WESTFALL CATALOGUE - SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
Dr Robert A. Hatch - University of Florida
Search - Name - Word - Category - Concept - Secondary Source - Author
1. Dates: Born: Faccombe, Hampshire, 1667; Died: England, presumbly after 1724; Datecode: Death Date Unknown; Lifespan:
2. Father: Church Living; His father, also John Tabor, was the rector of Faccombe. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A., M.D. Oxford, Merton College, Oxford, 1684-94. B.A., 1687; M.A., 1690; B.M. in 1694.
5. Religion: Anglican; (by assumption); Note that he did receive degrees from Oxford, which demanded religious conformity.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; His major work, Exercitationes medicae (London, 1724), in the school of Freind and Keill, attempted to incorporate medical animism into a mathematical framework. He devoted considerable attention to detailed formulations of the shape and elasticity of muscle fibers and offered a comprehensive account of the heart's structure and function. His work had little influence.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; This is a guess, based on his degree and his publication of a medical work thirty years later.
8. Patronage: None Known.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Obviously a guess again.
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Available and Not Consulted: Kurt Spengel,
einer pragmatischen Geschichte der Arzneikunde, 3rd ed., 5,
(Halle, 1828), 233-4, 349. This appears to be only on his medical ideas.
1. Dates: Born: Herford, Westphalia, date unknown; The first solid information about him comes from 1640; Died: probably Venice, 1670 Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: -
2. Father: Artisan; His father is said to have been a miller to the Abbess at Herford. His mother was the abbess herself. No information on financial conditions under which he was reared.
3. Nationality: German; Germany; Italy; Iy. Birth: Herford, Westphalia, Germany. Career: Germany, and Venice, Italy. Death: probably Venice, Italy.
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. He is said to have been apprenticed to an apothecary but lost his job because of thievery. About 1640 he went east to Holstein and Prussia, serving as an apprentice in apothecaries in Lemgo, Kiel, Danzig (1640), and Königsberg (from 1641). 1644, he went to Italy, where he received an M.D. from the University of Padua in 1652.
5. Religion: Unknown.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Pharmacology; Iatrochemistry; Alchemy.
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; In his early years he was supported as an apprentice to various apothecaries. After he received his degree from Padua, the only thing known about his means of support is that he settled in Venice, where he sold a 'viperine salt' (sal viperinum) as a sovereign remedy.
8. Patronage: None Known. His Epistola de famoso liquore Alkahest is in the form of a letter to Duke Frederick of Holstein. A letter also exists from Tachenius to the Prince of Brunswick and Lüneberg. In the world of alchemy this could mean almost anything, and I am unwilling to venture any conjecture.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; . He seems to have supported himself on the income from a pharmacological preparation of his own invention.
10. Scientific Societies: None
1. Dates: Born: Antwerp, 23 June 1612; Died: Antwerp, 22 December 1660; Datecode: Lifespan: 48
2. Father: Merchant. He was son of a merchant. His father died when he was still a young boy, but he left the family with some means. I take that to mean affluence at least.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian Area; Career: Belgian Area; Death: Belgian Area;
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. He spent seven years receiving an excellent education in the Jesuit colleg of his native town. He spent four years (1631-5) studying logic, physics and mathematics at Louvain. I am convinced from the details of his career that Tachenius was located in the Jesuit college at Louvain, and should be seen as a student of the order, not of the university. From 1634-5 he was a student of and secretary to Gregorius St. Vincent. He studied theology at Louvain from 1640-4. As an ordained Jesuit professed of the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuit order in 1629. He spent two years as a novice in Malines. On 1 November 1646, he took his vows.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Tacquet's importance was mainly pedagogical. His books taught elementary mathematics to many generations of readers. Most of his works were written as textbooks for Jesuit colleges and had no pretensions to originality. His Elementa geometriae was his most popular work going through several editions in the 17th and 18th centuries. The main importance of his Cylindricorum et annularium was its concern for method. His Opera mathematica was published posthumously and contained many previously printed works, some unprinted works, and his Astronomia (which I gather was also a textbook exercise).
