'L'oeuvre de Jules-César Vanini (1585-1619): une anthropologie philosophique,' in Studi in onore di Antonio Corsano, (Manduria, 1970). _____, 'Vanini et la préparation de l'esprit scientifique a l'aube du XVIIe siècle,' Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leur applications, 25 (1972), 207-20. Don Cameron Allen, Doubt's Boundless Sea: Skepticism and Faith in the Renaissance, (Baltimore, 1964), pp. 58-74. J.-Roger Charbonnel, La pensée italienne au XVIe siècle et le courant libertin, (Paris, 1919), pp. 302-83. William L. Hine, 'Mersenne and Vanini,' Renaissance Quarterly, c. 1976. Raffaele Palumbo, Giulio Cesare Vanini e i suoi tempi, (Naples, 1878). This list does not begin to exhaust the extensive literature on Vanini. After I had found Namer's book, which is recent and authoritative, there seemed no point in reading further.

Varenius [Varen], Bernhard

1. Dates: Born: Hitzacker, Hannover, Germany, 1622; Died: Amsterdam, 1650. He most probably died in 1650, and definitely had died by 1655. Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 28
2. Father: Church Living; His father, Heinrich, was court preacher to the Duke of Brunswick. This sounds like affluence, but the father died when Varenius was only thirteen, and he was left wholly dependent on others for his education. Given this, I list his circumstances as poor.
3. Nationality: German; Dutch; Dutch; Birth: Hitzacker, Hannover, Germany. Career: Amsterdam, Holland. Death: Amsterdam, Holland.
4. Education: University of Koenigsburg; University of Leiden; M.D. 1640-2, he studied at the gymnasium of Hamburg. 1643-5, University of Königsberg. 1648-9, University of Leiden; received an M.D. in 1649. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geography; Mathematics; Beyond his well-known work in geography, Varenius left behind a manuscript on the conics.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1646-8, he worked as a tutor in Amsterdam, evidently earning a salary of 40 to 60 reichstaler (see 8 ). 1649, he settled in Amsterdam with the intention of practicing medicine, but his friendship with Willem Blaeu and other geographers led him to concentrate on geography. There is no evidence that he ever practiced medicine, and the failure of his name to appear on the list of Amsterdam physicians suggests that he did not. War destroyed his native town, thus preventing him from receiving his inheritance.
8. Patronage: Scientist; City Magistrate; Court Patronage; . Joachim Jungius, the rector of the Hamburg gymnasium was a patron in the sense that Varenius maintained contact with him after leaving Hamburg, often seeking advice and counsel. Jungius and Tassius also appear to have tried to help Varenius find a position. According to Ratzel, Jungius supported Varenius while he was at the gymnasium. I categorize Jungius, who appears in this catalogue, as a scientist; academic might be equally valid. Varenius had a patron while he was in Amsterdam, almost certainly the father of the children he was tutoring. This patron paid Varenius a salary of 40 reichstaler, which Varenius negotiated up to 60. I have not found the name of the patron, but evidently he was a mayor of Amsterdam, who died on a trip to Moscow in 1648. According to Ratzel, Varenius's description of Japan (1649) was dedicated to the mayor and city council of Hamburg in thankful memory of his education at the gymnasium. His book on Japanese religion, Tractatus de religione Japonicorum (1648), was dedicated-certainly in the hope of financial return-to Queen Christina of Sweden, a known patroness of science. Ratzel asserts that Varenius hoped to get Pell's chair at the Amsterdam gymnasium, but was disregarded by the mayor, who evidently did not want a Lutheran in the position. In an effort to gain favor, Varenius dedicated his major work, the Geographia generalis (1650), to the mayor, the trustees of the gymnasium, and the city treasurer of Amsterdam.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; The assertation that he practiced medicine is highly dubious. Ratzel reports that his name was not entered on the list of Amsterdam physicians for that period.
10. Scientific Societies: None known.

Siegmund Günther, Varenius [Klassiker der Naturwissenschaften, 4] (Leipzig: Theod. Thomas, 1905). Hans Offe, 'Bernhard Varenius (1622-1650),' Geographisches Taschenbuch und Jahrweise zur Landes Kunde, 1960-1961 (Wiesbaden: Steiner), pp. 435-8. Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. F. Ratzel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 39, 487-90. Note: Ratzel is now regarded as somewhat inaccurate. Because I don't know what parts are not accurate, I have explicitly noted which information I got from his article.

Varignon, Pierre

1. Dates: Born: Caen, 1654; Died: Paris, 23 December 1722; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Artisan; Varignon was the son and brother of contracting masons. Varignon himself says that he was born poor and had no patrimony or possession beyond his own labor.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France.
4. Education: University of Caen; M.A. He probably studied at the Jesuit college in Caen. He received a Master's of Arts degree (from the University, I believe) in 1682. I assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. On 19 December 1676 he received the tonsure. At some unknown later date he became a priest. His ecclesiastical career enabled him to study at the University of Caen where he was undoubtedly one of the oldest students.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics. Varignon's primary contribution to the progress of science was his pedagogical activity in general statics. In 1687 he published his Projet d'une nouvelle méchanique. Like the work of Newton and Lamy, Varignon's Projet contained the principle of the compostion of forces by infinitely small movements rather than finite ones. This work, which he dedicated to the Académie des Sciences, led to his nomination to the Académie in 1688. In the same year he was appointed professor at the Collège Mazarin. He became one of a handful of men who were teaching advanced mathematics at the time. His teaching duties and his responsibilities as an academicien fully occupied his time and he had no leisure to prepare works for publication. He wrote short works that appeared in journals or as memoirs of the Académie. One memoir showed how to apply infinitesimal analysis to the science of motion and how, in specific cases, to use the relationship between force and acceleration. Although Varignon did not develop any original ideas in the field of mechanics he generalized the methods of the pioneers in the field, prepared the way for the work of Bernoulli, and attempted to provide a broad justification of the principle of virtual velocities. In this way he took part in the development of what appeared later to be the foundation of classical mechanics. The majority of his research appears in posthumous works compiled by his disciples. His Eclaircissemens (1725) contained his notes on how to present l'Hopital's work to young mathematicians. He accepted the new procedures and even defended them against Rolle and others. Élémens de mathematiques (1731) was based on his courses at Collège Mazarin.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Varignon was named as priest to a parish in Caen in March 1683. The information above about his late career as a student implies an earlier ecclesiastic appointment, but I have not seen one mentioned. About 1686 the Abbé de Saint-Pierre settled an income of 300 livres on Varignon. I gain the impression that he continued to receive this the rest of his life. In 1688 he was appointed to the newly created professorship of mathematiques at Collège Mazarin (which was part of the university). He held this position and resided at the Collège until his death in 1722. He was a member of the Académie from the same year 1688. In 1704 du Hamel resigned his chair at the Collège Royal to Varignon. One source said it was a chair in Greek and Latin Philosophy, but Niceron says in mathematics, which is more plausible for Varignon.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Unknown; Charles Castel, Abbé de Saint-Pierre, offered to share his lodgings and income with Varignon and settled an income of 300 livres on him. In 1686 they left for Paris where Varignon made contacts in scientific circles through St.- Pierre. What is not clear is who stood behind those two appointments in 1688. Varignon did publish his Projet d'une nouvelle méchanique in 1687 and dedicated it to the Academy. Academies, and institutions in general, seem to me to be precisely what could not respond to a dedication, however. The dedication did have the obligatory flattering reference to the King and another, perhaps not obligatory, to his minister (this would have been Louvois, I believe).
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; In 1699 Varignon published a mémoire on water clocks which applied the differential calculus to the flow of a fluid through an orifice. In 1702 another mémoire used the calculus to determine the form of the fusees in spring driven clocks.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1688-1722; Berlin Academy; 1713; Royal Society (London); 1718. Varignon was nominated as geometer in the Académie in 1688. Among his correspondents were du Hamel, du Verney, de la Hire, Newton, Leibniz, and Johann I Bernoulli.

Bernard de Fontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Varignon,' Histoire et mémoires de l'Académie des sciences (1722), pp. 189-204. Pierre Costabel, Pierre Varignon et la diffusion en France du calcul differentiel et integral (Conférences du Palais de la Découverte, ser. D, #108, 1965). Joachim O. Fleckenstein, 'Pierre Varignon und die mathematischen Wissenschaften in Zeitalter des Cartesianismus,' Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 2 (1948), 76-138. J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s), 11. 153-76.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Abbé Gouget, Mémoire historique et littéraire sur le Collège Royale de France, (Paris, 1758). Costabel lists this work, but I have not found any reference to it in any published catalogue of a library.

Varolio, Costanzo

1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 1543; Died: Rome, 1575; Datecode: Lifespan: 32
2. Father: Unknown; Sebastiano Varolio is described only as a citizen (even an honest citizen) of Bologna. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Bologna; MD, Ph.D. Varolio studied philosophy and then medicine (especially anatomy under Aranzio) at the University of Bologna. M.D. and Ph.D., in the standard Italian style, in 1567.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Disciplines: Anatomy; His principal work was De nervis opticis, 1573, which was primarily an anatomy of the brain which employed a new technique in the dissection of the brain that altered the whole approach. Anatomiae libri IIII, 1591-a posthumous work.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Patronage; Varolio received his M.D. in 1567. In 1569 the Senate of Bologna created an extraordinary chair in surgery, with responsibility to teach anatomy as well, for him. He went to Rome in 1572. Possibly he taught at the Sapienza, though he is not listed on the role there. Possibly he was physician to Gregory XIII, though again there appears to be no record. (Mandosio states that he was physician to Gregory; Marini denies it.) There seems to be no doubt that he enjoyed the patronage of the Pope, who was from Bologna. In Rome especially he had considerable success both as a physician and as a surgeon. His memorial plaque refers to his great skill in removing stones.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Magistrate. The Senate of Bologna and the Pope-see above.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies:

A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 5, 709. Michaud, Biographie générale, 42, 654-5. G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 8, 158-60. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 4, 309. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 429. Prosper Mandosius, Theatrum in quo maximorum christiani orbis pontificum archiatros spectandos exhibit, a separately paginated inclusion at the end of vol. 2 of Marini, (Roma, 1784), pp. 39-41.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Martinotti, Costanza Varolio e il suo metodo di sezionare l'encefalo, (Imola, 1926). I cannot, of course, tell from the title if this work is any good, but it appears to be the only title devoted to Varolio. No American library appears to hold it. _____, L'insegnamento dell'anatomia in Bologna prima del secolo XIX, (Bologna, 1911). Gaetano Marini, Degli arciatri pontifici, 1 (Rome, 1784), xxxviii. Michele Medici, Compendio storico della scuola anatomica di Bologna, (Bologna, 1857), 84-90. Ludwig Choulant, History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration, tr. Mortimer Frank, (Chicago, 1920), 214-15.

Vauban, Sebastien

1. Dates: Born: St. Leger de Fougeret, 15 May 1633; Died: Paris, 30 March 1707; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Merchant; Vauban came from modest origins, notaries and small merchants of Bazoches. One member entered the lesser nobility through the purchase of a small fief. His father boasted of the title Squire, Lord of Champignolle and of Vauban. Vauban married Jeanne d'Osnay, the daughter of Baron d'Epiry. No information on financial status, however suggestive all of that may sound.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France.
4. Education: None Known; As a young child, he was taught by the village curate of St. Leger. At ten he was sent to the Carmelite college of Semur-in-Auxois where he acquired the rudiments of mathematics, a small amount of history, and showed some talent in draftsmnship. In 1651 his father arranged for him to be introduced to the Prince de Condé by an uncle who was serving in the Prince's army. Vauban entered into the military service as a cadet. He served his apprenticeship by working on fortifications. In 1653 he was captured (by the king's forces; he had been with the frondeurs) and 'converted' by Mazarin.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Engineer; Subordinate Disciplines: Gog; In 1670 he wrote a treatise on siegecraft. In his mature years he wrote on subjects ranging from colonization and religious toleration to pig farming and privateering. In his dispatches to Louvois he often commented on the resources of various districts, including figures on population and productivity. In 1686 he began collecting statistics in earnest. In 1696 he wrote a geographical treatise of the Vezelay region which was a pioneering study in economics, geography, and sociology. From 1680 to 1707 he wrote three works on taxation including a proposal on the amelioration of the tax burden. In his military capacity, Vauban strove to create a corps of army engineers as a regularly constituted arm of the service with its own specially trained officers.
7. Means of Support: Military; Government Official; Patronage; After his capture in 1653, Vauban became a member of the royal army. In 1654 he was awarded a lieutenant's commission which included a small grant of money. Throughout his military career Vauban would receive cash grants from the King. Vauban began working under Chevalier de Clerville, Commissioner General of Fortifications. In 1655 he became ingenieur ordinaire du roi. In 1661 Louis XIV rewarded him with another cash grant and a commission in the prestigious regiment de Picardie. During the War of Devolution, Vauban distinguished himself and was promoted above Clerville to the rank of Commissioner General. He was virtually the director of all engineering work in Louvois's department.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; In addition to his previously mentioned military honors, Vauban was named governor of Lille after his success as Commissioner General. In 1703 he was named to the high honor of Marshall of France. Two years later he was honored again with the select membership to the Ordre du Saint Esprit. In 1666, Vauban was duped into signing false accounts (Breisach Affair), and it was only the backing of Colbert and Louvois that kept him from severe disciplinary actions and possibly the ruin of his career. Five years later Louvois obtained the false documents so that they might be burned. He also obtained a letter from the King clearing Vauban.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Agriculture; Vauban introduced parallel trenches for the safety of his troops. He was the first to use ricochet fire of mortars. He urged the army to abandon their bronze cannon and emulate the navy by the use of iron. He was a master of fortifications, a skill which served the French army very well and won him many honors. I include here that treatise on pig farming.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1707,; Académicien honoraire. His friends were Jean Brun, an apothecary, Deschamps, a physician, and Pierre Trichet. He corresponded with Mersenne and Descartes.

Fontenelle, Oeuvres completes de Fontenelle, (Paris, 1818), 1, 95-103. (this is an éloge). F.J. Hebbert and G.A. Rothrock, 'Marshall Vauban,' History Today, 24 (1974), 149-57, 258-64. Marcel Parent and Jacques Verroust, Vauban, (Paris, 1971).

Verantius, Faustus [Vrancic, Faust]

1. Dates: Born: Sibenik (Coatia), 1551; Died: Venice, 20 January 1617; Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Aristocrat. He came from a noble Croatian family. His father was a diplomat and poet. His uncle, Archbishop of Esztergom, Primate of Hungary, Cardinal, and an influential stateman, took charge of his education. This certainly sounds affluent at the very least.
3. Nationality: Birth: Yu (or more exactly Croatian); Career: Yu, Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Vienna; University of Padua; University of Sapienza (Rome); He studied philosophy and law in Padua from 1568 to 1570. Studies apparently at the university level in Vienna and Rome are also mentioned. There was no mention of a degree, which would have been irrelevant for one of his status. Later in his leisure time he studied mechnics and mathematics.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Engineer; Hydraulics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; His Machinae novae (1616) is a book of mechanical and technological inventions. Some of his inventions are applicable to the solutions of hydrological problems, and others concern the construction of clepsydras, sundials, mills, presses, and bridges and boats for widely different uses. Althogh some of his 'machines' were not wholly original or independent inventions, many of them were explained for the first time in print in Machinae novae. In 1595 he published a five language dictionary (Latin-Italian-German-Croatian-Hungarian). He was also the author of Logica nova and Ethica christiana (1616).
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Church Living; Commander of the citadel at Veszprim, 1579-81. Secretary of the royal chancellory of Hungary, 1581-94. Bishop of Csanad, 1594. Imperial counselor for Hungarian and Transylvanian affairs, 1598-1605. Member of the Congregation of St. Paul in Rome, 1605-15.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Emperor Rudolf II offered him the post of secretary of the royal chancellory of Hungary in 1681, and granted him the title of Bishop of Csanad, an honorary office since the bishopric was then occupied by the Turks, in 1594. At his request, Louis XIII in 1614 granted him a privilege for printing a 'book of machines'. In 1615 Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscary, granted him a analogous privilege for the book 'that the latter wishes to publish.'
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Civil Engineer; Mechanical Devices; Some of his inventions are applicable to the solution of hydrological problems, for example, the project to keep for the Tiber from overflowing its banks at Rome and that of providing Venice with fresh water. Others concern the construction of clepsydras, sundials, mills, presses, and bridges and boats destined for widely different uses. His designs for a wind turbine, a funicular railway, and a bridge suspended by iron chains represent an advance over contemporary techniques. He did build bridges and mills in Vienna.
10. Scientific Societies:

G. Gyurikovits, 'Biographia Verantii' in Verantius' Dictionarium pentaglottum, Bratislava, 1834. (Zagreb edition, 1971). Dizionario biografico degli uomini illustri della Dalmazia, ed. Simeone Gliubich, (Vienna, 1856). Opca enciklopedija.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.T. Marnavich, Oratio habita in funere ill. ac rev. viri Fausti Verantij, Venice, 1617. H.T. Horwitz,'Ueber Fausto Veranzio und sein Werk Machinae novae' Archeion, 8 (1927), 169-75.

Vernier, Pierre

1. Dates: Born: Ornans, Franche-Comté, 19 August 1584; Died: Ornans, 14 September 1638; Datecode: Lifespan: 54.
2. Father: Government Position; Vernier's father was a castellan of the chateau of Ornans. This was a governmental establishment. He was a lawyer by training and probably an engineer. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; (I list this as France, though it was in the Franche-Comté). Career: France; Death: France.
4. Education: None Known. At an early age he studied the writings of contemporary scientists and learned how measuring instruments worked. He was particularly attentive to the works of Clavius and Brahe. His father's inclination toward mathematics gave Vernier a solid instruction and initiated him to their applications.
5. Religion: Catholic (by assumption).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Engineer; Instruments. With his father he made a map of the Franche-Comté area. His reading of the works of Nunez, Clavius, and Brahe and his experience in surveying with his father prompted him to seek a new way of reading off the angles on surveying instruments. The Vernier scale improved the work of Nunez, Clavius, and Curtius by replacing a series of static scales with a mobile concentric segment. It was not until the start of the eighteenth century that technology caught up with Vernier's scale and the vernier began to be used. Vernier's name was not associated with his invention until the middle of the century.
7. Means of Support: Engineer; Government Official. He worked as a military engineer for the Hapsburgs. By 1622 he was already a tax official for Dole and Besancon. In 1622 he had acquired a reputation as an excellent engineer and received the position as conseiller et général des monnaies for the Count of Burgundy. He held this position until his death in 1638. In the same year he was named capitain of the chateau d'Ornans, a position which he also held until his death. In addition to all these positions he became a conseiller du roi. The following year he received the honorary title of citizen from the city of Besancon in recognition of his service in placing the city in a state of defense from the bands of Ernest von Mansfield. After his voyage to Brussels to present his invention to Isabelle-Claire-Eugenie, the infanta of Spain, he returned to the Franche-Comté (1631) and spent the remainder of his life working on the fortifications of various cities.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocrat; From 1622 until his death he held several royal offices. He dedicated his treatise on the quadrant to the Archduchess, to whom he presented his invention (a copper one made for her) in 1631. It was upon the recommendations of Philippe Chifflet, who enjoyed several benefices from the Archduchess, and Ferdinand LeBlanc, colonel of the regiment of Amont, that Vernier undertook his voyage to Brussels to present his invention to the Hapsburg court.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Military Engineer; Scientific Instruments; Architecture; Vernier replaced the series of static scales with a mobile concentric segment. This scale was not attributed to him until the middle of the eighteenth century. He designed a building in Dole. See also above.
10. Scientific Societies:

Julien Feuvrier, 'L'ingenieur Pierre Vernier à Dole,' Proces-verbaux et mémoires de l'Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Besancon, 1912, pp. 293-302. Henri Michel, 'Le 'vernier' et son inventeur Pierre Vernier d'Ornans,' Mémoires de la Société d'émulation du Doubs, 8th series, 8 (1913), 310-73.

Vesalius, Andreas

1. Dates: Born: Brussels, 31 December 1514; Died: Zakinthos, 15 October 1564; Datecode: Lifespan: 50
2. Father: Government Position; His father was an apothecary to Emperor Maximillian and then his son Charles V. He became a constant attendent to Charles, a valet de chambre. The father was the illegitimate son of Everart van Wesele, physician to the Emperor. His great-grandfather served Frederick III and was granted the heraldic device of three weasels. Vesalius came from a long line of physicians who were in royal service. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian Area; Career: Italy; Sp, Germany; Belgium Area; Death: Eu
4. Education: Lou; Par; University of Padua; M.D. Vesalius took his elementary studies in Brussels most likely at the school of the Brothers of the Common Life. He matriculated at the University of Louvain in 1530 to pursue an arts curriculum. It is unknown when he decided to study medicine, possibly after 1531 when the Emperor legitimized his father in consideration of his continual service as valet de chambre. Vesalius commenced his medical schooling at the University of Paris two years later. He left Paris in 1536 because of the war between France and the Holy Roman Empire. He returned to Louvain and with the support of the Burgomuster he was able to reintroduce anatomical dissection at the school. He received his bachelor's in medicine the following year. In the same year, he enrolled in the medical school of the University of Padua. With his previous work at Louvain and Paris it was only months before Vesalius passed his exams and received his doctor in medicine. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; At Paris Vesalius studied medicine in the Galenic tradition under Sylvius, Jean Ferne, and at Louvain under Guinter of Andernach. He acquired great skill in dissection but remained under the influence of the Galenic concepts of anatomy. Immediately after his graduation from Padua he began lecturing on surgery and anatomy. Unlike many other lecturers of the time, Vesalius insisted on carrying out his own dissections for his classes. He produced for the aid of his students four large anatomical charts. After one of them was plagiarized and published, he printed the remaining three charts with three views of the skeleton by Jan Stephen, a student from Titian's studio. This work appeared in 1538 as Tabulae anatomicae sex. The following year he produced an anatomical manual for his students, Institutiones anatomicae. Vesalius's anatomical researches were beginning to call into question some of Galen's findings. By 1540's he was certain that Galen's research did not reflect human anatomy; rather it was the anatomy of an ape. In 1543 Vesalius published two works on anatomy directed to two separate audiences. In the longer of the two, the Fabrica, Vesalius hoped to persuade the established medical world to appreciate anatomy as the foundation of all other medical research. The errors of Galen and of others could be corrected by active dissection and observation of the human structure. In the same year Vesalius published a work for students, the Epitome, which also emphasized the importance of dissection and anatomical knowledge in general to the practice of medicine. Both works were amply illustrated possibly by students from Titian's studio.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; After receiving his doctor in medicine (1537) at Padua, Vesalius accepted a position there as an explicator chirurgiae. He was responsible for lecturing on surgery and anatomy. In 1543 he left academic research to become physician to the imperial household. Vesalius held this position until Charles V abdicated in favor of his son Philip II, whom Vesalius served until his own death. While in royal service Vesalius acted as a military surgeon during the Hapsburg campaigns. He also served various members of the court and was so esteemed as a physician that he was called to consult on serious cases.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Court Patronage; Vesalius dedicated two of his earlier works to Nicolas Florenas, a physician and family friend. Vesalius referred to Florenas as the patron of his earlier studies. Vesalius served the courts of both Charles V and his son Philip II. He dedicated his Fabrica to Charles V.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; In 1546 Vesalius wrote an Epistola on the discovery and therapeutic use of chinaroot in the treatment of syphilis. The following year he introduced a new procedure, the surgically induced drainage of empyema.
10. Scientific Societies:

Harvey Cushing, A Bio-Biography of Andreas Vesalius, (Hamden, 1962). C.D. O'Malley, Andreas Vesalius of Brussels 1514-1564, (Los Angeles, 1965).

Vesling, [Veslingius], Johann

1. Dates: Born: Minden, Westphalia, 1598; Died: Padua, 30 August 1649; Datecode: Lifespan: 51
2. Father: Unknown; All we know is that his Catholic family apparently fled to Vienna to escape religious persecution. No information of financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Italian; Death: Italian.
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Bologna; M.D. The old accounts have him studying medicine in Vienna or Padua, but they have no evidence to support this. He enrolled in Leiden on 15 November 1619. Possibly on the advice of his teacher Vorstius, he went to Bologna. It appears, however, that he did not receive a degree from either university. La Cava speaks of his earning the laurels in Venice (not Padua) in 1628. While there are bizarre aspects to this, his whole subsequent career implies an M.D., so I am accepting it.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Embryology; Pharmacology; Vesling published Syntagma anatomicum, 1641, an extremely popular text that went through many editions and many translations. It includes a number of original observations, including some on the lacteals and lymphatics. In Egypt Vesling studied the flora and later published De plantis aegyptiis, 1638. In 1638 he ceased to lecture on surgery at Padua and turned wholly to botany. In the final years of his life he renovated the botanical garden in Padua. As the botanical garden in Padua implies, his study of plants, from the beginning in Egypt, include their pharmacological uses. In Egypt Vesling also studied the development of the chicken in artificially hatched eggs.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; One of the few documented facts from Vesling's early life is an anatomical demonstration at Venice in the winter of 1627-8, which gained him the right to practice medicine in the city. Older accounts of Vesling's life all report that he gave highly successful public lectures on anatomy in Venice between his stay in Egypt and his appointment in Padua. Established dates, which show that he was still in Egypt, make this impossible. Castiglioni asserts that he was an instructor in anatomy in the medical college of Venice in 1727, i.e., before he went to Egypt. This would tie all of the information and accounts together. He served as the physician to Alvise Cornaro when Cornaro was the Venetian representative in Cairo. They left for Cairo in August 1628. Vesling's continued presence there in May 1632 is established, and it appears that he returned to Venice early in 1633, after he had been appointed Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at Padua on 30 December 1630. There are references to his practicing medicine in Padua.
8. Patronge: Aristocratic Patronage; Not only did Vesling serve with Cornaro, but it appears highly probable to me that Cornaro stood behind the appointment in Padua. There was no university appointment without patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; His connection with the botanical garden entailed pharmacology, and already in Egypt his initial study was of medicinal plants.
10. Scientific Societies: After Vesling's death Thomas Bartholin published papers and letters posthumously, but I have not seen their relationship elucidated.

A. Castiglioni, 'Vesling,' Enciclopedia Italiana, 35 (1937), 218. Howard Adelmann, Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology, 5 vols. (Ithaca, N.Y., 1966), 2, 779-80. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (1888 ed.), 6, 97-8.  P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 170. Michaud, Biographie générale, 43, 255-6. A. Francesco La Cava, 'Giovanni Vesling,' Castalia: rivista di storia della medicina, 41 (the number is blurred; it might be 4), (1948), 61-8.

Viète [Vieta], Francois

1. Dates: Born: Fontenay-le-Comte, Poitou (now Vendée), 1540 Died: Paris, 23 February 1603; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Lawyer; Government Official. Viète's father, Etienne Viète, was an attorney in Fontenay and a notary in Le Busseau. He was also a procureur du roi in Fontenay. Viète's grandfather was a merchant in the village of Foussay in Lower Poitou. Viète's mother was the first cousin to Barnabé Brisson, President of the Parlement de Paris under the League. All the evidence places the Viète family among the most distinguished in Fontenary. At least by the age of twenty, Viète mwas Sieur de la Bigotière. His two brothers both had distinguished positions. I do not see how to avoid the conclusion that the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France.
4. Education: University of Poitiers; L.D. He made his early studies with a tutor in Fontenay. In 1555 he began his studies in law at the University of Poitiers. In 1560 he received his bachelor's degree and his license for practicing law. I treat this as the equivalent of a B.A., and I list the law degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Although Viète had many Huguenot clients, he never renounced his faith; neither did he brandish it, however, as a sword. His association with Huguenots as clients caused him some difficulty between 1584 and 1589 when his enemies had him banished from court. There are some indications that Viète was indifferent to religion to the extent of rejecting it. However, the stories are gossip more than hard fact, and I do not list him as heterodox.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy. Viète's first scientific work was his set of lectures to Catherine Parthenay of which only Principes des cosmographie survives. This work introduced his student to the sphere, elements of geography, and elements of astronomy. His mathematical works are closely related to his cosmology and works in astronomy. In 1571 he published Canon mathematicus which was to serve as the trigonometric introduction to his Harmonicon coeleste which was never published. Twenty years later he published In artem analyticum isagoge which was the earliest work on symbolic algebra. In 1592 he began his dispute with Scaliger over his purported solutions to the classical problems with ruler and compass. In 1595 he began corresponding with Adrianus Romanus over a problem proposed by him in 1593. Adrianus was so impressed with Viète's solution to the 45th degree equation that he travelled to Fontenay to meet him. For all his achievement, however, mathematics was only a pastime for Viète, who was first and foremost a lawyer and public administrator. Viète was involved in the calendar reform. He rejected Clavius's ideas and in 1602 published a vehement attack against the calendar reform and Clavius. The dispute ended only with Viète's death at the beginning of 1603.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Lawyer; Personal Means; After returning to Fontenay from his law studies he is reported in some sources to have taken on the cases of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1561) and Marie Stuart (1564), taking care of their interests in Poitou and Fontenay. Among his other clients were Coligny, Condé, the Queen of Navarre, and Henri de Bourbon. Of all this, however, (Henri de Bourbon excepted) Grisard, who appears very reliable, says nothing. From his career it appears reasonable to accept law practice, as distinct from legal work as a client, as an early occupation. In 1564 he accepted the position as secretaire particulier to Antoinette d'Aubeterre (of the important Soubise family). He was also given the tutoring responsibilities of her daughter, Catherine de Parthenay. According to some sources he was an avocat of the Parlement of Paris from 1570 to 1573. Grisard finds no evidence for this, but does think Viète was in Paris during this period. In 1573 Charles IX appointed him counselor to the Parlement of Brittany at Rennes. During his six years with the Parlement (1574-80) he was frequently absent on business of the King who employed him in various ways. He became maitre des requetes and royal privy counselor in 1580. He was apparently deeply involved in negotiating some justice for Francoise de Rohan in what was a scandalouus case. From 1584 to 1589 his enemies at court, primarily the Guise who stood to loose by the settlement of that case, succeeded in having him banished from the royal court. He appears to have lived as a client of Francoise during part of this time. In 1589 Henri III set up court in Tours and recalled Viète. After the death of Henri III, Viète served Henri IV in the war with Spain by decoding the letters intercepted. He served as maitre des requetes and a member of Henri's privy council. He was also a member of the Parlement of Paris.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Viète served as secretaire particulier to Antoinette d'Aubeterre. He dedicated his Art analytique to Catherine de Parthenay. He dedicated his Essays to the Duc de Bouillon. Grisard concludes that Viète owed his rather rapid rise in favor to Francoise de Rohan. Except for the period between 1584 and 1589 he enjoyed the favor of the court from Charles IX, Henri III, and Henri IV.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; I list his contribution to trigonometrical calculations here.
10. Scientific Societies:

F. Ritter, 'Francois Viète, inventeur de l'algebre moderne, 1540-1603, essai sur sa vie et son oeuvre,' Revue occidentale philosophique sociale et politique, 2nd ser., 10 (1895) 234-74. J.M. Dunoyer de Segonzac, 'Deux hommes de sciences dans les pays de la Loire aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles: Francois Viète et René Descartes,' in 97e congres national des sociétés savantes, (Nantes, 1972) 1, 123-33. J. Grisard, 'Francois Viète, mathematicien de la fin du seizième siecle,' These de 3e cycle Ecole pratique des hautes etudes, (Paris, 1968).

Not Available and Not Consulted: P. Dedron and J. Itard, Mathematiques et mathematiciens, (Paris, 1959), pp. 159-85.

Vieussens, Raymond

1. Dates: Born: Vigan, Lot, c. 1635; Died: Montpellier, 16 August 1715; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Unknown. We are told only that Vieussens' father was a bourgeois of Vigan. There is a death notice of a Francois Vieussens, maréchal, who might well have been Raymond's father. Another family member, Jean Vieussens, was a surgeon. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. Vieussens completed his secondary studies at Rodez. He studied medicine at the University of Montpellier, graduating in 1670 with his doctorate. This is a surprisingly late age, but there is no information indicating why he did not receive his degree earlier. He was well-known already at the time of his graduation. He may have completed earlier studies at Toulouse or Cahors.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Iatrochemstry. He is most well-known for his book on the nervous system, Neurographia universalis (1684), and his work on fermetation. Though he was prominent in the science of medicine at Montpellier, he spent his entire career outside the city's university and sometimes in opposition to its professors. He divided his time between his medical pratice at St. Eloi and his anatomical research. On the nervous system, he continued the work of Thomas Willis, following the suggestion of Steno to study the white substance of the brain by tracing the path of its fibers. His description of the cerebellum and his discovery of the dentate nuclei surpassed all previous publications on the subject. He also studied the structure of the ear and angiology. He was involved in a priority dispute with Chirac, a member of the Montpellier Faculty of Medicine, over the first to have extracted an acidic salt from blood (both results were erroneous). During the last decade of his life he conducted research in cardiology. Among his cardiological treatises his Traité nouveau de la structure et des causes du mouvement naturel du couer (1715) reported his observations that confirmed the hypothesis that there was a continuous vascular pathway between the arterial and venous vessels. He was the first to note that aortic diseases manifest themselves by a characteristics pulse, rediscovered a century later by P.J. Corrigan, whose name it now bears. The drawback to Vieussens's work was his tendency to conjoin his correct morphological observations with rather fantastic physiological explanations. He drew inspiration from Descarte's mechanistic philosophy and Sylvius's iatrochemical ideas.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Medicine; Almost immediately after graduation he was named physician at Hotel Dieu at St. Eloi, the leading hospital in Montpellier. In 1679 he became chief surgeon and held this post the rest of his life. He never sought a private practice. On several occasions he left Montpellier to treat important people in Paris. (Since his living manifestly derived from medicine, I list this also.)
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Medical Practioner. The Marquis de Castries protected Vieussens from attacks by the Montpellier Faculty of Medicine allowing him to continue his clinical and experimental work in peace. De Castries brother-in-law, Pierre de Bonsi, Archbishop of Toulouse and later Cardinal, became Vieussens patron. Vieussens was his personal physician. He dedicated his Neurographia universalis to de Bonsi. Through this relationship Vieussens became physician to several leading citizens and members of the aristocracy at court. In 1688 he received the title of royal physician to the King and 1000 livres annual pension. In gratitude for this position possibly procured for him by Fagon (the powerful court physician), Vieussens dedicated his Novum vasorum corporis humani systema (1705) to Fagon. He was the personal physician to the Duchess of Montpensier, 1690-3. In 1707 the King named him conseiller of state and gave him an annual pension of 3000 livres. Vieussens founded a virtual dynasty of physicians with two sons and two sons-in-law becoming physicians. According to Kellett, Fagon acquired for Vieussens and his eldest son the positions as quarterly physicians to the king. For Vieussens this was a means of establishing his son.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1715; He was elected to the Académie as a correspondent of P.S. Regis. In 1708 he was promoted to associate anatomist.

L. Dulieu, 'Raymond Vieussens,' Monspeliensis Hippocrates, 10, #35 (1967), 9-26. C.E. Kellet, 'Life and Work of Raymond De Vieussens,' Annals of Medical History, 3rd series 4 (1942), 31-53. R11. A61; Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 4, 335-6. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.

Vigani, John Francis

1. Dates: Born: Verona, ca. 1650. The date rests on very tenuous assumptions. Died: Newark-on-Trent, England, February 1713. He was buried on 26 February 1713. Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: -
2. Father: Unknown; No information about his family. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: English. There may very well have been a career on the continent before Vigani came to England. Death: English.
4. Education: None Known; No recorded degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Anglican; Reared a Catholic, and apparently conformed to Anglicanism later.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Pharmacology; He was a practical working chemist and pharmacist with little or no interest in theory. His aim was to teach the preparation of useful chemical compounds and pharmacological prescriptions. His one published work, Medulla chemiae, Danzig, 1682 (republished in London, 1683), was a set of instructions to produced certain chemicals and medicines. He devised a method to purify sulfate of iron from copper, and one for making ammonium sulfate. He was free of alchemical inclinations.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Pharmacology; There is no information on Vigani before 1682, and the reference to him in 1682 is indirect. He settled in Newark-on Trent, England, apparently in 1682, supporting himself as a pharmacist. He taught at Cambridge as a private tutor after 1683; he was granted the title of professor of chemistry by the senate of the university in 1702, but without salary. He ceased to teach in 1708.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; Vigani dedicated the first edition of Medulla to Johannes de Waal, Burgomaster of Haarlem. The dedication is not without problems. De Waal died in 1663. The suggestion is that Vigani had had some favor from him; if this is so, the assumed date of Vigani's birth, which rests on nothing solid at all, would need to be pushed back at least about ten years. Dr. Covell, Master of Christ's College, invited him to write a book on chemistry. The Senate of the Cambridge University granted him the title of professor of chemistry. I'll leave the information in, but I am not ready to count either as patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Chemistry; Int See above. In the manuscript notes on Vigani's Course of Chymistry there is a discussion of a furnace he is said to have invented. After hesitation, I am listing this.
10. Scientific Societies: Intimate friendship with Newton. He was one of the few visitors to Newton's rooms in Trinity. Friendship with John Covell.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50),21, 305-6. L.J.M. Coleby, 'John Francis Vigani, First Professor of Chemistry in the University of Cambridge,' Annals of Science, 8 (1952), 46-60. E. Saville Peck, 'John Francis Vigani . . . and his Materia Medica Cabinet . . .,' Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 34 (1934), 34-49.

Viviani, Vincenzio

1. Dates: Born: Florence, 5 April 1622; Died: Florence, 22 September 1703; Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: Aristocrat; Jacopo di Michelagnolo Viviani was a member of a noble family. The mother was also. The family was sufficiently endowed financially to be able to care for the education of Vincenzo and his numerous brothers. This certainly implied affluence. Nothing I have seen suggests wealth, though it is stated that the mother's family was rich.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; Viviani studied with the Jesuits in Florence, and he studied mathematics with Clemente Settimi of the Scuole Pie. Settimi, who was impressed by Viviani's intelligence and ability, introduced him to Galileo, and Settimi's description of his pupil led to his introduction to the Grand Duke in 1638. The Grand Duke provided 50 scudi per year to the young man to provide him with mathematical books, and he later arranged for Viviani to be Galileo's companion and pupil, an arrangement that began late in 1639 and lasted until Galileo's death. The years with Galileo took the place of a university education.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Hydraulics; Mechanics. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Physics; Astronomy. Viviani was first of all a student of ancient geometry who, though a leading mathematician, never came to terms with the new analyis. He attempted to restore the fifth book of Euclid's Elements, and to reconstruct the contents of the lost fifth book of Apollonius' Conics, and Aristaeus' De locis solidis. He prepared an Italian version of Archimedes' work on the rectification and squaring of the circle, and he published an Italian translation of the whole of Euclid's Elements. As an engineer with the Uffiziali dei Fiumi in Florence, he published Discorso intorno al difendersi da' riempimenti e dalle corrosione de' fiumi (1687), completed a work on the nature of fluids (which he did not publish), and left numerous manuscripts on theoretical and practical hydraulics. Two of his compositions were included in the Raccolta del moto dell'acque of the 18th century. Working as the disciple of Galileo, Viviani nearly completed a work on the resistance of solids, which Grandi did complete and publish after Viviani's death. Viviani left quite a few manuscripts on mechanics. In the Accademia del Cimento he worked on the compression of air and on optics, and he was responsible for the Accademia's astronomical observations. He also observed some with Cassini.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Sch As mentioned above, the Grand Duke supplied a sort of pension to Viviani when he was still a boy, and he began to employ him after Galileo's death, first as an inspector of fortifications, and then as an engineer with the Uffiziali dei Fiumi. In 1653, after he had been filling the position for a number of years, he was officially appointed as engineer, and he continued in that position virtually until his death. After the death of Torricelli (in 1647) Viviani succeeded him as lecturer at the Accademia del Disegno in Florence, a position he held from 1647 until his death in 1703. (I categorize this as Academic; .) He also gave lessons at his home. In 1649 he was appointed lecturer in mathematics to the pages at the court and was thus in charge of the scientific education of the princes. Beginning in 1664 Viviani, as one of twelve designated leading intellectuals of Europe, received a pension from Louis XIV of 100 doubloons (which seems to mean double scudi, but Milanese rather than Florentine scudi), and to Louis he dedicated his final work in 1702. In 1666 Louis offered Viviani one of the places in the newly organized Académie Royale, and that same year John II Casimir of Poland offered to appoint Viviani as his astronomer. The Grand Duke shifted into gear and appointed Viviani as his mathematician with a stipend of 600 scudi, promising to let him retire as engineer (though Viviani was in fact not allowed to retire as engineer until 1677 and was still at the job in some sense twenty years after that). Manifestly Viviani declined the offers from France and Poland.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; See various aspects of his relations with the Grand Duke above. The Grand Duke Ferdinando liked to call Viviani in to discuss scientific matters, and to the Grand Duke Viviani dedicated works. He continued in favor with Cosimo III and also dedicated books to him, such as the problem called Viviani's enigma, in 1692. Viviani also had a close and continuing relation with Prince Leopoldo. (Leopoldo later became a Cardinal, but I think I should list him solely as part of the court.) Viviani was one of the key members in Leopoldo's Accademia del Cimento. Leopoldo encourage Viviani to publish his work on Apollonius, virtually ordering him to do so, and Viviani dedicated the work to him and to the Grand Duke, who held up the publication by Borelli of his translation of an Arabic manuscript of Apollonius until Viviani's reconstruction of the fifth book was safely out. Viviani dedicated other works to Leopoldo as well. The Medici financed the publication of the work on Apollonius. It appears to me that they financed the publication of all of his works. Viviani did not seem to know how to proceed without them. A letter to a Cardinal, written in 1696, tries to get him to publish three geometrical works that the Medici apparently, for whatever reason, did not publish. In 1675 Leopoldo instructed him to enter a dispute about some trial problems in geometry published by Cristoforo Sadler, and Leopoldo then pressured him to publish his solutions-the Diporto geometrico attached to some copies of the Quinto libro di Euclide. Viviani also composed his life of Galileo, which took the form of a letter to Leopoldo, at the latter's behest. Favaro (pp. 103-9) details Viviani's efforts, which began in the mid 50's and continued for at least twenty years, to prepare an edition of Galileo's works. At every early step Leopoldo was involved in the project, which hinged on him. Later, after Viviani began to receive the pension from Louis XIV, he planned to dedicate the edition to him. However, the project languished, and all the more when it became evident that Louis would not take much joy in the works of a man who had been dead for thirty years. Favaro is explicit in stating that the Medici did not do all that well by a man of Viviani's capacity. It is not wholly clear to me that this is so, but if it is, he seems to me to contrast with Redi who grew wealthy in the service of the Medici. Perhaps Viviani was too useful. Viviani dedicated a mathematical publication in 1677 to Jean Chapelain, the councillor of Louis XIV who in 1664 had named Viviani was one of the twelve and thus secured for him the patronage of Louis. Chapelain was dead by 1677; the dedication was then a gift of gratitude for past favors.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Hydraulics; Scientific Instruments; Architecture; CEn In the 40's Viviani was sent to inspect the fortifications of Tuscany and to build up those along a threatened frontier. He was employed by the Grand Duke as an engineer with the Uffiziali dei Fiumi and worked on numerous projects including the channeling of the Chiana. He also worked on roads, pavements, and a bridge, and he did some architectural work. I would be willing to bet my shirt that he also did some cartography, though perhaps only in connection with the hydraulic engineering. At any rate, I did not see any mention of such. For the Accademia del Cimento he invented numerous instruments-to examine the compression of air, the specific gravity of fluids, the refraction of fluids, and capillary phenomena, as well as an air thermometer, a hygrometer, a hearing trumpet, and a telescope twenty palms long.
10. Scientific Societies: Accademia del Cimento, Royal Society (London); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Membership in the Accademia del Cimento from its beginning in 1657. Fellow of the Royal Society in 1696. One of the eight foreign members upon the reorganization of the Académie Royale des Sciences in 1699. Viviani was also in the Arcadia in Rome (elected in 1701 I think) and in the Accademia della Crusca from 1661. He was Galileo's companion and pupil during the final two years of his life. He became a close friend of Torricelli and is the one who first performed the Torricellian experiment (the barometer), at Torricelli's instructions. Viviani undertook to publish Torricelli's works after his death but did not carry through. He was a close friend of Redi and Steno. He corresponded with Ricci, Sluse, degli Angeli, Huygens, Wallis, Leibniz, l'Hopital, the two Bernoullis, Grandi, and others. The affair over the publication of Apollonius led to a rupture with Borelli that was never healed.