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; After his preliminary training he taught humanities in various Jesuit colleges. 1637-9, Greek and poetry at Bruges. 1643-4, chair of mathematics at Louvain. 1644-5, mathematics at Louvain. 1645-9, 1655-60, mathematics at Antwerp. 1649-55, mathematics at Louvain and chair again. In 1655 he returned to Antwerp to direct the studies of the young prince Henri Jules de Bourbon.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Among his many students at his Jesuit posts were several from the noble families of Poland, Bohemia, France, and other nations. In 1655 he was called back to Antwerp by his superiors to take over the direction of the young Prince de Bourbon's schooling.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Daniel Seghers acted as a go between for Tacquet and Huygens. He sent Tacquet's work to Huygens which started the correspondence between Tacquet and Huygens. Among the principal mathematicians of his time that he corresponded with were Huygens and Van Schooten.
1. Dates: Born: La Roque-Gajac, along the Dordogne, near Sarlat, France, 1561 or 1562; Died: Sarlat, 1636; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan 75
2. Father: Gentry; Although the name of the father is unknown, it is known that Tarde came from a good family, les sieurs du Pont, of bourgeois origin. No explicit information on financial status, though it is relevant to note that members of the family of the following generation all had high positions.
3. Nationality: France; France; French; Birth: La Roque-Gajac, France; Career: France; Death: Sarlat, France
4. Education: University of Cahors; L.D. University of Paris; Received a doctorate in law from the University of Cahors. I assume a B.A. Then continued his studies at the Sorbonne.
5. Religion: Catholic. Catholic, an ordained priest
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography; Astronomy; Gog; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Tarde embraced Copernicanism. He set up an observatory to observe sunspots-which he was convined were bodies orbiting the sun, and which he named the Bourbon stars. He not only mapped his area, but he studied its geography, including the location of a city of Gaul which Caesar destroyed. He wrote a theoretical work on the telescope.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Personal Means; Patronage; As a priest he was assigned to the parish of Carves, near Belves. He rose to be canon theologian of the cathedral church of Sarlat. 1594, designated vicar-general. Henry IV named Tarde his Almoner, a position that carried income. I list this under patronage. Tarde left a very considerable estate.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; 1594, the Bishop wished to determine the effects of the religious wars in France on the diocese of Sarlat, so he named Tarde vicar-general and commissioned him to make a map of the bishopric. Tarde mapped the neighboring diocese for the Bishop of Cahors in 1606. In compliance with the Bishop's request that he explain the small quadrant he was using, he wrote Les usages du quadrant à l'esquille aymantée (1616), which he then dedicated to the Bishop. Henry IV named Tarde his Almoner (or military chaplain) in 1599. Tarde mistakenly identified sunspots as planets which he named after the French royal family, dedicating the book about them to the Bourbons, in the same manner as the Medician stars.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Note the mapping work.