Antonio Favaro, 'Amici e correspondenti di Galileo Galilei. XXIX. Vincenzio Viviani,' Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 72 (1912-13), pt. 2, 1-155. M.L. Bonelli, 'L'utlimo discepolo: V. Viviani,' in Carlo Maccagni, ed. Saggi su Galileo Galilei, 3 vols. (Firenze, 1972), 2, 656-88. Pierfrancesco Tocci, 'Vita di Vincenzio Viviani fiorentino, dette Erone Geonio,' in G.M. Crescimbeni, Le vite degli Arcadi illustri scritte da diversi autori, 3 vols. (Roma, 1708-14), 1, 119-34.  P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 625-30; 2, 103.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, (Pisa, 1778), 1, 307-44.

Vlacq [Vlack, Vlaccus], Adriaan

1. Dates: Born: Gouda, 1600; Died: The Hague, late 1666 or early 1667; Datecode Death Uncertain; Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Occupation: Unknown; The sources say only that he was from a well-to-do family. Nieuw; Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek says that the family had furnished many members to the city government. I accept the statement that they were well-to-do.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch, English, French; Death: Dutch
4. Education: Schooling: No University; There is no mention of any university education.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; With a local surveyor he translated and published the new concept of logarithms in the 1620's. In 1628 he published the first full table of logs to base 10 from 1 to 100,000, calculated to ten places. As nearly as I can find out, this heroic task has never been repeated. All subsequent log tables are copies of Vlacq's. In 1633 he also published tables of the logs of the trigonometric functions.
7. Means of Support: Publishing; Vlacq was initially apparently a bookseller who became a publisher primarily to circulate his tables. 1632-42: He had a book business in London but left because of the Civil War. 1642-8: He had a book business in Paris. After 1648 he moved back to The Hague where he lived from then on.
8. Patronage: Court Official; The only suggestion of patronage is the dedication to Charles II of a royalist work, in English, which he published in 1652. The dedication is by Vlacq, not by the author.
9. Technological Involvement: Applied Mathematics; His mathematical work is all directed toward facilitating computations.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None

Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. J.W.L. Glaisher, 'Notice . . . in Early Logarithmic Tables,'; Philosophical Magazine, 44 (1872), 291-303, 500-6, and 45 (1873), 376-82. D. Bierens de Haan, 'On Certain Early Logarithmic Tables,'; Philosophical Magazine, 45 (1873), 371-6. J.W.L. Glaisher, 'On Errors in Vlacq's Table,' Monthly Notices of the; Royal Astronomical Society, May and June 1872 and June 1873. Parts of a report on mathematical tables, Report of the 43rd Meeting; of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held September; 1873, (London, 1874), 51-5, 63-4, 119, 141-2, 162-3.

Wallis John

1. Dates: Born: Ashford, Kent, 23 November 1616; Died: Oxford, 8 November 1703; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 87
2. Father; Occupation: Cleric; Also John Wallis, the father was the Rector of Ashford, who died when Wallis was six. In view of the estate Wallis inherited, they must have been in an affluent situation. Wallis went to Oxford as a pensioner.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Schooling: Cambridge, M.A., Oxford, D.D. Grammar School at Tenterden, Kent, 1625-31. School of Martin Holbeach at Felsted, Essex, 1631-2. Cambridge University, Emmanuel College, 1632-40; B.A., 1637; M.A., 1640. He took a D.D. at Oxford in 1654; there is good reason to treat it as a serious degree even though Wallis had then been a professor at Oxford for five years. He performed all the exercises it was not granted by mandate.
5. Religion: Calvinist, Anglican. Wallis studied in Emmanuel, the Puritan college, and was in good favor there. He strongly supported the Puritan cause during the Civil War. He conformed without question at the Restoration, although he remained a Calvinist theologically, in conformity with the Thirty-nine Articles.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics, Physics, Music; Wallis was probably the second most important English mathematician; during the 17th century, after Newton. He was the author of numerous books: Treatise of Angular Sections, composed in 1648, published finally in 1685; De sectionibus conicis, 1655, a pioneering analytic treatment of conics; Arithmetica infinitorum, 1656, a major contribution to integration and to infinite series; Commercium epistolicum, 1658, his exchange with Fermat on number theory; Treatise on Algebra, 1685, which includes a treatment of infinite series; Opera mathematica, 1693-9. Mechanica, sive de motu tractatus geometricus, 1669-71, an important contribution to mechanics and to the treatment of percussion (though much of it is devoted to the mathematical problem of centers of gravity). A Discourse of Gravity and Gravitation (real title is in Latin), 1674. De aestu maris hypothesis nova, 1668, a theory of the tides. He composed some papers on musical theory in Philosophical Transactions, and he editted several works on this subject.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means, Academia; Secondary Means of Support: Church Life, Patronage, Schoolmastering; He inherited a substantial estate in Kent from his mother, 1643. Ordained by the Bishop of Winchester, 1640. Private chaplain and minister to Sir Richard Darley at Buttercrambe, Yorkshire, 1640-2. Private chaplain and minister to the widow of Horatio Lord Vere, 1642-3. After deciphering a coded letter for the Parliamentary authorities, Wallis was rewarded with the sequestered living of St. Gabriel, London. He exchanged this living for St. Martin in Ironmonger Lane in 1647. Secretary to the Westminster Assembly of Divines, 1644. Fellowship at Queen's College, Cambridge, 1644-5. Savilian Professor of geometry at Oxford, 1649-1703. Custos archivarum to the University, Oxford, 1658-1703. Royal chaplain to the King, 1660. Appointed to commission to revise the prayer-book, c.1660. For instructing the deaf mute Alexander Popham he received ú100 per year for a period.
8. Patronage: Gentry, Government Official, Court Official, Eccesiastic Official; See Darley and Lady Vere above. Sir Horace Vere had been a military commander; I count him as gentry. Wallis owed his benefices in London, the fellowship at Queen's, and the professorship and position at the university archives at Oxford to the Parliamentary authorities (categorized as governmental officials). The appointment as Custos archivorum was a matter of bitter commentary in Oxford, as a royalist, whom the university community regarded as the rightful appointment, was passed over. Although Wallis' appointment must have been due to his standing as a Puritan and Parliamentarian, it is not clear precisely whose influence stood behind it. I list the appointment as secretary to the Westminster assembly under ecclesiastical official. Appointed royal chaplain to Charles II, 1660. Queen Mary II offered him the deanery of Hereford, which he declined. Though a prolific publisher, Wallis did not generally use dedications for patronage. Rather the vast majority of dedications were to scientific and academic peers--Oughtred, Rooke, Ward, Brouncker, Boyle, Moray, Hevelius, four heads of colleges in Oxford. (These dedications might bear examination.) He did dedicate Claudii Ptolemei harmonicarum libri tres, 1682, to Charles II and Opera mathematica, 1693- 9, to William III.
9. Technological Involvement: None
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London).  Informal Connections: Intimate friendship with Thomas Smith, John Collins, Edmond Halley, Samuel Pepys. Connections with Fermat, Brouncker, Frenicle, David Gregory, and Schooten. Scriba has published a very useful index of Wallis' extensive correspondence, over 800 letters excluding those on theology and university affairs. He quarreled with Hobbes, Henry Stubbe, Lewis Maydwell and Fermat. He was one of the so-called Invisible College in London in the 40s and then of the Oxford Circle that succeeded it. Later he was President of the Oxford Philosophical Society, 1684-8. Royal Society, 1660; President, 1680.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 20, 598-602. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.2, 4115-37. J.F. Scott, The mathematical Work of John Wallis, D.D., F.R.S. (1616-1703), (London, 1938). _____, 'The Reverend John Wallis, F.R.S. (1616-1703)' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960), 57-67. C.J. Scriba, 'A Tentative Index of the Correspondence of John Wallis, F.R.S.,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 22 (1967), 58-93. _____, 'The Autobiography of John Wallis, F.R.S.,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 25 (1970), 17-46. G. Udny Yule, 'John Wallis, D.D., F.R.S. (1616-1703),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 2 (1939), 74-82.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C.J. Scriba, Studien zur Mathematik des John Wallis (1616-1703). Winketeilungen, Kombinationslehre and zahlentheoretische Probleme, (Wiesbaden, 1966). _____, Introduction to Wallis, Opera mathematica, (Hildesheim, 1972).

Ward, Seth

1. Dates: Born: Aspenden, Hertfordshire, 5 April 1617; Died: London, 6 January 1689; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 72
2. Father; Occupation: Lawyer; John Ward was an attorney. Pope ways that he had a good reputation but was not rich. His own father had squandered a considerable estate. Seth Ward went to Cambridge as a sizar. I do not see how to avoid the conclusion that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Schooling: Cambridge, M.A. Oxford, D.D. Cambridge University, Sidney-Sussex College, 1632-40; B.A., 1637; M.A., 1640. D.D., 1654, from Oxford. Ward and Wallis took doctorates in theology at the same time, and all of the evidence suggests that they were serious degrees, even though both men held chairs in the university at the time.
5. Religion: Anglican; The evidence on his early stance is a trifle ambiguous. He went to Sidney-Sussex, a Puritan college. However, he refused to take the Solemn League and Covenant, and with three others (Gunning, Barwick, and Barrow) he published a discourse against its legality. He was deprived of his fellowship in 1644. Then in 1649 he took the Engagement in order to receive the Savilian chair of astronomy. It is clear that Ward was, at least by then, an ambitious young man on the make, and I do not regard his taking the Engagement as evidence of Puritan views. With the Restoration he soon became an Anglican bishop and was known as a persecuting enemy of dissenters.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Ward formulated an empty focus alternative to Kepler's law of areas. (A planet moved with uniform angular velocity around the empty focus of its ellipse.) He expounded the theory in both of his works on astronomy: Ismaelis Bullialdi astronimicae philolaicae fundamenta inquisitio brevis, 1653, and Astronomia geometrica, 1656. He also published De cometis, 1653. He published a mathematics text, Idea trigonometriae demonstratae, 1654.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Fellow of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge, 1640-4. Mathematical lecturer, 1643-4 (DNB says he was the university lecturer in mathematics; I was fairly certain that there was no such university position, but the details of the appointment sound like it was university rather than college.); When he was ejected in 1644, Ward took refuge with Samuel Ward's relatives in and around London, and with Oughtred at Albury. Afterwards he lived with the family of Ralph Freeman in Aspenden as tutor, 1644-9. He was then chaplain for a short time to Thomas Lord Wenman in Oxfordshire. Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, 1649-60. He was elected Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, 1657, but Cromwell installed another man. President of Trinity College, Oxford, 1659-60. At the Restoration the earlier president, a royalist, returned to the position and Ward was out. He was not rejected by the returning royalists, however. Vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry, 1660-1. In 1656 he had taken the precaution to be appointed precentor of the Exeter Cathedral by the non-acting bishop, and he even paid the fee. He was able to claim the position in 1660, and in 1661 received a prebend there and became Dean. Rector of Uplowman in Devonshire, 1661 (I think this went with the prebend). Rector of St. Breock in Cornwall, 1662. Bishop of Exeter, 1662-7. Bishop at Salisbury, 1667-89. Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, 1671-89.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Gentry, Eccesiastic Official, Aristrocrat; As sizar to Samuel Ward (no relation), Master of Sidney- Sussex, he won the Master's favor and gained the fellowship. (Because of lack of space I cannot list this.); He owed his ecclesiastical positions to Charles II, though also to the influence of others. In 1671 Charles restored to the Bishop of Salisbury the position of Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, after it had been alienated from the bishopric for 132 years, beginning under Henry VIII. Ralph Freeman and Lord Wenman (above). He owed his professorship of Oxford to the influence of Sir John Trevor. To Trevor he later dedicated a book. He owed his professorship partly to the recommendation of the royalist incumbent, Greaves. Owed his position of precentor of Exeter to Ralph Brownrig, Bishop in exile during the Civil War. This appointment was the foundation of all of Ward's good fortune after the Restoration. Aubrey has a great story of how the gentry of Devon exerted their influence to have Ward, the Dean, elevated to the bishopric in 1662. Pope brings in also the Duke of Albemarle and the Earl of Clarendon. Ward tutored Albemarle's son in mathematics. Ward dedicated Astronomia geometrica to a number of fellow astronomers: Paul Neile, Hevelius, Gassendi, Boulliau, and Riccioli. As a bishop, Ward himself became a patron. He endowed four (possibly six) scholarships at Christ's College, Cambridge. He received the dedication of Dr. Castle's lexicon and of the fourth volume of Oldenburg's Philosophical Transactions.
9. Technological Involvement: None; Ward was apparently responsible for making the Avon navigable to Salisbury. Nothing indicates that he was actively involved with the technical work, however.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship with Sir Charles Scarburgh and William Oughtred. Correspondence with Johann Hevelius. He was part of the Oxford group that centered on Wilkins. He was involved in a mathematical and philosophical controversy with Hobbes. Royal Society, 1660--one of the early members.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 20, 793-7. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.2, 4148-52. Walter Pope, Life of Seth, Lord Bishop of Salisbury, (Oxford, 1961). This was published originally in the 1690s. Anthony Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 246-52. John Aubrey, Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. O.L. Dick, (London, 1949), pp. 311-14. Phyllis Allen, 'Scientific Studies in the English Universities of the 17th century', Journal of the History of Ideas, 10 (1949), 219-53. Curtis A. Wilson, 'From Kepler's Laws, So-Called, to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors,' Archive for History of Exact Science, 6, no. 2 (1970), 89-170. H.W. Robinson, 'An Unpublished Letter of Dr. Seth Ward Relating to the Early Meetings of the Oxford Philosophical Society,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 7 (1949), 68-70. J.E.B. Mayor, 'Seth Ward,' Notes and Queries, 2nd ser., 7, 269- 70. Allen G. Debus, Science and Education in the 17th Century: The Webster-Ward Debate, (London, 1970).

Webster, John

1. Dates: Born: Thornton, Craven, Yorkshire, 3 February 1610; Died: Clitheroe, Lancashire, 18 June 1682; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Occupation: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Schooling: No University; He claimed once to have studied at Cambridge University. There are no records of this, and I assume that his claim was false.
5. Religion: Calvinist; A Puritan who was active on the Parliamentary side in the Civil War and did not conform at the Restoration.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Iatrochemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Mineralogy; Webster is best known for a famous attack on the university curriculum, Academiarum examen, urging laboratory observation as in chemistry, a work drawing upon the Paracelsian tradition and on Van Helmont, and indebted as well to Fludd. He published Metallographia, 1671 (possibly an earlier edition in 1661), which again displayed his debt to Paracelsus and Van Helmont. Both in England and on the continent, this book was considered an important work on metals and on minerals. He also engaged in a debate on witchcraft with Glanvill, Casaubon, and More. Webster rejected witchcraft because Glanvill, Casaubon, and More linked it with magic and the occult sciences, which Webster, the Paracelsian, defended. 7. Means of Support: Church Life, Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmastering; He was ordained in 1632. Curate of Kidwick, Craven, 1634--until the Civil War, I think. Master of the Free Grammar School at Clitheroe, 1643. Surgeon and Chaplain in the Parliamentary army, 1643-8. Vicar of Mitton, Yorkshire, c.1648 to perhaps 1653. Official minister at All Hallows (I think this is London), 1653-54. Webster was residing again in Clitheroe in 1657, when his books were seized by the authorities. Given the year and Webser's Puritanism, this episode appears to be a mystery to everyone. From that time he abandoned the ministry for good and turned to medicine to support himself for the rest of his life.
8. Patronage: Government Official; He enjoyed the favor of Parliament during the Civil War and Interregnum. The church appointments at Milton and All Hallows were his reward for service in the Puritan cause.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Informal Connections: Conflict with Ward and Wilkins on natural philosophy. Conflict with Glanvill, Casaubon, and More on witchcraft.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 20, 1036-7. Allen G. Debus, Science and Education in the Seventeenth Century: The Webster-Ward Debate, (London, 1970), pp. 1-65. _____, 'John Webster and the Educational Dilemma of the 17th Century,' Actes du XIIe Congress Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences, 1968, (Paris, 1971), 3b, 15-23. R.F. Jones, Ancients and Moderns, (St. Louis, 1961), pp. 101-14. Thomas H. Jobe, 'The Devil in Restoration Science: the Glanvill- Webster Witchcraft Debate,' Isis, 72 (1981), 342-56.

Wedel, Georg Wolfgang

1. Dates: Born: Golssen, Germany, 12 November 1645; Died: Jena, 6/7 September 1721; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 76
2. Father: Occupation: Cleric; His father, Johann Georg Wedel, was a pastor. No information on financial status. When the father died just as Wedel was completing his university studies, he was forced to give up plans to travel in order to seek income as a physician. All I can deduce from this is that the father was not wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Golssen, Germany; Career: Jena, Germany; Death: Jena, Germany
4. Education: Schooling: Jena, M.D. 1656-61, he attended the famous school in Schulpforta with a scholarship from the Elector of Saxony. 1662, University of Jena, where he studied philosophy and especially medicine. He formed a close relationship with his teacher Guerner Rolfinck. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 1667, qualified for his medical license at Jena. 1669, took his M.D. at Jena, while practicing medicine in Gotha.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine, Iatrochemistry, Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Alchemy; Wedel was one of the leading iatrochemists of his time, working under the influence of Sylvius. His medical publications leaned heavily in the pharmacological direction. He was convinced of the possibility of the transmutation of metals, and he published on alchemy. Wedel was an extremely productive author.
7. Means of Support: Medicine, Academic, Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; 1667, he practiced medicine briefly in Landsberg. Later that year, after visitng various cities and receiving his medical license, he lectured at Jena. 1667-72, he was called to Gotha as district physician. 1673, he assumed the chair of anatomy, surgery, and botany at the University of Jena. I am assuming, without definite statement but not without suggestions, that Wedel, like nearly every professor of medicine, practiced. 1673-1719, later that year, upon the death of Rolfinck, he assumed the chair of theoretical medicine. During his long career at Jena, Wedel was Rector of the university some ten times. Both Stahl and Friedrich Hoffmann were his students. 1719-21, he assumed the chair of practical medicine and chemistry. Meanwhile, in 1679 he became the personal physician to the Duke of Weimar, and in 1685 to the Prince of Saxony. And he was appointed to various ruling councils (see below). At some point during his career in Jena he purchased a country estate, which also suggests that he practiced medicine as well as taught it.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Academic; As a young man he received a scholarship from the Elector of Saxony. I assume that this scholarship obligated him to service, much like Kepler was obligated to go to Graz because of the scholarship he had received, and that this was at least partially responsible for Wedel's call to Gotha as district physician. It is stated that Duke Ernst of Sachsen-Gotha called him to Gotha. The influence of Rolfinck seems probable in Wedel's appointment at Jena. He received many state and imperial honors: 1685, Frstlich schsischer Rat und Leibarzt (Councellor and personal physician to the Prince of Saxony). 1694, Kaiserlicher Pfalzgraf (ennoblement by the Emperor as a Count Palatine. 1716, Charles VI named him Kaiserlichen Rat (Imperial Councellor). 1721, the Elector of Mainz named him Kurfrstlichen Rat (Electoral Councillor). Wedel reminds me of another German doctor of that period, Albinus, who similarly climbed the social ladder through his role as physician.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice, Pharmacology; He practiced medicine early in his career, and presumably later, albeit to a much higher strata of clientele. His medical lectures dealt with pharmaceutical chemistry, and his publications leaned heavily toward pharmaceutical questions.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: Berlin Academy, 1716; Academia Leopoldina, 1672; Wedel's extensive correspondence is catalogued by Spanke.

A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 5, 875. Ernst Giese & Benno von Hagen, Geschichte der medizinische Fakultt der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, (Jena, 1958), pp. 174-9. Fritz Chemnitius, Die Chemie in Jena von Rolfinck bis Knorr, 1629-1921, (Jena: 1929), pp. 13-14. Hildegard Spanke, 'Die Korrespondenz Georg Wolfgang Wedels (1645- 1721),' Nouvelles de la republique des lettres, 1982-3 (possibly a mistake for 1981-2), 115-31. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 41, 403.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C. Grant Loomis, 'Dissertatio de diaeta litteratorum or The Regimen of Scholars,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 11 (1942), 217-21.

Wendelin [Vendelinus], Gottfried

1. Dates: Born: Herck-la-Ville, Belgium, 6 June 1580; Died: Ghent, 1667; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Occupation: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Herck-la-Ville, Belgium; Career: Belgium; Death: Ghent, Belgium
4. Education: Schooling: Louvain; Orange, L.D. He went to school in Herck-la-Ville. 1595, he went to the Jesuit college at Tournai. c. 1598, he was in Louvain, probably attending lectures at the faculty of arts there. No B.A. is known. 1611, received J.D. from the University of Orange. (Although I am listing this, I seem also to remember that Orange was not a valid institution. Check this.)
5. Religion: Catholic. 1619, ordained a priest in Brussels.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy
7. Means of Support: Church Life; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmastering, Patronage; 1601, for a year he was the professor of Mathematics at Digne. (I am not aware of a university there; therefore, secondary level.); Afterwards he traveled extensively. 1604-11, he was tutor to the son of Andr d'Arnaud, seigneur de Miravail, lieutenant-general of the Senechal's court of Forealquier. He traveled more, then taught at the Latin school in Herck for a short period. 1619, he received the subdeaconry at Malines, and was ordained. 1620-32, curate of Geet-Bets. 1633-48, curate of Herck. 1648-58, he was an official at the cathedral in Tournai, then retired.
8. Patronage: Aristrocrat, Court Official, Eccesiastic Official; His first patron would have been Andre d'Arnaud, see above. Archduchess Isabelle conferred on him a prebendary of the canonry of the collegiate church of Notre Dame of Conde. The bishop of Tournai gave him the position at the cathedral there.
9. Technological Involvement: Cartography; He determined the latitude of Marseille and interested himself in the determination of longitudes made by Peiresc; he calculated the length of the Mediterranean independently from Peiresc's data.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Connections: corresponded with Mersenne, Gassendi, and Constantijn Huygens.

Lucien Godeaux, Biographie nationale publie par l'Acadmie royale de Belgique, 27 (1938), cols. 180-4. P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes franaises de 1610 1667,' Bulletin de la Societe d'etudes scientifiques et archeologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72.

Wepfer, Johann-Jakob

1. Dates: Born: Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 23 December 1620; Died: Schaffhausen, 26 January 1695; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 75
2. Father; Occupation: Merchant, Magistrate; His father, Georg Michael Wepfer (1591-1659), was a guildmaster, judge, and councillor in Schaffhausen. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Schaffhausen, Switzerland; Career: Schaffhausen, Switzerland; Death: Schaffhausen, Switzerland
4. Education: Schooling: Strassburg, Padua; Basel, M.D. He graduated from the Collegium Humanitatis, the secondary school of Schaffhausen. 1638, he matriculated at the University of Basel. 1639-43, University of Strasbourg. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 1644, he studied at the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Padua. He also spent time in Venice (1645) and Rome (1646). Ultimately he took an M.D. at Basel, 1647.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine, Anatomy, Pharmacology; What Fischer calls his masterwork, his study of the poison in hemlock (1679), was pharmacological in nature. Because of this work, Fischer calls Wepfer the father of experimental toxicology and pharmacology. The content of the work stretches far beyond hemlock to consider all sorts of poisonous plants. And elsewhere he carried out similar experiments on mineral poisons, in which he warned against the use of such things as arsenic, antimony, and mercury as medicines.
7. Means of Support: Medicine, Government, Patronage; 1648, he became municipal physician of Schaffhausen. He had as practice that extended through southern Germany. Though Schaffhausen had no university, Wepfer had numerous students from throughout Europe, including J.C. Payer and J.C. Brunner. 1650, he became physician of the cloister at Rheinau. He became private physician and a consultant to a variety of German princes: 1675, he became personal physician to the Duke of Wrttemberg and Markgraf Friedrich of Baden-Durlach. 1685, he became personal physician to Elector Karl of the Palatinate.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Aristrocrat, Eccesiastic Official; He was personal physician to the Duke of Wrttemberg (treating him successfully in 1691), Markgraf Friedrich of Baden-Durlach, and the Elector Karl of the Palatinate. He carried out experiments on poisons with all sorts of animals, gifts from his highly placed patients. Fischer mentions the Count von Frstenburg and Abbot Romanus of St. Blasien.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice, Pharmacology.
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Academic Leopoldina; He published in the Miscellanea curiosa of the Leopoldina. In 1685 he became a member of the Leopoldina. Wepfer carried on a very extensive correspondence with the leading medical scientists from the Germanic area of his day.

Pagel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 41, 740-1. Pietro Eichenberger, 'Autobiographisches von Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620-1695) in einem Briefwechsel mit Johann Conrad Brotbeck (1620-1677),' Gesnerus, 24 (1967), 1-23. Hans Fischer, Johann Jakob Wepfer, (Zurich, 1931).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Conrad Brunner and Wilhelm von Muralt, Aus den Briefen hervorragender Schweizer rtze des 17 Jahrhunderts, (Basel, 1919).

Wharton, George

1. Dates: Born: Strickland, near Kendal, Westmorland, 4 April 1617; Died: London, 12 August 1681 datcode: Datecode 64; Lifespan:
2. Father; Occupation: Gentry; There are two conflicting stories--his father was either a gentleman of means or a blacksmith who died when Wharton was young so that he was reared by a genteel relative. From the story of an inherited estate worth ú50 per annum I conclude that gentry is meant. In either case, it is clear that he grew up in prosperous surroundings.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Schooling: Oxford; Oxford University, 1633. Apparently he did not take a degree. Wood says that he was again a student, a member of Queen's College, in 1644, while he was there will the royalist forces. He could have received a degree, but did not take the trouble.
5. Religion: Anglican; Nothing is said about his religion, but he fought for Charles in the Civil War.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astrology; After the first turn at Oxford, Wharton studied mathematics in the north country with William Milbourne. He was known as a mathematician and calculator of almanacs, though he made no contribution to mathematics. He became virtually the official astrologer of the royalist cause, producing partisan almanacs that got him into trouble with the Parliamentary officials.
7. Means of Support: Government, Calendars. Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means, Military, Estate Administration; He inherited an estate from his father (or relative) of ú50 per year. He sold it to raise a troop of horse for the King in 1642. Wharton began to publish almanacs in 1641 and continued, possibly interrupted by the repression of the Puritan regime, until 1666. Paymaster to the magazine and artillery, 1644. Captain of horse, 1645. He served as Ashmole's agent on his estate, 1650-7. With the Restoration Wharton received his reward he was named Treasurer and Paymaster to the Office of Royal Ordnance, 1660-81.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Gentry; Although I do not list the position with Ashmole as patronage above, I think I need to include it here--very definitely a favor received. I hardly know what category, but I think Ashmole was essentially gentry after he married money. Wharton owed his governmental position after the Restoration to the King, who created him a baronet in 1677.
9. Technological Involvement: None
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Informal Connections: Battle over astrology with W.Lilly and John Booker. Lifelong friendship with Ashmole, eginning in 1645.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University; Press, 1949-50), 20 1313-14. Anthony Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti xonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 5-9. Allan Chapman, Three North Country Astronomers, (Manchester, 1982), pp. 35-6.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Edward Sherburne, 'Catalogue of Astronomers', Appendix to The Sphere of Marcus Manilius, (London, 1675).

Wharton, Thomas

1. Dates: Born: Winston-on-Tees, Durham, 31 August 1614; Died: London, 15 November 1673; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 59
2. Father; Occupation: Unknown; John Wharton; there is certainly a suggestion that he was gentry, but it is not explicit. I list him as Unknown. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Schooling: Cambridge; Oxford, M.D. Cambridge University, Pembroke College, 1637-42. I assume a B.A. Oxford University, Trinity College, 1642, 1646-7; M.D.1647. When hostilities began, Wharton moved from Oxford to London, where he studied medicine. He returned to Oxford upon the Parliamentary victory and took the M.D. the following year. Rather, he was created M.D. by virtue of a letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax. In 1652 he incorporated the degree at Cambridge.
5. Religion: Calvinist, Anglican; While nothing is said about his religion, he was clearly on the Parliamentary side in the Civil War and received aid from the Puritan authorities in obtaining his medical degree. Again nothing is said, but he seems clearly to have conformed in 1660. He was buried in an Anglican church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy, Physiology; Adenographia, 1656, the fist thorough and comprehensive account of all the glands in the body, with research into their functions. He discovered the duct of the submaxillary salivary gland and the jelly of the umbilical cord, both of which are named for him. He gave the first adequate account of the thyroid gland, which he named.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; In Oxford in the early 40s Wharton was for a time tutor to John Scrope, the natural son of Emmanuel Lord Scrope. Munk implies that Scrope was the reason Wharton moved from Cambridge to Oxford. Practice in London, 1647-73. We are told that it was a large and important practice. Wharton stayed at his post through the plague when most physicians fled. Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital, 1659-73.
8. Patronage: Aristrocrat, Government Official; Lord Scrope above. After he returned to Oxford in 1646 with the Parliamentary victory, a letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Parliamentary general, helped him obtain his medical degree. For his service during the plague Wharton received a promise of the first vacant appointment of physician in ordinary to the King. I'll leave the information, but this is too tenuous to count. In fact the King reneged on the promise.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Medical College; Informal Connections: Professional relationship with John French, Thomas Frapham, Francis Glisson, George Ent, Francis Prujean, Edward Emily and others. Royal College of Physicians, 1650 Censor 6 times, 1658- 73. Gulstonian Lecturer, 1654.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 20, 1327-9. K.F. Russell, British Anatomy, 1525-1800, 2nd ed. (Winchester, 1987). William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 255-8.  J.F. Payne, 'On Some Old Physicians of St. Thomas's Hospital,' St. Thomas's Hospital Reports, n.s. 26 (1897), 1-23.

Whiston, William

1. Dates: Born: Norton, Leicestershire, 9 December 1667; Died: Lyndon, Rutland, 22 August 1752; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 85
2. Father; Occupation: Cleric; Josiah Whiston was the Rector of Norton. No information on financial status, although there is some indication that the family was in financial straits after the death of the father in 1686, when Whiston was nineteen. He went to Cambridge that year as a sizar.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English .
4. Education: Schooling: Cambridge, M.A. School at Tamworth in Warwickshire. Cambridge University, Clare Hall, 1686-93; B.A., 1690; M.A., 1693.
5. Religion: Anglican, Heterodox; At the time he was ordained Whiston was nearly a nonjuror. During the following fifteen years he moved over into Arianism. Because he was not formally excommunicated, he nevertheless remained an Anglican until 1747, when he left the church and became a Baptist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, Natural Philosophy, Navigation; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; A New Theory of the Earth, 1696, attempted to explain the Mosaic account of creation and especially the flood by naturalistic, Newtonian principles, calling upon a comet for the deluge. Praelectiones astronomicae, 1707, and Praelectiones physio-mathematicae, 1710; the latter expecially was a general work on Newtonian natural philosophy. From 1713-44 Whiston was almost constantly engaged with a variety of methods to establish longitude at sea. Whiston published a number of mathematical treatises aimed at students--an edition of Euclid, 1703, and Newton's Arithmetica universalis, 1707. Astonomical Principles of Religion, Natural and Revealed, 1717.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Patronage, Schoolmastering; Secondary Means of Support: Church Life, Personal Means, Publishing; He inherited a small farm from his father. Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1691-8. After his M.A. he was for a time tutor to the nephew of John Tillotson. Ordained in 1693, he became Chaplain to John Moore, Bishop of Norwich, 1694-8. Vicar of Lowestoft and Kessingland, Suffolk, 1698-1701, with income of ú120. Newton's substitute lecturer in mathematics at Cambridge, 1701-3. Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, 1703-10. In 1710 he was driven from the university for openly and stridently adopting Arianism. After he was dismissed from the university, Whiston subsisted by a variety of means. He made much of his living from public lectures on science in London and elsewhere and teaching mathematics to young gentlemen. He received gifts from friends and patrons. There was an annuity of ú40 from Queen Caroline, later from George II, and somewhat later in Whiston's life another of ú20 from Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls. Mr. John Bromley gave him a major gift that Whiston acknowledged. Public subscriptions were raised to reward him: ú470 in 1721, and another of indeterminate size in 1740. Thomas Barker, a squire in Rutland whose son married Whiston's daughter, became Whiston's patron. His estate, Lyndon Hall, became a second home to the Whiston family Whiston spent the final four years of his life there, and there he died. Whiston published for income, in the early 18th century when this was first becoming seriously possible--e.g., a flyer on the solar eclipse of 1715, a pamphlet describing his instrument that he called the Copernicus, a pamphlet on striking atmospheric phenomena. I could list two other minor sources of income. He sold instruments, especially the Copernicus, at his home. And in 1742 he received a grant of ú500 from the Board of Longitude to conduct a survey of the coasts of England.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Gentry, Scientist, Aristrocrat, Eccesiastic Official; See above for Court and Gentry. He owed his ecclesiastical positions to John Moore, Bishop of Norwich. To him he dedicated a theological book in 1702. Whiston dedicated his first book, the New Theory, to Newton, and Newton was instrumental in his nomination to the Lucasian professorship. Later he dedicated Astronomical Principles of Relgion to Newton. He received support from various Whig grandees. About 1711, ú50 from Lady Caverly.
9. Technological Involvement: Navigation, Cartography, Instruments; The proposal of Whiston and Humphrey Ditton in 1714 led to the Longitude Act by Parliament. That proposal depended on the velocity of sound and the firing of rockets from places of established longitude that could be seen and then heard. Later he tried the dipping needle, solar eclipses, and the satellites of Jupiter. In 1714-15 Whiston had serious plans for a survey of the whole of England, using his method to determine longitude via the velocity of sound. In connection with his last method to determine longitude he undertook a survey of the coasts of England; it resulted in an accurate chart of the English Channel published in 1742. He invented an instrument that he called the Copernicus, a sort of elaborated armillary sphere by which he could find the conjunctions of heavenly bodies (primarily eclipses) both at times past and in the future. There was in addition his specially designed dipping needle, and a special telescope with a special platform for observing the satellites of Jupiter at sea. 10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Informal Connections: Friendship with Newton, at least for a time until his public espousal of religious views Newton strove to keep secret led to estrangement. (Along with all the rest, he was permitted to publish Newton's Arithmetica Universalis.) Whiston was nominated for the Royal Society in 1720, but rejected by Newton (who was by then alienated from him). Friendship with Richard Laughton, and Thomas Bray. Cooperation with Roger Cotes, and Humphrey Ditton. Intimate friendship with Samuel Clarke. Correspondence as well with Halley and Flamsteed.

Biographia Britannica, 6.2, 4202-16. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 10-14. James Force, William Whiston: Honest Newtonian, (Cambridge, 1985). This is the best source on Whiston. Maureen Farrell, The Life and Work of William Whiston, (New York, 1981). E.G.R. Taylor, The Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor & Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), p. 285. On Whiston's income after Cambridge, see James P. Ferguson, An Eighteenth Century Heretic, Dr. Samuel Clarke, (Kineton, 1976), p. 214. Larry Stewart, The Rise of Public Science: Rhetoric, Technology, and Natural Philosophy in Newtonian Britain, 1660-1750, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Not Available and Not Consulted: E.R. Briggs, 'English Socinianism around Newton and Whiston,' Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 216 (1983), 48-50.

White, Thomas
[Blacklo, Blacklow, Blackloe, Vitus, Albius, Anglus]

1. Dates: Born: Runwell, Essex, 1593; Died: London, 6 July 1676; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 83.
2. Father; Occupation: Gentry; Robert White appears to have been a member of the gentry, although Bradley calls him middle class. Clearly prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: Belgian Area, [Pt,] Italian, French, English; Death: English.
4. Education: Schooling: Valladolid, Seville, Louvain; Douai, D.D. The English College at St.Omer (a Jesuit college, or secondary school), before 1609. St. Albans College at Valladolid, 1609-12. The English College at Seville, 1612-14. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent somewhere along here. The English College at Louvain and at Douai, 1614-17. B.D., 1617 (listed as D.D.)
5. Religion: Catholic. Ordained in 1617 under the name Blacklo (or Blackloe or Blacklow), White was a major figure in English Catholicism. (Note that he also wrote under all the other names listed above.) The English equivalent of a Jansenist and vigorous anti-Jesuit, White was ultimately not acceptable to Rome; the Holy Office condemned his views in 1655, 1657, and 1661. However, White, while never giving in, remained a Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; White was a dedicated Aristotelian, the author of De mundo, 1642, and Institutionum peripateticarum . . . pars theorica, 1646. Scientific thought was always subordinate for him to his effort to render theology scientifically verifiable; he was the author of numerous theological works. I cannot call him a Scholastic Philosopher, however; he was much too involved with contemporary thought. White wrote quite a few theological and devotional books.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Church Life. Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Teacher of philosophy, science and theology at Douai, 1617-24. He returned to England as a priest briefly in 1623, but was soon back at Douai. Representive of the secular clergy of England at Rome, 1626-30. President and professor of Theology at English College at Lisbon, 1630-3. He returned to England as a priest once more in 1633 and was there until about 1642, when he went to Paris, where he was until about 1650. Vice-president of the English College at Douai and professor, 1650-62. After 1662, he lived in London. In most of this White's means of support are left in the dark. I do not know how he was supported as a priest in England, but I suspect it was by patronage. However, the sources I have found do not take up this issue. It is known that he lived for a time in the house of Kenelm Digby (in Paris, I believe). I would be willing to bet that investigation would reveal other relations of this sort with the Catholic gentry and nobility.
8. Patronage: Gentry, Physician; According to my general principle, someone may have stood behind those appointments. However, the refugee English Catholic institutions on the continent seem different from ordinary universities; I tend to think that their problem may have been filling their faculties. Although I am pretty well convinced that much of the time White lived on patronage, his relation with Digby is the one fully clear instance of it that I have found. He lived for a time in the house of Kenelm Digby. The full title of White's major work is Institutionum peripateticarum ad mentem summi clarissimique philosophi Kenelmi Equitis Digbaei. Two other works, Quaestio theologica and Institutiones theologicae also asserted in their full titles that they were based on the principles of Digby's philosophy, and he dedicated a book (The grounds of Obedience and Government, 1655) to Digby. It would be extraordinary if Digby ignored such accolades. It appears from the material I have seen that White did not dedicate quite a few of his books. However, he did dedicate one to his cousin Andrew White and two others to his two sisters. (I tend to find here evidence that his family was helping to support him.) He also dedicated a book to Pope Alexander VII about the time of his first condemnation by the Holy Office. White was always a thorn in the Papacy's side; who knows what the dedication meant? He also dedicated books to Dr. Edward Daniel (who was he?), Dr. Ralph Bathurst, and Charles, Earl of Scarborough. (I got this last item from Gillow. It is a mystery to me. The book in question, Euclides metaphysics, was published in 1658; the first Earl of Scarborough was created in 1680, and he was not named Charles. I do not know how to explain this, but I am not listing the item as patronage.) I cannot ignore these dedications, but it is difficult to be very sure how they were received from an outsider like White.
9. Technological Involvement: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Informal Connections: The relationship with Digby; friendship (inevitably stormy) with Hobbes.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 79-81. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 197-9fn (a footnote to the article on Digby). Robert I. Bradley, 'Blacklo and the Counter-reformation: An Enquiry into the Strange Death of Catholic England' in Charles Howard Carter, ed., From the Renaissance to the Counter Reformation, (New York, 1965), pp. 348-70. Joseph Gillow, A Literary and Biographical History, or, Bibliographical Dictionary of the English Catholics from 1534 to the Present Time, (London, 1885-1902), 5, 578-81. This contains a list of White's numerous publications.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Robert I. Bradley, Blacklo: An Essay in Counter- Reformation, unpublished Ph.D diss., Columbia University 1963. B.C. Southgate, The Life and Work of Thomas White (1593-1670), unpublished Ph.D. diss., London University, 1979.