10. Scientific Societies: None
Tartaglia [Tartaleo, Tartaia],
1. Dates: Born: Brescia, probably in 1499; Died: Venice, 13 December 1557; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Government Position; His father, Michele, was a postal courier in the service of the government of Brescia. He died in 1506, leaving his family in poverty. Tartaglia was not the family name. Tartaglia took it as a nickname, which referred to his inability to talk clearly as a result of terrible wounds to his head and jaw during the sack of Brescia in 1512.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; The family was so poor that Tartaglia received no formal education. About the age of 14, he went to a Master Francesco to learn to write the alphabet; but by the time he reached 'k,' he was no longer able to pay the teacher. From that time he taught himself. He began his mathematical studies apparently at an abacus school at about age 15 and progressed quickly. (This information appears to be at odds with the assertion that Tartaglia was self-taught
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics. Subordinate Disciplines: Court Patronage; His name is linked with the solution of third-degree equations. His other contributions concern fundamentals of arithmetic, numerical calculations, extraction of roots, rationalization of denominators, combinatorial analysis. One of the first publishers of Archimedes, he produced an edition of William of Moerbeke's 13th-century Latin version of some of Archimedes's work. He also translated Euclid into Italian. He published Nova Scientia in 1537, announcing a 'new' mathematical way of treating motion, especially of projectiles. His Quesiti ed inventioni diverse dealt with algebraic and geometric material and, and such varied subjects as the firing of artillery, cannonballs, the disposition of infantry, topographical surveying, and statics. Tartaglia was invited to Milan in 1539; the visit led to the quarrel with Ferrari and their public exchange of mathematical challenges and responses. For failing to cite his debt to Jordanus in the Quesiti, Tartaglia was denounced for plagiary in Ferrari. Generale trattato di numeri et misure, 1556-60.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He moved to Verona, probably sometime between 1516 and 1518, where he was employed as teacher in an abacus school-i.e, practical mathematics. About 1529-33, he was in charge of a school in the Palazzo Mazzanti. In 1534 he went to Venice, where he was teacher of mathematics. Except for l8 months back in Brescia, he remained in Venice for the rest of his life.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Gentry; Cardano introduced Tartaglia to Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, an aristocrat and humanist who was the Spanish ambassador to Venice from 1539 to 46, and to Rome from 1547 to 52. Tartaglia's Quesiti took the form of dialogues with Mendoza. Tartaglia dedicated Nova scientia to the Duke of Urbino. He dedicated his edition of Euclid (1543) to Gabriele Tadino da Martinengo, Knight of Rhodes and Priore of Varletta. He dedicated the works of Archimedes (1543) to Richard Wentworth. He dedicated the Quesiti, 1546, to Henry VIII. (I tend to doubt this information, not a work in the form of dialogues with the Spanish ambassador to Venice.); Tartaglia was not a prominent and well connected man. I find that he published a lot of his books at his own expense and without dedications.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Instruments; In his ballistic studies he proposed new ideas, methods, and instruments, important among which are 'firing tables'. He had various proposals on fortifications. He suggested two instruments for determining inaccessible heights and distances, the first telemeters. He developed a specific form the the compass, or better, the housing in which it was set, that made it more useful in surveying.
10. Scientific Societies: He corresponded with Cardano for a time, and he had the famous mathematical contest with Ferrari. Since it hinged on the discovery of the solution to cubic equations, it may have been the first priority dispute.
Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Antonio
Favaro, 'Per la biografia di N. Tartaglia,'
Archivio storico italiano,
71 (1913), 335-72. Baldassarre Boncompagni, 'Intorno ad un testamento
inedito di N.Tartaglia,' in In memoriam Dominici Chelini-Collectanea
mathematica, (Milan, 1881). Atti del convegno in onore del quator
centenario della morte di Niccolo Tartaglia 1959, (Brescia, 1962).
A. Koyré, 'La dynamique de Niccolo Tartaglia,' in Etudesd'histoire
de la pensée scientifique, (Paris, 1966), 101-21. P. Costabel,
'Vers une mécanique nouvelle,' in J. Roger, ed., Sciences de
la renaissance, (Paris, 1973), pp. 127-42.
1. Dates: Born: Cosenza, Calabria, latter part of 1509; Died: Cosenza, October 1588; Datecode: Lifespan: 79
2. Father: Aristocrat; Giovanni Telesio and his wife were both from noble families. The Telesio's nobility was of very long standing. For that matter, Bernardino Telesio also married a woman of noble birth. Although the indications are not wholly clear, it appears that the family was wealthy. Telesio inherited an estate described by at least one observer as quite rich. The circumstances of his life support this. He never held or sought a salaried position. If Telesio died poor, it was because he and his brother were unable to manage the estate.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Padua; Ph.D. His uncle, Antonio Telesio, a humanist of note, took over Telesio's education from an early date. In 1518, when he was only (or perhaps not yet) nine, he went to Milan with the uncle, and three years later they moved to Rome, where they were caught in the sack of 1527. From sometime after the sack Telesio studied in Padua, earning a doctorate in 1535. I assume a B.A., though it is not mentioned. He left Padua profoundly unhappy with the Aristotelian philosophy as he found it taught there.