Wieland [Guilandinus, Villandino], Melchior

1. Dates: Born: K÷nigsberg, ca. 1520 (Grafton, in disagreement with everyone else, says c. 1500.); Died: Padua, 8 January 1589; Datecode Birth Uncertain; Lifespan: 69
2. Father; Occupation: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: K÷nigsberg, Germany; Career: Middle East; Padua, Italy; Death: Padua, Italy.
4. Education: Schooling: Koenigsberg, Sapienza (Rome); He attended the University of K÷nigsberg. He studied in Rome. (I am assuming at the Sapienza.); I found nothing about a degree. 5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology
7. Means of Support: Apothecary, Patronage, Academic; He travelled as far as Sicily, supporting himself by selling medicinal herbs. He journeyed through many parts of Asia, Palestine, and Egypt with financial assistance and letters of recommendation from Senator Marino Cavalli, Venetian ambassodor to Constantinope. Eventually, after being captured by pirates and shipwrecked, he landed at Genoa, and travelled on to Venice. 1561, he was asked to suceed Anguillara as the director of the Botanical garden at Padua. He was reappointed several times to the chair of 'lecturer and demonstrator of medicinal herbs,' presumably at the University of Padua, a position he held until his death.
8. Patronage: Aristrocrat, Scientist; Senator Marino Cavalli, one of the reformatori of the Padua Studium, but earlier ambassador to Constantinople, supported his travels. Gabriele Fallopio ransomed Guildandino from the Barbary pirates for 200 scudi. Wieland dedicated Theon, 1558, to Wilhelm von Swartzburg, a Polish Count. He dedicated Epistolae de stirpibus, 1558, to Count Nicolo di Salm. He dedicated Papyrus, 1572, to Battista Grimaldi of the Genoese Grimaldi, who had aided him ten years earlier after his shipwreck.
9. Technological Involvement: Pharmacology
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Connections: He had a strong friendship with Falloppio, and a strong enmity with Mattioli. He corresponded with Aldrovandi.

G.B. de Toni, 'Melchiorre Guilandino,' in Aldo Mieli, ed., Gli scienziati italiani, 1 (Rome, 1933), 73-6. [Z7407.I8 S4] A. Grafton, 'Rhetoric, Philology, and Egyptomania in the 1570's: J.J. Scaliger's Invective against M. Guildandinus's Papyrus,' Journal of tahe Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 42 (1979), 167-94. G.E. Ferrari, 'Le opere a stampa del Guildandino,' in Antonio Barzon, ed. Libri e stampatori in Padova, Miscellanea di studi storici in onore di Mons. G. Bellini, (Padua, 1959), pp. 377-463.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Roberto De Visiani, L'Orto botanico di Padova nell'anno MDCCCXLII (Padua, 1842), 9-12. G.C. Pisanski, Nachricht von dem gelehrten K÷nigsberger Melchior Guildandin, (K÷nigsberg, 1975). John M. Riddle, 'Three Previously Unknown 16th Century Contributions to Pharmacy, Medicine and Botany--Ioannes Manardes, Franciscus Frigimelica, and Melchior Guilandinus, Pharmacy in History, 21 (1979), 143-55.

Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

1. Dates: Born: Kassel, Germany, 24 June 1532; Died: Kassel, 25 August 1592; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 60
2. Father; Occupation: Aristocrat; The previous Landgrave. I don't have a category for rulers; call him aristocracy. Obviously wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Kassel, Germany; Career: Kassel, Germany; Death: Kassel, Germany
4. Education: Schooling: No University; He was tutored at the court in Kassel by Johannes Buch and Nicholas Rhoding. In astronomical subjects he was taught by Rumold Mercator.
5. Religion: Lutheran. Wilhelm was important for his effort to close the schism between various protestant sects. More globally, between Calvinsim and Lutheranism, and more specifically between the liberal followers of Melanchton and the more conservative Lutherans.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany, Astronomy
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; 1547, while his father was imprisoned by the Emperor, Wilhelm was placed in charge of the government of Hesse. When his father was released, he stood down. Thereafter he was charged with many important duties: he represented his father at the election day at Frankfurt (1562), the negotiations with the Huguenots, and the conference with Duke Christoph von Wuerttemberg (1565). 1566, married Sabine, daughter of Christoph von Wuerttemberg. 1567, his father died. The division of property among his sons did not leave a powerful enough state for Wilhelm to carry on the kind of important foreign policy his father did, so he concerned himself with Hesse-Kassel, where he had become Landgrave. He also shared control over the University of Marburg with his brother Ludwig, Landgrave of Marburg-Kassel.
8. Patronage: None; Wilhelm supported a number of scientists. He gave stipends to the botanists Joachim Camerarius (1534-98) and Carolus Clusius (1526-1609). For a short time (1558-60) the astronomer Andreas Schoener stayed at Kassel. Wilhelm used the Marburg instrument maker Eberhardt Baldewein (1525- 1592). He brought two major figures to his court at Kassel, the instrument maker and mathematician Joost Buergi (1552-1632), and the astronomer Christoph Rothmann (c.1550-c.1605). Wilhelm gave instruments to the Elector August of Saxony and the Emperor Rudolf II.
9. Technological Involvement: Instruments; To facilitate his new star catalogue, Wilhelm had Buergi make him a number of instruments: an azimuthal quadrant, a sextant, clocks, and mechanical computing devices. In addition, Wilhelm was himself capable of designing instruments. On the design of Apian's system of rotating cardboard disks, Wilhelm constructed a system of gear-driven metal plates, which contributed to the design of the great Wilhelmsuhr. He also discussed design and made suggestions to Baldewein (and presumably Buergi) when constructing instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Connections: Wilhelm had a wide correspondence dealing particularly with botanical, but also with astronomical matters. His most notable astronomical correspondent was his good friend Tycho Brahe.

Wulther Ribbeck, 'Wilhelm IV,' Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 43 (Leipzig, 1898), 32-9. Bruce Moran, 'Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel: Informal Communication and the Aristocratic Context of Discovery,' in Thomas Nickles, ed., Scientific Discoveries: Case Studies (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980) [Q175.B66 v.60]. 'German Prince-Practitioners: Aspects in the Development of Courtly Science, Technology, and Procedures in the Renaissance,' Technology and Culture, 22 (1981), 253- 74. Ludwig Zimmermann, Der Oekonomische Staat Landgraf Wilhelms IV (Veroeffentlichungen der historischen Kommission fuer Hessen und Waldeck, 17:1) (Marburg: Elwert, 1933).

Not Available and Not Consulted: S. Schulz, Wilhelm IV, (1941).

Wilkins, John

1. Dates: Born: somewhere in Northamptonshire, 1614; Died: England, 1672; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 58
2. Father; Occupation: Merchant; His father was a goldsmith (which I take to mean a merchant) who died when Wilkins was eleven. Contrary to what was once asserted, it is by no means clear that Wilkins was reared in the home of his maternal grandfather, a Puritan clergyman. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Schooling: Oxford, M.A. He matriculated in Oxford University in 1627; B.A., 1631; M.A., 1634. D.D., 1649, incorporated at Cambridge, 1659. The degrees in theology were clearly by mandate; I am not listing them.
5. Religion: Calvinist, Anglican; Shapiro is by no means convinced that Wilkins should be called a Puritan. However, he did definitely side with the Puritan cause during the Civil War, and I am listing it.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization, Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy, Mechanics; Wilkins' primary role lay in the promotion of scientific organization, first in London, then in Oxford, and then the Royal Society back in London. His books popularized the new science, including Copernican astronomy and mechanics, without seriously adding to it.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Church Life; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Tutor of Magdalen Hall, 1634-7. Chaplain to William Fiennes, Lord Saye and Sele, 1637- c.1640. By 1641 until 1644 Chaplain to Lord George Berkeley. Chaplain to the Elector Charles Louis, the King's nephew, 1644-8. Warden of Wadham College, 1648-59. Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1659-60. Vicar of Fawsley, 1637 (briefly), succeeding his grandfather, John Dod. 1645, preacher to Gray's Inn. He resumed this post again in 1661-2. Prebendary at York, 1660. Rector of Cranford, Middesex, 1660-2. Vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry in London, 1662-6. Dean of the collegiate Church of Ripon, 1660 until his death. Vicar of Polebrook, Northamptonshire, 1666. Prebendary and precentor of Exeter, 1667. Prebendary of Chamberlain Wood in St. Paul's Cathedral, 1668. Bishop of Chester, 1668. Royal Chaplain, 1667.
8. Patronage: (Gen, ) Government Official; Court Official, Aristrocrat, Eccesiastic Official; He received the vicarage of Fawsley (virtually a chaplaincy to the family) from the Knightley family. Because I have room only for four categories, I will not list this one (Gentry), which seems the least important. Owed his D.D. degree and wardenship to Parliamentary visitors. Owed his bishopric to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, a key figure in Charles' government at the time. Owed his mastership of Trinity College to Richard Cromwell. In 1644 he became Chaplain to Charles Louis, Elector Palatine, who was in England. I list this under Court. Owed his vicarage of St.Lawrence and the prebendaries at York and Exeter to the King. Owed his bishopric partially to the influence of Laney, Bishop of Ely and Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury. The influence of Ward was important also in the appointments to St. Lawrence Jewry, Polebrooks, Exeter, and St. Paul's. Wilkins was Chaplain to Lord Saye and Sele and Lord Geroge Berkeley. From Berkeley he received the rectory at Cranford in 1660. It should be noted also that Wilkins became a figure of influence during the 60's, and as such something of a minor patron himself.
9. Technological Involvement: Mechanical Devices, Agriculture, Hydraulics, Instruments; Natural Magic had utiliarian ends in view, such things as the drainage of mines, and in general the exposition of the theoretical basis of mechanical devices. Later on Wilkins worked on an improved carriage. He developed a new plow at Wadham, and also a transparent beehive arranged so that the honey could be removed without disturbing the bees. At Wadham again he devised a machine for the gardens that would create an artifical mist. He showed the Royal Society an instrument to assist hearing. He is said to have worked on a windgun, but I am not listing it.
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Royal Society; Informal Connections: Active promoter of London weekly meetings, 1640s. Center of Oxford circle, 1648-59. Connection with Cambridge circle, 1659-60. Royal Society, 1660; First secretary,1662-8; Vice- President 1663; Member of the Council from its origin until his death.

Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.2, 4266-75. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 264-7. O.L. Dick, ed., Aubrey's Brief Lives, (Ann Arbor, 1957), pp. 319- 20. Anthony Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3. cols. pp.967-71. Barbara J. Shapiro, John Wilkins, 1614-1672: an Intellectual Biography, (Berkeley, 1969). This is undoubtedly the definitive source on Wilkins. E.J. Bowen and Harold Hartley, 'The Right Reverend John Wilkins, F.R.S.,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 15 (1960), 47-56.

Not Consulted: Grant McColley, 'The Ross-Wilkins Controversy,' Annals of Science, 3 (1938), 152-89. Dorothy Stimson, 'Dr. Wilkins and the Royal Society,' Journal of Modern History, 3 (1931), 539-63. John Wilkins, On the Principles and Duties of Natural Religion, ed. Henry G. Van Leeuwen, (New York, 1969).

Willis, Thomas

1. Dates: Born: Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, 27 January 1621; Died: London, 11 November 1675; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 54
2. Father; Occupation: Peasant/Small Farmer, Estate Administrator; Also Thomas Willis, the father was a small farmer who became the steward of the manor of Great Bedwyn. No clear information on financial status. On the one hand there is mention of an estate (no size given) that Willis inherited upon his father's death on the other hand Willis went to Oxford as a servitor.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Schooling: Oxford, M.D. Private School of Edward Sylvester in Oxford. In 1636 he became a retainer to the family of Dr. Thomas Iles, Canon of Christ Church, and in March 1637 he matriculated in Oxford from Christ Church as servitor (or batteler) to Dr. Iles. Aubrey says that Willis was related to Iles. Oxford University, Christ Church, 1637 B.A., 1639 M.A., 1642 M.B., 1646, and license. Created M.D. in 1660. (This degree was obviously by mandate however, I list the earlier medical degree.)
5. Religion: Anglican; Willis started in Oxford intending to follow a career in the church. When the Civil War made that appear chancy, he turned to medicine. Meanwhile he fought on the royalist side in the war, and later he made his chambers in Oxford available for Anglican services during the Puritan interregnum. He married a daughter and sister of the two Fells, Deans of Christ Church. Later he endowed prayers at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in the early morning and late evening when working people could attend.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Iatrochemistry, Pharmacology; In the late 40s and early 50s Willis engaged in chemical experimentation in Oxford. All his life he remained a follower of the Paracelsian school of iatrochemistry, and its teachings (e.g., on fermentation) showed up in his books. His first book was Diatribae duae medico-philosophicae, 1659 (one on fermentation, the other on fevers). His great book was Cerebri anatome, 1664, the basic foundational text on the anatomy of the central nervous system. The work, which embraced the concept of circulation of the blood and the corpuscular philosophy, was as much concerned with physiology as with anatomy. In this book the term 'reflex action' was first used. He described what is still called the circle of Willis and comprehended its function. Willis's lectures as Sedleian Professor ranged over the whole of physiology. Author also of Pathologiae cerebri et nervosi generis specimen, 1667, a clinical study, and of De anima brutorum, 1672. Willis was well schooled in the comparative anatomy of nervous systems. Willis attempted to bring anatomy, physiology, and chemistry to bear on clinical findings. His casebooks on various epidemics were filled with acute observations, including the first clinical description of typhus fever. He initiated the English tradition of epidemiology. He identified saccharin diabetes. He was the author of several medical works. Pharmaceutice rationalis, 1674-5, with case histories, post mortems, and therapies, attempted to establish pharmacology as a science based on anatomy, morbid anatomy, and chemical experimentation. The book is not considered a success. However, Willis contributed to the acceptance of quinine and reintroduced the colchicine therapy of gout, and he invented several medicines.
7. Means of Support: Medicine, Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmastering, Military; Willis served in the royalist army from 1643-6, studying medicine all the while and taking his M.B. degree in 1646. Practiced medicine at Oxford, 1646-67. After a slow beginning, it became a very prosperous practice. Tax returns show that he was ultimately making ú300 per year, the highest income in Oxford. In Oxford Willis gave private lessons in anatomy, medicine, and chemistry. Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy at Oxford, 1660- 75. Willis kept the chair until his death, even though he was in London during the last eight years. Practised in London, 1667-75, again a lucrative practice. Wood says that no previous physician 'got more money yearly than he.'
8. Patronage: Academic, Eccesiastic Official; The patronage of Thomas Iles, who enabled Willis to receive a university education, was fundamental to the whole of his career. As a confirmed royalist, accepted even though he must have taken the Engagement, Willis got his reward with the Restoration. He was created M.D., making him eligible to practise legally in London. To Archbishop Gilbert Sheldon he dedicated Cerebri anatome, 1664, explicitly stating that Sheldon's influence had led to the professorial appointment, and he stated this again in the dedication of De anima brutorum, 1672. However, their relationship took a giant step forward in 1666, when Sheldon had a stroke in Oxford and was deeply impressed by Willis' treatment of it. Sheldon invited Willis to migrate to London, which he did in 1667. Among other things he was of course Sheldon's physician, but it would seem that Sheldon's influence and connections had something to do with that enormous practise.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice, Pharmacology; See above. Willis had a secret prescription, composed of solutions of iron and sulfur, which he used throughout his career and refused to divulge. With Lower he discovered the medicinal properties of the spring at Astrop, which he helped to made popular.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: Royal Society, Medical College; Informal Connections: Had as assistants Richard Lower, Robert Hooke, Edmund King, and John Masters. (It was Willis who recommended Hooke to Boyle.) Cooperation with Ralph Bathurst and John Lydal. Philosophical club of Oxford (precursor to the Royal Society), 1648-1650s. Royal Society, 1667. Willis was on the list of potentially interested men compiled at the organizing meeting in 1660. He formally became a member when he moved to London. Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, 1664. This was a special status contrived during the Restoration to expand the ranks of those licensed to practise legally in London.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 496-7. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 338-42. Anthony Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3, 1048-53. Hansruedi Isler, Thomas Willis 1621-1675: Doctor and Scientist, (New York, 1968). Audrey Davis, Circulation Physiology and Medical Chemistry in England 1650-1680, (Lawrence, Kansas, 1973). Kenneth Dewhurst, Thomas Willis as a Physician, William Clark Memorial Library Lecture, (Los Angeles, 1964). _____, ed., Thomas Willis's Oxford Lectures, (Oxford, 1980). The introduction to this volume is the best source on Willis that I found. Solomon Diamond, 'Introduction' to Willis, Two Discourses Concerning the Soul of Brutes, tr. S. Pordage, (Gainesville, Florida, 1971), pp. v-x.

Not Available and Not Consulted: T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 152-71. Alfred Meyer and Raymond Hierons, 'On Thomas Willis's Concepts of Neurophysiology,' Medical History, 9 (1965), 1-15. Kenneth Dewhurst, 'Willis in Oxford: Some New Manuscripts,' Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 57 (1961), 682-7. _____, ed., Willis's Oxford Casebook (1650-52), (Oxford, 1981).
Humphrey Rolleston, 'Thomas Willis,' Medical Life, 41 (1934), 177-91. Charles Symonds, 'Thomas Willis, F.R.S. (1621-1675),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960), 91-7.

Willughby [Willoughby], Francis

1. Dates: Born: Middleton, Warwickshire, 22 November 1635; Died: Middleton, 3 July 1672; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 37.
2. Father; Occupation: Gentry; His father, also Francis Willughby, of Middleton Hall, Warwickshire, was a wealthy landowner. His mother was the daughter of the first Earl of Londonderry. Clearly the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English .
4. Education: Schooling: Cambridge, M.A. Padua; Sutton Coldfield School. Cambridge University, 1652-5 B.A., 1655 M.A., 1659. Willughby was a Fellow-Commoner of Trinity College. While he was in Padua during the winter of 1663-4, Willughby matriculated in the university.
5. Religion: Anglican (by assumption).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History, Zoology, Entomology; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; With Ray Willughby undertook to do a complete natural history, he doing the animals, birds, fish, and insects, and Ray doing the plants. Apparently his greatest interest was in entomology he published papers on insects in the Philosophical Transactions. He and Ray made a number of natural history expeditions, both in Britain and on the continent, together. His surviving papers show significant interest in botany.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Willughby lived entirely on inherited wealth from his family. In 1671 he inherited an additional estate from a kinsman, Sir William Willughby.
8. Patronage: None Willlughby was rather a patron himself--of John Ray, to whom he gave a home after he was ejected from Cambridge and later an annuity of ú60.
9. Technological Involvement: None
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Royal Society; Informal Connections: Lifelong friendship and association with John Ray. Collaboration with Philip Skippon, Nathaniel Bacon, and Francis Jessop. Royal Society, 1663.

Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 8, 4300-2. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 525-8. L.C. Maill, The Early Naturalists, Their Lives and Work (1530- 1789), (London, 1912), pp.99-130. Charles E. Raven, John Ray, Naturalist: His Life and Works, (Cambridge, 1941), passim. Mary A. Welch, 'Francis Willoughby, F.R.S. (1635-1672),' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 6 (1971), 71-85. There is not a great deal of information about Willughby it is hard to imagine a more definitve piece on him than this. John Ray, 'Preface,' The Ornithology of Francis Willughby, (London, 1678).

Not Available and Not Consulted: 'Memoir of Francis Willughby,' in Jardine's Naturalists' Library, (London, 1833-43). There is a memoir on Willughby somewhere in this forty volume set, but my reference was apparently defective.

Wing, Vincent

1. Dates: Born: North Luffenham, Rutland, 9 April 1619; Died: North Luffenham, 20 September 1668; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 49
2. Father; Occupation: Peasant/Small Farmer; Also Vincent Wing, he was a small farmer. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English. Apparently he resided in Rutland his whole life.
4. Education: Schooling: No University; Little formal education.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, Astrology; Subordinate Disciplines: Cartography; His first book Urania practica, 1649, was Ptolemaic. Soon thereafter he was converted to Copernicanism, and by 1651 he had accepted Keplerian astronomy as expounded by Boulliau. Astronomia britannica, posthumous, 1669 (DNB says there was a first edition in 1652), and other astronomical works. He was always equally involved in astrology. Geodates practicus: or the Art of Surveying, 1664.
7. Means of Support: Engineering, Astrology, Calendars; Wing supported himself as a surveyor, Almanac compiler, astrologer and prolific writer of astronomical works. The almanac he compiled (a single sheet, of which I have seen one) is said to have sold some 50,000 copies per year. He published it for twenty-eight years, and its success is attested by the fact that it went on, under his name, long after his death. He also published a book, which I have seen, on surveying, and he appears to have earned much of his living from surveying.
8. Patronage: Unknown. Gadbury alludes to protectors but does not name anyone. He does dedicate his own pamphlet on Wing to Edward Deering, 'His Majesties Merchant, and Receiver General of his Majesties Revenues in the counties of Kent, Essex, Surrey, etc.,' in a way that implies Deering was Wing's patron.
9. Technological Involvement: Cartography; That is, surveying.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Informal Connections: Collaboration with William Leybourn. Correspondence with Flamsteed. Friendship with John Gadbury. Wing was in frequent disputes over astronomical and especially astological issues.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 650-1. John Gadbury, A Brief Relation of the Life and death of the Late Famous mathematician and Astrologer, Mr Vincent Wing, (London, 1670). This pamphlet, by a fellow astrologer, is mostly a defense of astrology rather than a life of Wing. J.B.J. Delambre, Histoire de l'astronomie moderne, 2, (Paris, 1821), 519-24.

Winslow, Jacob

1. Dates: Born: Odense, Denmark, 17 April 1669; Died: Paris, 3 April 1760; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 91
2. Father; Occupation: Cleric; Peder Winslow, dean of the Lutheran Church of Our Lady in Odense. Winslow was the grand nephew of Stensen. No information about the financial status of the family.
3. Nationality: Birth: Denmark; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: Schooling: Copenhagen, Leiden; Paris, apparently M.D. in Paris; He entered the University of Copenhagen to study theology in 1687, but rather quickly he discovered medicine. 1691-6, attended what is called Borch's College (the College of Medicine founded by Ole Borch), where he worked under a barber-surgeon named Buchwald. However, the sight of blood alarmed him, so that he never really practiced surgery (though he did write some on it). Before he left Denmark, he earned a bachelor's degree, a bachelor of medicine apparently. As usual I assume the equivalent of a B.A. About 1696, he was prosector for Caspar Bartholin (the younger). He was soon nominated for anatomicus regius (a position he never held because of his conversion to Catholicism). 1697, with a royal grant he went abroad to study anatomy. He was in the Netherlands for fourteen months he studied in four different cities (Leiden, Amsterdam, The Hague, Haarlem) and thus not really at any university. (I ammend that I do not see how he could study medicine in Leiden and not be associated with the university.) He then moved on to Paris. A few years after he arrived in Paris (in 1704 to be exact) he earned the licenciate (the equivalent of another bachlor of medicine) which carried the right to practice. In 1707 he added an M.D.
5. Religion: Lutheran, Catholic. Born Lutheran. converted in Catholicism in 1699, soon after he arrived in France.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy. Subordinate Disciplines: Physiology, Surgery. Winslow was regarded as the greatest anatomist of the early 18th century. His Exposition anatomique de la structure du corps humain, 1732, was translated into English, German, Italian, and Latin by 1775 it had come out in thirty-two separate editions.
7. Means of Support: Government, Medicine, Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Winslow went to the Netherlands with a grant from the Danish government; it was terminated when he converted to Catholicism. Bishop Bossuet and other French patrons supported him during the transitional period. In 1704 he received the status of medical licenciate that enabled him to practice in Paris. He maintained a busy practice, and became physician to two hospitals. He became an assistant in anatomy and surgery at the Jardin du Roi. c.1705, Duverney took Winslow as his pensionnaire. 1708, Associate member of the Academie des Sciences. Full member in 1722. In 1721 he was appointed Professor of Surgery at the Faculty of Medicine. 1728, Docteur-regent of the Faculty of Medicine. 1743, Professor at the Jardin du Roi; held this post until 1758.
8. Patronage: Scientist, Government Official, Eccesiastic Official, Unknown; R÷mer spotted Winslow when he was a student. He introduced Winslow to Mathias Moth, a privy counsellor; these two arranged the grant that enabled Winslow to travel abroad to study. See details above for Bossuet. For all his talent, Winslow needed patrons for the various appointments in Paris, and I have not seen who they were.
9. Technological Involvement: Medicine
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: AcadÉmie Royal des Sciences, Berlin Academy; Member of the Academie in 1722. Member of the Berlin Academy.

Egell Snorrason, L'anatomiste J-B Winslow, 1669-1760, (Copenhagen, 1969).  Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 15, 606-7. T. Vetter, 'La vie active de Jacques-Benigne Winslow,' Nordisk medicinhistorisk arsbok (1971), 107-29. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus cÉlbres de la FacultÉ de MÉdecine en l'UniversitÉ de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 203- 9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: V. Maar, L'autobiographie de J.B. Winslow, (Paris and Copenhagen, 1912). _____, 'Lidt om J-B. Winslow,' in Festschrift til Julius Petersen.

Winthrop, John

1. Dates: Born: Groton Manor, Suffolk, England, 12 February 1606. Died: Boston, Mass., 5 April 1676, Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 70.
2. Father; Occupation: Gentry; Also John Winthrop, he was from the gentry. Obviously prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English colonial society; Death: English colonia society
4. Education: Schooling: Trinity (Dublin); Grammar School at Bury St. Edmunds. Trinity College, Dublin--no degree. Read Law at the Inner Temple, 1624-7.
5. Religion: Calvinist; A Puritan very prominent in New England.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy, Alchemy; It is hard to know how to categorize Winthrop, a problem made more acute by his isolation in a frontier community. He was interested in natural phenomena of all sorts. He had a telescope and he observed the heavens, though not as a professional astronomer. He was the first scientific investigator of note in British North America. He was a devoted student of hermetic philosophy with the reputation of being an adept. He collected an extensive library on alchemy.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means, Government, Agriculture; Secondary Means of Support: Merchant, Medicine; Winthrop's parents were very well to do gentry. As an infant he was heir to a good estate from his grandfather and more followed before he was twenty. In 1631 he joined his father in New England. It is hard to judge what happened to the estate in the transfer to wilderness colonies. On the one hand, he was always in debt, and his finances were always chaotic. On the other hand, he always had large grants of land. Assistant to Governor in New England, 1634, 35, 40, 41, 44-49. According to Black, Winthrop was appointed Governor of Connecticut by the projectors in England planning the colony. The early appointments are funny in that Connecticut did not then exist it was a plan in the mind of some entrepreneurs. However, he apparently got a salary. Magistrate of Connecticut, 1651--I do not known whether this carried a salary, considering what reality in Connecticut was then. Governor of Connecticut, 1657-76--this position definitely carried a salary, albeit not a huge one. Throughout his life in New England, Winthrop engaged in a continuous succession of commercial enterprises--ironworks, black lead, salt-making, a saw mill in New London, speculation in sugar. Little or nothing came from any of them. He always had agricultural land in New England. He raised and sold a lot of animals. In 1650 he moved to his agricultural estate in New London. Winthrop began to practise medicine in the late 40s by his death he was recognized as the leading physician in New England, granting always that physicians were extremely rare. About 1650 his correspondence became heavily medical; he was consulted by mail from all over New England and even New York. He frequently gave remedies free to the poor and lodged them in his home one stayed a full year. From others he definitely received payment.
8. Patronage: None; I am unsure how to treat the projectors in England who appointed Winthrop to positions, but in the end I see enough peculiarities here that I am unwilling to call it patronage.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice, Pharmacology, Agriculture, Metallurgy; He was the leading physician in Connecticut, even though he had no formal medical education. He treated a large number of people, and he was always concerned with pharmacology, especially of the Paracelsian kind. He made heavy use of nitre and of antimony, although he also used herbal remedies. He devised some new remedies, especially one he called rubila, made up of nitre, antimony, and a touch of salt of tin. In the Philosophical Transactions he published a paper on 'The Description, Culture, and Use of Maize.' The iron works. Possibly I could list the salt works as practical chemistry, but evaporating sea water hardly seems like applied chemistry.
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Royal Society; Winthrop carried on an extensive correspondence with scientific circles in England. Royal Society, 1662.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 702-3. Robert C. Black, The Younger John Winthrop, (New York and London, 1966). This is easily the best source I have found. Ronald S. Wilkerson, ''Hermes Christianus:' John Winthrop, Jr. and Chemical Medicine in Seventeenth Century New England,' in Allen Debus, ed., Science, Medicine and Society in the Renaissance: Essays to Honor Walter Pagel, (New York, 1972), 1, 221-41. Charles A. Browne, 'The Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of Chemical Industry in America,' Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 11 (1919), 16-19.

Witt, Jan de

1. Dates: Born: Dordrecht, 25 September 1625; Died: The Hague, 20 August 1672; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 47
2. Father; Occupation: Merchant, Governmental Official; De Witt came from a patrician family of Dordrecht which moved in the 16th centurky from commerce into governmental administration. De Witt's father was a younger son who initially operated the family lumber business. But he held governmental positions, one of which is described as lucrative. Rowen speaks of his transformation from a merchant capitalist into a regent. In describing the family's finanical position, Rowen speaks of solid prosperity but not dazzling wealth.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch.
4. Education: Schooling: Leiden; Angers, LD; De Witt attended Beeckman's school in Dordrecht. He matriculated in Leiden in 1641 to study law. There is no mention of a degree, but in light of the rest I will assume a B.A. or its equivalent. He went on the grand tour (or France). At the University of Angers (a Protestant university) he received a doctorate of law in 1645.
5. Religion: Calvinist; His father was treasurer of the Synod of Dort.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics
7. Means of Support: Personal Means, Government, City Magistrate; De Witt had an inheritance of 10,000 guilders from his mother and a dowry of 50,000 with his wife. Not long after the marriage, his wife further inherited 110,000 from her mother. By the time of his death de Witt had built a considerable fortune by prudent management Rowen estimates it as roughly the equivalent of $2 million in our pre- inflation money--or $4 or $5 million in current terms. De Witt became Pensionary of Dordrecht (a governmental official) in 1650. In 1653 he became Councillor Pensionary of the province of Holland, the chief official of the province. The position carried initially a salary of 3,000 guilders, a figure later increased to 6,000. In additon De Witt became Keeper of the Seal in 1661--a salary of 4,000.
8. Patronage: None.
9. Technological Involvement: Applied Mathematics; De Witt composed The Worth of Life Annuities Compared to Redemption; Bonds, a practical work that applied the principles of probability to issues of state finance.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None

H.H. Rowen, John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, 1625-1672, (Princeton, 1678). Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek.

Wittich, Paul

1. Dates: Born: Breslau, c.1546; Died: Vienna, 9 January 1586; Datecode Birth Uncertain; Lifespan: 40
2. Father; Occupation: Unknown; Although nothing is known about the father, we do know that Wittich's uncle, Balthasar Sartorius, was a physician in Breslau. I think we have to say that the family was at least affluent. Wittich appears never to have been under pressure to develop a career rather he travelled around, perhaps teaching some, but not even that in any clearly organized way. He was well enough to do that he was able to own four copies of Copernicus' De revolutionibus, which was quite an expensive book.
3. Nationality: Birth: Breslau, Silesia [now Wroclaw, Poland]; Career: Germany; Death: Vienna.
4. Education: Schooling: Leipzig, Wittenberg, Franfurtan Order; Wittich matriculated at Leipzig in 1563. He matriculated at Wittenberg in 1566. He matriculated Frankfurt an der Oder in 1576. There is no mention of a degree from any of them.
5. Religion: Lutheran (by assumption); During Wittich's lifetime, Breslau was in a section of Silesia which, though the Reformation had advanced far, was not entirely protestant (see Hubert Jedin et al., eds., Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte (Freiburg: Herder, 1970), p. 73, 76 [Ref. G1046.E4 A88]).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Astronomy; Wittich is known for two things, his method of prosthaphaeresis, a method based on trigonometric identities that allowed you to multiply and divide by adding and subtracting trigonometric functions (a predecessor of logarithms) and his notes commenting on Copernaicus's De revolutionibus, where something like the Tychonic system appears.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmastering, Patronage; I need to be clear that the role of personal means is inferred by me rather than stated in the sources. Wittich never had to pursue a career and he was able to travel around Germany pretty much at will. In the summer of 1580, he arrived at Hveen with a letter of introduction from Hagecius, and worked with Tycho Brahe for four months at Uraniborg. He left Hveen 'temporarily' to collect on an inheritance from a rich uncle (or so he claimed), and never returned. 1582-5, he taught mathematics in Breslau. Gingerich and Westman say that he was an itinerant humanistic tutor to men who valued astronomy, but frankly I did not see the evidence on which this assertion was based. In 1584 he was in Kassel, and he left before 1586. According to Gnther, he worked for the Landgrave as an observer, though this doesn't seem to jibe with his ability, which was as a mathematician and not an astronomer. He is known, though, to have passed on certain mathematical formulae and information about Tycho's instruments to the Landgrave.
8. Patronage: Scientist, Court Official; Since he stayed on Hveen for four months, Tycho should certainly be counted as a patron inasmuch as he supported his guests and assistants with room and board at least. Wittich and Tycho were students together at Wittenberg, and Wittich was a valuable collaborator to Tycho. Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse, was probably also a patron of sorts, though little detail is known about Wittich's stay in Kassel. I do find in a letter by Tycho that Wilhelm gave Wittich a gold chain in return for his suggestions about improving his instruments. An obituary of Wittich clearly implies that he was enjoying the patronage of the Emperor when he [Wittich] died.
9. Technological Involvement: Instruments; For the Landgrave Wittich designed an astrolabe. He also talked about the design of astronomical instruments, though it is far from clear that he was doing more in this respect than passing on information about Tycho's instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Connections: He worked with Tycho Brahe in 1680, and at least visited, and perhaps worked with, Joost Brgi and Wilhelm IV. Wittich corresponded with Hagecius (a court physician in Prague). He was a friend of Dudith in Breslau, and of Praetorius in Nuremberg.

Gunther, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 43, 637. Victor E. Thoren, 'Tycho Brahe as the Dean of a Rennaissance Research Institute,' in Margaret Osler et al., eds., Religion, Science, and Worldview (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 281-2. 2.Victor E. Thoren, The Lord of Uraniborg: A Biography of Tycho Brahe, (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 236-49, 267-71, 280-3. Owen Gingerich and Robert Westman, The Wittich Connection: Conflict and Priority in Late Sixteenth-Century Cosmology, (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 78, Pt. 7), (Philadelphia, 1988).

Wolff, Christian

1. Dates: Born: Breslau, 24 January 1679; Died: Halle, 9 April 1754; Datecode: Dates Certain; Lifespan: 75.
2. Father: Occupation: Artisan; The father, also Christian Wolff, was a tanner, a man of intellectual ambitions which had been denied by the material conditions of his life. He did his best to see that his son was not denied. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Breslau, Silesia; Career: Germany; Death: Halle, Germany
4. Education: Schooling: Jena; Leipzig, M.A. Went to school in Breslau at the Magdalenengymnasium. 1699, spent three years at Jena studying mathematics and theology. B.A. 1702, M.A., Leipzig.
5. Religion: Lutheran. Because of the rationalism and determinism of Wolff's philosophy, the orthodox Lutherans of Halle denounced him in 1623. The charge led, via intricate byways on which the King of Prussia was to be found, to Wolff's summary dismissal from Halle, though he was later vindicated. It appears that Wolff never considered himself to be outside the fold.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Wolff's first interest was mathematics. Although he made no original contribution to the discipline, he was an important figure in the teaching of mathematics who was instrumental in introducing the new mathematics into German universities. After the early years teaching mathematics, he was primarily a philosopher who developed the most impressive coherent system of the 18th century. Natural philosophy was never his sole or primary enterprise in philosophy. Thoroughly eclectic, influenced by Leibniz and Descartes, he nevertheless continued fundamental themes of Aristotle. His system was important in making the discoveries of modern science known in Germany.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmastering, Publishing; After receiving his M.A. Wolff became a Privat-dozent in mathematics at Leipzig. He was also active on the Acta eruditorum, writing essays. Although the sources are not explicit, they certainly imply that this was paid employment, not volunteer effort. 1706, professor of mathematics and natural science, University of Halle, at a salary of 200 thaler. After 1709 also professor of philosophy. In 1721 he was rector of the university. 1723, dismissed from Halle for his deternministic tendencies. Immediately in the same month, appointed professor, University of Marburg at a salary of 1000 thaler. He was also given the title of Hoffrat. In 1740, after he was called by Frederick the Great, he finally settled again in Halle as professor of natural and human law, with a pension of 2000 thaler from the Academy. He was Chancellor of the university in 1743. It is difficult to know for sure what part patronage (as distinct from university salaries awarded by patronage) played in his support. However, he was constantly receiving gifts, including heavy gold medals, and he was lionized by the ruling circles of much of Europe. I find it impossible to believe that the income from patronage was less than considerable.
8. Patronage: Academic, Scientist, Court Official, Eccesiastic Official; Johann Burkhard Mencke was a great influence, and probably acted as a patron, to the young Wolff. While two professors at the university, Hoffman and Stryck, approached Wolff about the post at Halle, Leibniz wrote to the Obercurator von Danckelman at Hoffman's request, recommending Wolff for the post. Tschirnhaus also gave his support. An offer to go to Wittenberg was checked by the King with an additional 100 thaler salary and the title Hoffrat. When Wolff was driven from Halle, the Landgraf of Hessen- Cassel immediately appointed him to Marburg at a large salary. The ruler of Saxony tried to get him to come to Leipzig. When the Landgraf Carl died and was succeeded by Friedrich I, King of Sweden, the new ruler of Hessen-Cassel expressed his support of Wolff by a gold medal that weighed 60 ducats. Catholics came to Wolff's defense after the debacle at Halle, and subsequently Wolff, a most prolific author, dedicated books to Card. Polignac, Card. Fleury, Abbe Bignon, the Bishop of Krakaw, and other Catholic ecclesiastics. Catherine I of Russia guaranteed Wolff a pension if he should ever choose to come to Russia. Frederick the Great, who had himself translated one of Wolff's books into French, called him back to Halle in 1740, as soon as he succeeded to the throne, as professor and Geheimrat. As Frederick's father was dying, Wolff had dedicated a book to Frederick, and he subsequently dedicated no less than fifteen others to him. 1745, he was named named Freiherr von Wolff through the initiative of Maximilian III of Bavaria. Wolff had become a figure of enormous prominence. He received offers from all over as his fame spread, from a number of German universities (or really the rulers of the states in question) and one from Peter I of Russia, but he remained in Germany. After Friedrich Wilhelm realized what had happened, he tried to bring Wolff back to Prussia in 1733 at a very high salary, and a second time in 1736, offering this time to let Wolff set his own conditions. Louis XV sent Wolff the two sumptuously printed volumes of the catalogue of the royal library, a gift reserved for the monarchs of Europe and for the most outstanding men of learning.
9. Technological Involvement: None
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: Royal Society, AcadÉmie Royal des Sciences, Berlin Academy, Russian Academy (St. Petersburg); He was a member of the Royal Society; the Societatem Berolinensem, Rome (1711); the Academie Royale; the Berlin Academy; and the St. Petersburg Academy. His correspondence with Leibniz (from 1702 until Leibniz's death in 1716) has been published.