5. Religion: Catholic. For a period of about nine years, probably right after his studies in Padua, Telesio lived in a Benedictine monastery, though he did not take orders. Two brothers were clerics, one an Archbishop. Telesio was buried in the cathedral of Cosenza. However, his writings were placed on the Index of 1593-after his death, note. Telesio's philosophy was certainly naturalistic, but I have not seen any evidence that he considered himself heterodox in any way, as some philosophers would in not too many years.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Telesio is often referred to as a nature philosopher, a title intended to distinguish him from Aristotelian natural philosophers. He is considered strongly anti-Aristotelian, though some scholars find his thought similar enough to Aristotle's that he might rather be called a revisionist. De rerum natura iuxta propria principia, 1565 (with expanded editions in 1570 and 1586). Despite the implications of the title, the book contains no atomism whatever. Rather Telesio made heat and cold the active principles in nature, and his philosophy has been described as pre-Socratic naturalism. All commentators seem agreed on his tendency toward making nature an autonomous order. The book contains concepts that move toward absolute space and time as they would later be expounded. Telesio's disciple, Antonio Persio, published a group of shorter pieces by Telesio after his death-Varii de naturalibus rebus libelli, 1590.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Telesio inherited an estate termed significant. He never held or sought a salaried position, and especially in his earlier years appeared independent. Through mismanagement, or perhaps non-management the estate disintegrated completely. After Padua he spent the years 1535 to 1565 back in Calabria, though the details are thin and highly speculative. Apparently he lived in a Benedictine monastery during roughly 1535-44, then in the Neapolitan home of Alfonso III Carafa, duca di Nocera during roughly 1544-53. He married in 1553 and settled in Cosenza. In about 1561 his wife died. Apparently she had managed the patrimony. Neither Telesio nor his brother could. Pius IV offered to make him Archbishop of Cosenza; Telesio rather got the Pope to appoint his brother. After the death of his wife, Telesio apparently went to Rome. He spent the years 1576-86 in Naples with Ferrante Carafa, son and heir of Alfonso. About eighteen months before his death he returned to Cosenza.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The Carafa family were long term patrons, and Telesio dedicated the third and definitive edition of De rerum natura to Ferrante Carafa, duca di Nocera. A funeral oration for Telesio mentioned the favor and protection of successive Popes-Clement VII (given the dates I find this highly improbable), Paul III, Marcello, Paul IV, Pius IV, and Gregory XIII. Gregory (Pope from 1572-85) invited Telesio to expound his philosophy in Rome and welcomed him there with great honor. Everyone accepts the story of the Archbishopric offered by Pius IV. Cardinals Bembo, Contarini, and Farnese (later Paul III) also showed him favor. The Popes shielded Telesio from criticism, which traditional philosophers certainly levelled at him, and it must be significant that Telesio went on the Index not long after his death-rather like Patrizi.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: From about 1553 Telesio was the dominant figure in the Accademia Cosentina, shaping it to his interest in the observation and study of nature, so that it became known as the Accademia Telesiana. He corresponded with Patrizi. Antonio Persio was his ardent disciple.
Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Edoardo
Zavattari, La visione della vita nel rinascimento e Bernardino Telesio,
(Torino, 1923). Francesco Bartelli, Note biografiche, (Cosenza,
1906), pp. 7-73. Accccording to everyone, this is the definitive study
of Telesio's life. Apparently there is only one copy in the United States,
at the Newbury.
Ten Rhyne (Rhijne), Willem
1. Dates: Born: Deventer, 2 January 1649. Early sources give the date as probably 1647. Schoute cites the baptismal record of 14 January 1647 and establishes the date of birth as 2 January. Died: Batavia (Dutch East Indies), 1 June 1700. Datecode: Lifespan: 51;
2. Father: Artisan; Israel ten Rijne [sic], a glazier. No information on financial status of family.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch (colony); Death: Dutch (colony)
4. Education: Fra; University of Leiden; Ang, M.D. After the Illustrious School in Deventer, he went to the University of Franeker (1666-7)) and then to Leiden in 1668. M.D. at Angers in 1670.
5. Religion: Calvinist, Jew; Schoute states that the family belonged to the orthodox Calvinist circle of Deventer, citing in support of this the marriage of Ten Rhyne's sister. I have been intrigued by the first name of the father. Floris Cohen made an investigation for me which lead to the rather strong presumption that the name 'Israel,' which was not in use among Dutch Calvinists, probably signified Jewish descent.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Botany; Pharmacology; . After his M.D. he published on gout in 1669. While in Japan he studied the tea plant and other plants. Earlier he had studied the plants at the Cape of Good Hope, where he stopped en route to the East Indies. He published on all of these. Eventually he collaborated with Adriaan van Reede tot Drakestein on a twelve volume Hortus Malabaricus. Ten Rhijne published a classic work on leprosy in 1687, and a work which was Europe's real introduction to acupuncture. His work on plants seems always to have had their pharmacological uses at least partly in mind.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Position; 1673, he left for Batavia to serve as physician to the Dutch East India Company. While there he gave anatomical lessons to local surgeons. (I am considering positions with the Dutch East India Company as essentially governmental positions.); 1674-6, he served at the company station in Japan and may even have treated the Emperor. 1677, he was made governor of the leper colony, the basis of his book on the disease. This was certainly a governmental position but involved not salary. 1679-81, physician on Sumatra; he received a regular salary for this service. I assume he did in Batavia as well though I did not see it mentioned. 1681-1700, member of the council of Justice in Batavia; this position carried a salary. 1684, curator of the gymnasium in Batavia.
8. Patronage: Merchant Patronage; The principal burden of van Dorssen's long article is that another physician, Andreas Cleijer, whom he describes an an intellectual nonentity jealous of Ten Rhijne's accomplishments, monopolized the medical establishment in the East Indies, preventing Ten Rhijne from ever having the medical position his qualities deserved. Even though Ten Rhijne seized the opportunity to study the disease, the position with the leper colony, which involved no salary, was a way, van Dorssen argues, to keep him out of the way. Van Dorssen is convinced that only pressure from The Netherlands, where Ten Rhijne had friends, brought about his appointment to the Council of Justice. Van Dorssen names Pieter van Dam, a member of the Council of the East India Company, to whom Ten Rhijne dedicated his book of leprosy. Ten Rhijne's career in the East Indies, which certainly appears frustrated in light of his manifest ability, plus the fact that he chose to stay there, far from Christian Europe, seems to me strongly to support the likelihood that he was of Jewish descent.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Consulted: van der Aa, Biographisch
Woordenboek, 10, 96.
1. Dates: Born: Paris, c. 1620; Died: Issy, 29 October 1692; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 72
2. Father: No Information. Although there is no information whatever about the family, every aspect of Thévenot's life and the tone of his own sketch of his life bespeaks a man born to wealth.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: None Known; He received a excellent education. He knew English, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and several oriental languages, including Arabic and Turkish. Like everything else about him, where he received this education is a mystery.
5. Religion: Catholic. In light of the silence, I think we have to assume that he conformed to the Catholic Church in France. That first name and his knowledge of Hebrew, together with the general silence about him, makes me wonder whether he was not of Jewish origin.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Communication; Scientific Organization; Gog; Subordinate Disciplines: Scientific Instruments; Physics; He was one of the important correspondents linking Paris to the European scientific world. He organized his own academy in