W. Schrader, 'Wolff,' Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 44 (Leipzig, 1898), 12-32. Zedler, 58, cols 549-677. Christian Wolff, Christian Wolffs eigene Lebensbeschreibung, (Leipzig, 1841.) Hellmuth R÷ssler and Gunther Franz, Biographisches W÷rterbuch zur deutschen Geschichte, 3 (Mnchen, 1975), 3234-6. Paul Edwards, ed. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (New York, 1967), 8, 340-4. Lewis White Beck, 'Wolff,' in Beck, Early German Philosophy: Kant and His Predecessors, (Cambridge, MA, 1969), pp. 256-75. F.W. Kluge, Christian von Wolf, der Philosoph, (Breslau, 1831). There is an enormous literature on Wolff and yet curiously little that is biographical. Kluge is far and away the best treatment of his life that I have succeeded in finding.

Woodward, John

1. Dates: Born: Derbyshire, 1 May 1665 One passage in one letter by Woodward seems to place his birth rather in 1668. Died: London, April 1728; Datecode Birth Uncertain; Lifespan: 63
2. Father; Occupation: Unknown; Woodward was said to be the son of a man of good family. Whatever that may mean, he was apprenticed, without university education, to a linen draper at the age of sixteen. The father need not have been poor; clearly he was not affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Schooling: No University; A country school where he did acquire a command of Latin and some Greek. No university education; he learned medicine by apprenticeship in the household of Peter Barwick, physician of the King, 1684-8. M.D., awarded by special dispension of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1695, what was called a Lambeth degree. M.D., granted by Cambridge, 1697. I do not list either of the M.D.'s.
5. Religion: Anglican; Woodward considered his theory of the earth to be a defense of Scripture. At his death he received the final sacrament of the church and professed his Anglican faith, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History, Geology, Paleontology; Subordinate Disciplines: Mineralogy, Botany, Medicine; Woodward's interests ranged very widely over natural history and antiquities. On excursions, which started early in his medical career, he studied both plants and minerals, and especially fossils. Essay Toward a Natural History of the Earth, 1695, which established his reputation, advanced a theory to explain stratification (and the fossils embedded in strata) by the deposit of debris out of the deluge. He insisted that fossils were the remains of once living animals and plants, and he related fossils to specific rock formations. He formed a large collection of fossils and minerals, many of which were sent to him from abroad. He attempted to classify them--Naturalis historia telluris, 1714; Fossils of All Kinds Digested into a Method, 1728, which is primarily a classification of minerals (included in the generic term 'fossil') An Attempt Towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, posthumous, 1729, dealing with minerals as well. He also wrote an unpublished treatise on the natural history of ores and metals. He is considered the first major figure in English geology. Woodward carried out systematgic experimentation on plant nutrition in the early 90s, demonstrating for the first time that water taken in by the roots is exhaled (or transpired as the word is now). An article on this was published in the Philosophical Transactions. Woodward published one medical work, The State of Physick and of Diseases, 1718, in the he condemned the method of treatment of smallpox used by Mead and Freind. A bitter quarrel, not the only one in Woodward's career, followed. He lectured on the bile to the Royal College of Physicians. He is said to have been recognized as an authority on comparative anatomy. He did leave behind a paper more or less on it, but that is all the evidence I find. He also worked some in meteorology, relating a rising barometer to rainy weather.
7. Means of Support: Medicine, Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Apprenticed to a linen draper, 1680. Dr. Peter Barwick discovered him, took him into his home for four years (1684- 8), and educated him in medicine and much else. He pursued a good practice in London throughout his career. Munk, however, makes very derogatory comments about his capacity as a physician. Professor of physic at Gresham College, 1692-1728.
8. Patronage: Physician, Eccesiastic Official, Government Official; Peter Barwick, physician of the King. Barwick, together with Plot and others, stood behind the Gresham appointment. Created M.D. by Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was his supporter in the controvery about fossils and the deluge. Woodward dedicated his Essay Toward a Natural History of the Earth, 1695, to Sir Robert Southwell, an eminent governmental servant who was then President of the Royal Society. Southwell had been one of those involved in obtaining the Greshman appointment for Woodward, and he remained a supporter of Woodward's theories of the earth. Woodward did not dedicate all that much. He did dedicate one secton, on the classification of minerals, of Naturalis historia telluris, 1714, to Newton. In view of what happened at the Royal Society in 1710, I am not able to count this as patronage--possibly angling for patronage, but not the realiation of it. Woodward bequeathed his collection to Cambridge together with money to found the Woodwardian Professorship of Geology.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: Royal Society, Medical College; Informal Connections: Friendship with Peter Barwick and Robert Southwell. At one time he was also friendly with Robert Plot and Edward Lhwyd, but Woodward was arrogant, touchy, and quarrelsome, and he made enemies of other naturalists. Correspondence with Scheuchzer, Lister, Hearne, Leibniz, Cotton Mather, and others. Levine has a lot of detail about Woodward's extensive correspondence, centering on fossils. The correspondence (now located at the Royal Society, the British Library, the Bodleian, some library in Zurich) was very wide. He would make an excellent subject for a study of informal circles in the scientific community. Royal Society, 1693. Frequently on the Council. Royal College of Physicians, 1703; Censor, 1703, 1714. Gulstonian Lecturer, 1711.

Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.2, 4325-34. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21 894-6. John Ward, The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, (London, 1740), pp. 283-301. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 2, 6-10. Joseph M. Levine, Dr. Woodward's Shield, (Berkeley, 1977). V.A. Eyles, 'John Woodward, F.R.S. (1665-1728) Physician and Geologist,' Nature, 206 (1965), 868-70. _____, 'John Woodward, F.R.S., F.R.C.P., M.D. (1665-1728): a Bio - bibliographical Account of his Life and Work,' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 5 (1971), 399-427. H.H. Thomas, 'Experimental Plant Biology in Pre-Linnean Times,' Bulletin of the British Society for the History of Science, 2 (1955), 15-22.

Worm, Ole

1. Dates: Born: Aarhus, Denmark, 13 May 1588; Died: Copenhagen, 31 August 1654; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 66 2.His father, Magistrate; Willum Worm, was the mayor of Aarhus. At this point it seems inconceivable to me that he could have been chosen for the office if he was not affluent. Worm's extended and incredibly peripatetic student career seems impossible without the father's affluence.
2. Father; Occupation:
3. Nationality: Birth: Dane; Career: Dane; Death: Dane
4. Education: Schooling: Marburg, Giessen, (Str,) Padua, Montpelier, Copenhagen; Basel, M.D. After grammar school in Aarhus, he was sent to Germany for what my sources call high school. In June 1605 he matriculated at the University of Marburg, the first in a considerable list of universities. He was there only briefly, studying philosophy. From the fall of 1605 until spring 1607 he studied theology in Giessen. In the spring of 1607 he studied anatomy and botany in Strasbourg but in July matriculated in Basel to study medicine (along with botany, anatomy, and philosophy). In October 1608 matriculated at Padua to study surgery and practical medicine. In the spring and summer of 1609 he travelled in Italy. During the winter of 1609-10 he was in Montpellier and in the spring in Paris. He matriculated in the University of Copenhagen in September 1610. In April 1611 he was back at Marburg to study chemistry, and In December 1611 he received his M.D. from Basel. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent along the way. In 1617 he received an M.A. from Copenhagen. At that point he had held a chair at the university for four years, and I take this degree to be by mandate. I will not list it.
5. Religion: Lutheran. His mother was a descendent of refugees from religious persecution in Holland.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine, Botany, Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Geology; He discovered and described the small bones known as Wormian bones.
7. Means of Support: Medicine, Acad, Patronage; Worm maintained a medical practice in Copenhagen from the time of his permanent appointment at the university until his death. Incidentally, it is reported that he stayed in Copenhagen during plague years to minister to the sick. He was personal physician to Christian V. 1613-15, Professor of Latin in the University of Copenhagen. 1615-21, Professor of Greek. 1621-4, Professor of Physics. 1624-54, Professor of Medicine (medicus secundus). He has 'Decon' of the philosophy faculty in 1618, of the mathematics (?) faculty in 1622, and permanent substitute decon (for Thomas Fincke) of the medicine faculty, 1640-54. He as university rector in 1627, 1636, 1648, and 1654. Apparently he was the rector (the specific word is 'patron,' but it does not mean the same as our word does) of the Grevinge Church from 1632 to his death. This meant that he received the income, not that he fulfilled the functions. I treat it as patronage.
8. Patronage: Court; The King (presumably with the encouragement of Fincke, who was Worm's father-in-law) appointed him to the university chairs. As said above, he was personal physician to the King. Worm was a student of the runic stones. The King supported this research, sending letters to the Bishops of Denmark and Norway stating that the research was permitted, and then paying the expenses of the runology trips. As son-in-law of Fincke, Worm was brother-in-law of Caspar Bartholin and part of a considerable family academic oligarchy which had to depend on royal favor. See the full exposition under Fincke. It may be relevant to Worm's position with the court that he systematically collected interesting objects of all sorts that he put into his large, private museum. Both Christian IV and Frederick III brought foreign princes and others to see the museum.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; He corresponded with many of the learned men of Europe.

Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. V. Ingerslev, Danmarks Laeger og Laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873- 4), pp. 270-4.

Wotton, Edward

1. Dates: Born: Oxford, 1492; Died: London, 5 October, 1555; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 63
2. Father; Occupation: Miscellaneous; Richard Wotton was Beadle of the University of Oxford. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Schooling: Oxford; Padua, M.D. Educated at the Grammar School adjoining Magdalen College, and at Magdalen College, Oxford, 1506-14. B.A., 1514. Studied medicine at Padua, 1524-6. M.D., 1526.
5. Religion: Catholic. I did not find any statement of how he stood on the Reformation. On the one hand, he dedicated his book to Edward VI, and Edward's ambassador to France was his patron. On the other hand, he was personal physician to Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Zoology, Entomology; His reputation rests on De differentiis animalium libri decem, (Paris, 1552), a compilation, in the style of the day, from ancient sources rather than from observation of nature. Apparently it was used, for want of anything better at the time, by later naturalists. Book IX, on insects, was certainly influential with later entomologists.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Academic, Patronage; Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1516-26. Socio Compar of Corpus Christi College and reader of Greek upon the foundation of the college, 1523-6. The implication of that status, bestowed because the fellowship at Magdalen was incompatible with another fellowship at Corpus Christi, is that Wotton continued to hold the Magdalen fellowship. Medical practice in London, 1526-55. Physician to Duke of Norfolk and Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, from whom he received an annuity of 60 shillings. Wood and early sources that follow Wood state that Wotton was physician to Henry VIII, but later historians have not found any evidence to support the assertion.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Aristrocrat, Government Official, Eccesiastic; Official; Dedicated his major book to Edward VI. Duke of Norfolk and Countess of Salisbury; see above. Bishop Foxe made him Socio Compar of Corpus Christi College and gave him leave to travel in Italy for 3-5 years to improve his learning. Sir John Mason, French Secretary to Henry VIII, encouraged Wotton and published his book in Paris, where Mason was Edward's ambassador.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice, Pharmacology; He devoted part of Book IX, on insects, to their medicinal use (sic!).
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Medical College; Influenced by John Claymond, President of Magdalen, and followed him to Corpus Christi College in 1523. Royal College of Physicians, 1528; Elect, 1531; Consiliarus, 1531, 1547, 1549; President, 1541-3; Censor, 1552-3, 55.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 903-4. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 27-9. Anthony Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 1, 226-7. C.E. Raven, English Naturalists From Neckam to Ray, (London, 1947), pp. 40-2. G. Sarton, The Appreciation of Ancient and Medieval Science During the Renaissance (1450-1600), (Philadelphia, 1955). John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), 66-8.

Wren, Christopher

1. Dates: Born: East Knoyle, Wiltshire, 20 October 1632; Died: London, 25 February, 1723; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 91
2. Father; Occupation: Cleric; Dr. Christopher Wren was the Rector of East Knoyle. From the prominent Anglican family which included his brother, Bishop Matthew Wren, the father was also Chaplain to Charles I, would soon be Dean of Windsor (succeeding his brother) and Registrar of the Garter. In 1638 he was given the 'rich rectory' of Haseley, Oxfordshire. From his string of appointments, clearly prosperous. Note that Wren's mother was the only child and heiress of a Wiltshire squire. In 1649 Wren went to Oxford as a gentleman commoner even though his father had been deprived by the Puritans.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Schooling: Oxford, M.A. Educated at Westminster School. Oxford, Wadham College, (1649-53); B.A., 1651; M.A., 1653. D.C.L., conferred by Oxford, 1661. Ll.D., awarded by Cambridge in 1673. I don't list either of the honorary degrees.
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Astronomy, Engineering; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy, Mechanics, Instrumentation; Wren is remembered of course as England's great architect; he also wrote five unpublished commentaries on the theory of architecture. Before the fire of London turned him decidedly to architecture, he was a leading scientist although he published almost nothing. Newton classed him with Huygens and Wallis as one of the leading geometers of the day. At 16 he composed a treatise on spherical trigonometry, and a little later he rectified the cycloid. As first Gresham and then Savillian Professor of Astronomy, he developed a graphical method of representing the course (presumed rectilinear) of a comet and a graphical construction of solar eclipses. He worked out a hypothesis on Saturn, with a model that he built, to represent its strange appearance. He composed De corpore saturni, 1657, which he never published and which he abandoned when Huygens' better hypothesis soon came along. He did a measured survey of the moon that resulted in an improved map of its surface. While in Oxford he did important anatomical work in collaboration with others of the Oxford circle. He did the drawings for Willis's Cerebri anatome. He could be listed as well for physiology in addition to experiments he devised a method to transfuse blood from one animal to another. He composed a paper on the laws of impact in 1668, a solution to the problem of perfectly elastic impact. He was continually active in improving instruments, astronomical first of all, but many others as well. This included various meteorological instruments; Wren could be listed for meteorology for his continued study of it. Before Hooke, he used the microscope to study insects. He studied refraction and optics, lecturing on dioptrics at Gresham College. In a word he could be listed validly under at least ten sciences.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Government; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage, Merchant, Publishing; Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1653-61.. Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College, 1657-61. Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, 1661-73. Deputy Surveyor of the Royal Works, 1661-9, then Surveyor, 1669-1718. Member of the Commission to rebuild London, 1666, author of a radical plan (rejected, of course) to rebuild on a modern plan that discarded the old streets, and then architect of the new St. Paul's. He resigned the Savilian chair when the work on St. Paul's began to demand close to full time. He was also in charge (whatever the title) of Windsor Castle, and Surveyor of Westminster Abbey, 1698-1723. Obviously Wren owed all of these positions to patronage, but they carried salaries; and I list them under governmental employee. However, he did also have a number of private commissions. Wren was a director of the Hudson Bay Company for a number of years. In 1688, along with one Roger Jackson, he undertook a housing development along the northern fringe of rebuilt London. In 1698 he received exclusive rights to publish engravings of St. Paul's, his city churches, Hampton Court, et al., and he apparently earned some money from the publication. Retired to Hampton Court, 1718.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Eccesiastic Official, Academic, Aristrocrat; Appointed Surveyor of the Royal Works by Charles II in 1669, and knighted in 1673. Wren's entire career as an architect depended on royal patronage. He retained royal favor unclouded through the reigns of James, William and Mary, Queen Anne, and the early years of George I. In 1661 Wren gave his model of the moon, with surface features in relief, to Charles, who kept it with his curiosities and liked to show it to visitors. While working on the planned Winchester Palace for Charles, 1683-5, Wren received an additional ú500 per annum. He received ú1000 for Chelsea Hospital. Later he worked extensively on Kensington Palace and on Hampton Court for William III. In the early 60s he frequently entertained Prince Rupert in his laboratory at Oxford, and Rupert put him on the list to receive annually wine from his Rhenish estate. Wren had a number of ecclesiastical patrons. His first building was the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, commissioned by Gilbert Sheldon, Bishop of London then but soon to be Archbishop of Canterbury. Seth Ward employed him to survey Salisbury Cathedral. Sancroft commissioned a new chapel at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, had him build Tom Tower over the college entrance. Wren filled a lot of academic commissions--including a new quadrangle and later a chapel for Trinity College, Oxford (Ralph Bathurst, President of the College), the library for Trinity College, Cambridge (Isaac Barrow, Master). The Earl of St. Albans commissioned St. James, Piccadilly, about 1682. I could list as well governmental officials--Joseph Williamson (not yet Sir Joseph) commissioned a block of buildings for Queen's College, Oxford, and Sir Stephen Fox, Paymaster General of the Forces, commissioned Chelsea Hospital.
9. Technological Involvement: Architecture, Instruments, Navigation, Cartography, Mechanical; Devices, Agriculture, Medical Practice, Military Engineering, Civil Engineering, Hydraulics; The rebuilding of London is obvious, but practical, utilitarian projects dominated Wren's consciousness from childhood when at the age of 13 he invented an astronomical instrument and a pneumatic engine. A year later, now in Oxford, he presented Charles, Elector Palatine, with several mechanical instruments and devices of his own invention. Parentalia (pp. 198-9) lists the topics he presented to the Oxford Philosophical Club in the 50s, a list overwhelmingly practical and utilitarian--e.g, (I select from the list and do not repeat it all) a 'goniscope' to measure angles, a 'weather wheel' and a weather clock, an instrument to write double, a surveying instrument, several improvements in the art of husbandry, new engines to raise water, new ways to print, pneumatic engines, a way to reckon time, longitude, and distance made good at sea, fortification of ports, new offensive and defensive military engines, inventions in fortification, perfection of coaches. Wren later presented a number of these projects to the Royal Society. There is a problem with him how far did he carry many of these projects? Since many of them show up several times, since they are not general Baconian talk but specific inventions or projects, and since I want to capture the whole range of his utilitarian, technological enterprises, I am listing inclusively. There is no one else in the catalog whose range of technological involvement was so broad. He can be listed validly in all but four of my categories. He developed a micromenter, and he attached telescopic sights to astronomical instruments. He devised an adjustable aperture. By developing measuring techniques, he helped transform the telescope into an instrument of quantitative astronomy. He worked at measuring arcs to seconds, and he invented a double, hinged telescope for measuring angles of separation precisely. Likewise there was an improved microscope that allowed measurements, as well as a device to grind hyperbolic lenses ( la Descartes). All sorts of meteorological instruments and some surveying instruments. Navigation, especially the determination of longitude, was a preoccupation from undergraduate days until his death. He explored all of the methods that seemed feasable at the time, including watches. He also devised a sounding device. Cartography was a less pronounced occupation, but he did a map of the moon and a map of burned out London, and he invented surveying instruments, including a new level. All sorts of mechanical devices--watches, windlasses to raise weights, an improved carriage, and experiments in harnessing the force of gunpowder to lift weights and bend springs. There is enough mention of agricultural interests that I am justified in listing this--a youthful machine, horse drawn, to plant grain, a box hive for bees, a hothouse to grow tropical plants. I am listing medicine as well. A good half at least of his interest in meteorology was medically connected, governed by the theory that there were epidemic seasons that could be identified. He also developed a method to fumigate and purify sick rooms. In the early 60s, Charles wanted to commission Wren to build the fortifications and port works at Tangier. Wren managed to beg off, but military engineering bulks fairly large in the Oxford topics, and he was consulted on the works at Tangier. In the standard areas of civil engineering, such as building bridges, he did not participate that I can find. He did write on methods of building under water (for moles and quays), and his novel trusses to support the span across the Sheldonian Theatre classify as civil engineering. Wren did not do much hydraulic engineering. However, Sprat mentions improved waterworks, and Wren wrote a tract (unpublished, like nearly everything) on the improvement of navigation by joining rivers. He proposed a major diversion of the Cam to St. John's College. He was concerned (peripherally, I think) with the New River project and with the water it furnished to St. James's Palace.
10. Scientific Societies: Membership: Royal Society; One of the members of the philosophical club in Oxford. Later, it was after a lecture he gave at Gresham College in November 1660 that those present decided to organize what became the Royal Society. He was of course one of the original members, and he was on the Council named in the first Charter and many times thereafter. President, 1680-2.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 995-1009. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.2, 4359-78. Christopher Wren, Parentalia: or Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens, (London, 1750). Lilly Library C.R. Weld, History of the Royal Society, (London, 1848), pp. 272- 81. Robert McKeon, 'Les dÉbuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88 14 (1972), 221-42 especially 13, 245-6 and 14, 229-30.  J.A. Bennett, The Mathematical Science of Christopher Wren, (Cambridge, 1982). For my purposes, this is the best source on Wren that I have come across. Bryan Little, Sir Christopher Wren: a Historical Biography, (London, 1975). William C. Gibson, 'The Medical Interests of Christopher Wren,' in Ladislao Reti and William C. Gibson, Some Aspects of Seventeenth-Century Medicine & Science, Papers Read at the Clark Library, (Los Angeles, 1969).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Sir Harold Hartley, ed., The Royal Society: Its Origins and Founders, (London, 1960). John Lindsey, Wren, His Work and Times, (London, 1951). John Summerson, Sir Christopher Wren, (New York, 1953). Lawrence Weaver, Sir Christopher Wren: Scientist, Scholar, and Architect, (London, 1923). Cecil Whitaker-Wilson, Sir Christopher Wren: His Life and Times, (London, 1932). Harold Hutchinson, Sir Christopher Wren: a Biography, (London, 1975). Kerry Downes, Christopher Wren, (London, 1971). Margaret D. Whinney, Christopher Wren, (London, 1971). J.A. Bennett, 'Christopher Wren: Astronomy, Architecture, and Mathematical Science,' Journal for the History of Astronomy, 6 (l975), 149-84. There is an enormous literature on Wren, most of it naturally concentrating on his architecture. In the end I got tired of reading it. This list does not exhaust it.

Wright, Edward

1. Dates: Born: Garveston, Norfolk, October 1561. He was baptized on 8 October; Died: London, November, 1615; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 54
2. Father; Occupation: Unknown; Henry Wright. We have only the information (from the records of Caius College) that the father was 'mediocris fortunae, deceased.' No clear evidence on the family's financial situation. Although Wright attended Cambridge as a sizar, his brother who was two years older attended as a pensioner.
3. Nationality: Birth: Garveston, Norfolk, English; Career: English; Death: London, English
4. Education: Schooling: Cambridge, M.A. Cambridge, Caius College, 1576-84; B.A., 1681; M.A., 1584.
5. Religion: Anglican; I accept this as an assumption from the silence of accounts about his religion. However, there is one report that at Cambridge he associated closely with the leaders of Puritanism there.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Navigation, Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Magnetism; Famous for his contribution to mathematical navigation, especially Certaine Errors in Navigation, which set forth the Mercator projection. He also translated Stevin's Haven- Finding Art. Wright also published some treatises on mathematics-- Description and Use of the Sphere, 1614, and especially A Description of the Admirable Tables of Logarithmes, a translation of Napier's Latin, published in 1616, just after Wright's death. He helped Gilbert with De magnete and was even said (by Mark Ridley) to have written parts of it--presumably on the use of magnetic declination to determine longitude, a theme that Wright pursued in his own writings.
7. Means of Support: Patronage, Schoolmastering, Engineering; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, 1587-96. Assistant to George, Earl of Cumberland, on an expedition to the Azores, 1589. Parsons and Morris say that he was called to this expedition by the Queen the college records reveal that he was given a leave of absence by royal mandate. He remained in contact with Cumberland for the rest of his life and dedicated his major book on navigation to him. Lecturer on navigation in London, supported by Sir Thomas Smith and Sir John Wolstenholme, rich merchants, 1600s. In 1614 the East India Company took over sponsorship of these lectures, with a salary of ú50. I classify the lectures with private lessons under the heading of Schoolmaster. Tutor of Mathematics to Prince Henry, 1608 or 9 until Prince Henry's death in 1612. Surveyor for the New River Project, under Sir Hugh Myddleton.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Aristrocrat, Merchant, Government Official; See above. Note that Myddleton was a London entrepreneur. Note also that Wright dedicated the second edition of his book on navigation to Prince Henry. He dedicated his translation of Stevin to Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral.
9. Technological Involvement: Navigation, Cartography, Instruments, Hydraulics; Wright did a chart of the Azores on a Mercator projection. He also did a map of the fens, and he collaborated on Hakluyt's world map, again on a Mercator projection and incorporating late information from explorers, published in the Principal Navigations. Wright was an important designer of instruments for navigation. Wright was apparently the technical expert on the New River project a waterway planned (and ultimately constructed) to bring water from Uxbridge to London.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Collaboration with Hakluyt. Friendship with William Barlow, William Gilbert, and Thomas Blundeville. He assisted Gilbert and wrote a preface for De magnete. Lifelong collaboration with Briggs.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 21, 1015-17. C. Hutton, A Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary, 2, 619- 20 E.J.S. Parsons & W.F. Morris, 'Edward Wright and His Work', Imago Mundi, 3 (1939), 61-71. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical practioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), pp. 181-2. J. Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, (Cambridge, 1897), 1, 88-9. D.W. Waters, The Art of Navigation, (London, 1958), pp.219-29, 316-17.

Zabarella, Jacopo [Iacopo, Giacomo]

1. Dates: Born: Padua, 5 September 1533; Died: Padua, 25 October 1589; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 56
2. Father; Occupation: Aristocrat; Giulio Zabarella, the descendent of one of Padua's oldest and most distinguished families, bore the title of palatine count, a title that his oldest son (Jacopo) inherited. Jacopo inherited as well a considerable fortune; I infer that the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Schooling: Padua, Ph.D. He studied logic and natural philosophy in Padua, receiving the doctoral degree in 1553.
5. Religion: Catholic, Heterodox; Zabarella was accustomed to exercise great freedom of thought in matters of religion. Following Pomponazzi, he believed in the mortality of the soul. His final book, De rebus naturalibus, which rejected the Thomistic argument for the existence of God from the fact of motion, was denounced to the Inquisition, which however cleared it. For all that Zabarella is said also to have been a man of extraordinary devotion who spent hours every day in prayer.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology; Zabarella was a major figure in the revival of Aristotelian philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries. He was closely tied to the medical tradition of Padua and took a naturalistic approach to Aristotle. In natural philosophy he was thoroughly empirical in his approach he was especially concerned to understand the biological world and thus paid scant attention to the use of mathematics. Zabarella was and continues to be known primarily as a commentator on method. It is clear that he was deeply involved in astrology.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; We are told that Zabarella inherited a considerable fortune which he took care to preserve. There is no evidence of employment of any sort between 1553 when he graduated and 1564 when he was first appointed to Padua. Nevertheless he continued to live in Padua (in his whole life he apparently never ventured farther than Venice), where he had a house. Immediately upon graduation he was admitted to the Sacred College of Philosophers and Physicians of Padua, a quasi-administrative body in the university, if I understand. Several times the city of Padua sent him as its representative in causes before the Senate in Venice. (I saw nothing to indicate whether he received compensation from the city.) In 1557, 1573, and 1580 he organized academies that met in his house. All of this powerfully suggests personal means. In 1564 he was appointed to the chair in logic in Padua at a salary of 60 florins, and in 1569 to the more lucrative chair of natural philosophy (initially at 130 florins and after his final raise at 410 florins), which he held until his death. Possibly there was a hiatus of three years in the '70's.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Eccesiastic Official; Near 1578 Zabarella received a lucrative offer from Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, to teach at Cracow. In response (Edwards, pp. 52-3) Zabarella dedicated his Logic to the King. In the dedication he said that he had already sent the manuscript to the printer without a dedication when the invitation arrived, and that he thereupon dedicated it to the King. There is a story (apparently without evidence to back it) that the King knighted Zabarella in response. He dedicated his commentary on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics to Filippo Mocenigo, Archbishop of Nicosia and a member of the prominent Venetian family. He dedicated De doctinae ordine apologia, 1584, to Card. Valiero, Bishop of Verona. He dedicated De naturalis scientiae constitutione, 1586, to Card. Pereto, nephew of Sixtus V. He dedicated De rebus naturalibus, 1589, to Sixtus himself. One may question why a wealthy aristocrat like Zabarella was in the dedications game, but dedications to cardinals and popes make sense to someone in trouble with the Inquisition.
9. Technological Involvement: None
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; From immediately after his degree until his death Zabarella was a member of the Sacred College of Philosophers and Physicians of Padua, a body with some official status for the university. He was one of the organizers of the Accademia dell'Elevati in Padua, 1557-60. Again in 1573-5 he was an organizer of the academy of the Rinascenti--a literary and musical academy. In 1580 he organized a third, degli Stabili, a literary one. It lasted until 1614, beyond Zabarella's death. Note that all three of these academies met in his house.

William F. Edwards, The Logic of Iacopo Zabarella, Columbia University dissertation, 1960, pp. 1-82. This is by far the most detailed account of Zabarella's life that I found. Most of the fairly extensive literature concentrates exclusively on his logic and methodology. Antonio Poppi, La dottrina della scienza in Giacomo Zabarella, (Padua, 1972). Cesare Vasoli, Studi sulla cultura del Rinascimento, (Manduria, 1968), pp. 308-42.

Zaluzansky ze Zaluzan, Adam

1. Dates: Born: Mnichovo Hradiste, Bohemia, between 1555 and 1560; Died: Prague, 8 December 1613; Datecode Birth Uncertain; Lifespan: 55
2. Father; Occupation: Estate Administrator; His father was a secretary in Mnichovo Hradiste and superintendent of the estate, Ptejrov, nearby. The fathers of Marci and Willis (and perhaps others that I will need to look for) had this status, and I have created the category 'Estate Administrat or' to cover them. No information on finanical status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Czechoslovakian; Career: Czechoslovakian; Death: Czechoslovakian
4. Education: Schooling: Prague (Charles), M.A. Helmstedt, M.D. 1581, B.A. at the Charles University in Prague. 1584, M.A. at the Charles University. 1587, M.D. at Helmstedt.
5. Religion: Protestant; He was an Utraquist, a denomination descended from Huss.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Primary: Botany, Medicine, Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics, Astronomy; Methodi herbariae libri tres, (Prague, 1592). Republished in Frankfurt in 1604. In this work Zaluzansky discussed the concept that plants have sex. However, he did not recognize male and female sexes in plants, but held rather that plants have a s eparate, mixed sex. Rad Apotekarsky (Pharmaceutical Order), 1592. This book resulted from Zaluzansky's work as supervisor of pharmacy in the Old City of Prague. Cena neb vymereni vseck lekarstvi (Prices or Standards of All Medicine), 1596, 1604, 1659, 1699, 1737. In Czech, German, and French. Galenumet vicenam libri VII. An attack on old-fashioned superstitions in medicine and a plea for a return to the natural way of healing. The work was dedicated to Emperor Rudolf II. Zaluzansky was also a classical scholar and a poet.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmastering, Government; 1585-6, Headmaster of a school in Kraluv Hradec. 1587, lecturer at Charles University in Greek classical literature. 1589, Dean of Charles University. 1591, Professor of Greek literature and Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy. 1593, Rector of Prague University. His book on Pharmaceutical Order, which stemmed from duties as supervisor of pharmacy for the Old City of Prague, was published in 1592. I do not know other details about this position. 1594, Zaluzansky married and was, as a result, dismissed from the university, which required celibacy in its faculty. Zaluzansky then established a successful medical practice in the Old City of Prague. 1595, Headmaster of Svaty Jindrich school in Prague. He apparently took on this position to supplement his income after he was forced to resign from the university. Zaluzansky died during an epidemic of the plague and is buried in Bethlehem Chapel.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Aristrocrat; Emperor Rudolf, to whom Zaluzansky dedicated a book, knighted him. For Vilem of Rozmberg, a prominent aristocrat, Zaluzansky created a large botanical garden called 'Kratochvile.' Count of Lneburg and Count of Braunschweig, for whom he performed work similar to that for Vilem of Rozmberg.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice, Pharmacology
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; Zaluzansky had close relations with specialists in medicine--Adam Hubr of Ryzmpach, and Mat. Borbonius and Theodor Sixtus of Ottersdorf--and with a prosecution lawyer, Jachym of Technice.

L. Celakovsky, 'Adam Zaluzansky ze Saluzan ve svem pomeru k Nauce o pohlavi rostlin,' Ostveta, 6 (1876), 33-54. Ottuv slovnik naucny, (Prague, 1908), 27, 413-14.

Not Available and Not Consulted: K. Pejml, 'Adam Zaluzansky de Saluzany, sa personalitÉ et son oeuvre en tenant compte de son ourvage Methodi herbariae libri tres,' Summa dissertationum facultati rerum naturalium Universitati Carolinae anno 1946, no. 183, (Prague, 1948), pp. 11-13.

Zambeccari, Giuseppe

1. Dates: Born: Castelfranco di Sotto, near Florence, 19 March 1655; Died: Pisa, 13 December 1728; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 73
2. Father; Occupation: Government Official; Bernardino Zambeccari descended from an old family in Pontremoli (Tuscany) as did the mother, Livia Maraffi. The father was 'cancelliere' of the community of Castelfranco, and later of other communities. No clear indication of financial standing except that they were not wealthy, as an official statement at the time of Zambeccari's admission to Pisa said.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Schooling: Pisa, M.D. He entered Pisa at eighteen, in 1673, and graduated with an M.D. in 1679. Among his professors was Lorenzo Bellini. As with all M.D's, I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Primary: Physiology, Anatomy; He experimented on dogs, removing organs in order to understand the function they performed in the living animal--the spleen, for example. Sometime after the organ was removed, he would kill the dog and dissect it in order to attempt to observe what changes had resulted. He was said to have carried out 30,000 dissections in Pisa. The number is clearly impossible, but I take it that he did a lot of dissections. He developed a general, iatromechanical physiology of the nerves in 'Concerning Sleep . . .', a manuscript unpublished in his own day.
7. Means of Support: Academic, Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage, Schoolmastering; After he was with Redi in Florence for two years, he returned to Pisa in 1681, where he was appointed to the chair in practical medicine (salary: 150 scudi), and then, in 1689, the chair of medicine proper (salary: 200 scudi). In 1704 he succeeded Bellini in anatomy (salary not stated). He also gave private lessons in his home. The evidence of medical practice is very thin, but there are lots of references to his clinical work (as a professor) and one reference to his fame as a physician. I am interpreting those references in the light of the nearly universal practice of academic professors of medicine.
8. Patronage: Scientist; After completing his medical degree, Zambeccari lived in Florence with Redi for a couple of years and worked with him, and to Redi he dedicated his Experiments Concerning the Excision of Various Organs, 1680. From letters by Redi it appears that he was instrumental in Zambeccari's appointment in Pisa, and later of his promotion.
9. Technological Involvement: Medical Practice
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None; He knew Guido Grandi and corresponded with him. Ninety letters, in private ownership, survived in 1941. I have no information whether they still survive.

Saul Jarcho, 'Giuseppe Zambeccari, a Seventeenth-Century Pioreeer in Experimental Physiology and Surgery,' Bulletin of the History of Medicinne, 9 1941), 144-76. _____, 'Experiments of Doctor Joseph Zambeccari Concerning the Excision of Various Organs from Different Living Animals,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 9 (1941), 311-31. This is a translation of Zambeccari's treatise. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker, (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 5, 1024. Michaud, Biographie gÉnrale, 45, 355. P. Ferrari, 'Giuseppe Zambeccari,' Giornale storico e letterario della Liguria, new ser. 1 (1925), 90-116.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Max Neuburger, 'Zambeccari, ein Experimentator der 17. Jahrhunderts,' Med.-chir. Zbl (Zeitblatt? Zentralblatt?), 31 (1896), 368. I have not succeeded in identifying this journal. I gather that this essay was published, in English, in Neuburger, Essays in the History of Medicine, (New York, 1950), which is also not available to me. Carlo Fedeli, 'Di uno scritto idrologico de Giuseppe Zambeccari,' in Raccolta di scritti nel giubileo del Prof. Barduzzi, (Livorno, 1912). _____, 'Giuseppe Zambeccari, Del sonno, della veglia a dell'uso dell'oppio. Lettera inedita,' Annali delle Universit Toscana, 33 (1914). _____, ed., Lettera di Giuseppe Zambeccari a Francesco Redi sulle vivisezioni ed asportazioni di alcuni visceri, (Pisa, 1907).

Zucchi, Niccolo

1. Dates: Born: Parma, 6 December 1586; Died: Rome, 21 May 1670; Datecode Dates Certain; Lifespan: 84
2. Father: Aristocrat; Pierre Zucchi was from a noble family. The mother was also of noble blood. No indication whatever of the financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Schooling: Religous Order, D.D. He studied rhetoric in Piacenza and philosophy and theology in Parma. In both cases I think Jesuit colleges are clearly indicated. Obviously he had the equivalent of a B.A., and as a full-fledged Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuit order as a novice on 28 October 1602 and spent his whole life in the order. It is of interest that from a family of eight children, seven embraced a religious life--all three daughters as nuns, three sons as Jesuits, and one son as a secular priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics, Astronomy, Mechanics; Subordinate Disciplines: Magnetism, Physics; About 1608, or perhaps 1616, Zucchi used a lens to observe the image produced by a concave mirror, and thus produced a primitive reflecting telescope, apparently the first one. Later, in Optica philosophica, 1652, he described it. Zucchi was the first one to observe the spots on Jupiter, in 1630. Let it be added that Zucchi accepted and expounded strange astronomical theories--such as the assertion that Venus is closer to the sun than Mercury because Venus represents beauty and Mercury represents skill. (However, it strikes me that this is just the Ptolemaic system.) He published two works, in 1646 and 1649 on the philosophy of machines, that is (I take it), analyses of mechanics. In one of these books there was a section on magnetism. He also wrote on the barometer, denying the existence of a vacuum. In all, clearly a rock-ribbed conservative in natural philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; There is disagreement on the order of appointments but full agreement on the appointments themselves. Some sources say that Zucchi first taught mathematics at the Collegio Romano and went from there to Ravenna, where he was rector of a new Jesuit college. Affo has him going to Ravenna from Parma and then on to Rome. Either way he spent his early career teaching in Jesuit colleges--not only mathematics, but also rhetoric and theology. Sometime after he returned to Rome from Ravenna he was the preacher in the Apostolic Palace (i.e., preacher to the Pope) for at least seven years. He was in the retinue of the Papal legate sent in 1632 to the court of Ferdinand II, where he met Kepler. Toward the end of his life he was in charge of the Jesuit house in Rome.
8. Patronage: Court Official, Eccesiastic Official, Aristrocrat; Zucchi was close to Cardinal Alessandro Orsini, who built the Jesuit college in Ravenna and installed Zucchi as its rector. In Ravenna he was confessor and theologican to Orsini. Orsini was the legate to Prague whom Zucchi accompanied. He dedicated Nova de machinis philosophia, 1642, to Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma. He dedicated Optica philosophia, 1652, to Archduke Leopold of Austria, Governor of Belgium and Burgundy. He is reported to have written an Optica statica, which was not published and has not apparently survived, at the request of the Marquis of Pianezza. I have decided to accept the report and list this. Pope Alexander VII named Zucchi his preacher (this would be preacher in the Apostolic Palace). Clement IX also showed him favor. It do find it interesting that Zucchi apparently did not dedicate his devotional books to anyone, just those on science.
9. Technological Involvement: Instruments; He made either the first or one of the first relecting telescopes and later described it in Optica philosophia. With it, in c. 1640, he is reported to have examined the spots on Mars discovered by Fontana. (I confess to finding the report wildly improbable.)
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None

Ireneo Affo, Memorie degli scrittori e letterati parmigiani, (Parma, 1797), 5, 170-5. Angelo Pezzana, Continuazione delle memorie degli scrittori e letterati pargmigiani, (Parma, 1825), 6.3, 773-9. Michaud, Biographie generale, 45, 620-1. Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jesus, (Brussels, 1891), 8, 1525-30.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Daniello Bartoli, Della vita del P. Nicolo Zucchi, (Rome, 1682).
This is said to be reprinted in one of the volumes on Jesuits by Mathias Tanner, but that is also not available.

Zwelfer [Zwelffer, Zwelfer], Johann

1. Dates: Born: Rhenish Palatinate, 1618. Died: Probably Vienna, 1668. Datecode 50; Lifespan:
2. Father; Occupation: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Rhenish Palatinate, Germany; Career: Vienna, Austria; Death: Vienna, Austria (presumably).
4. Education: Schooling: Padua, M.D. After working as an apothecary for 16 years, Zwelfer went to Padua to study medicine, and received an M.D. there. Even with the unusual chronology, I'll assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic (by assumption from his career).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Primary: Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Chemistry, Botany
7. Means of Support: Apothecary, Medicine; He worked initially for 16 years in his native region as an apothecary. After receiving his M.D., he moved to Vienna, where he apparently stayed for the rest of his life. He reportedly taught chemistry and was physician to the court, but these reports are undocumented. Nevertheless, in the silence I assume, especially in light of his background as apothecary, that he put the medical degree to use.
8. Patronage: None. He might have had imperial patronage in Vienna, but I have found no confirmation of this. I won't list it.
9. Technological Involvement: Pharmacology, Medical Practice.
10. Scientific Societies: Memberships: None.

Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, (Leipzig, 1750-1751 repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960). Partington, 2, 296-7.

§§§ - RSW - DSB - RAH - §§§§

Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall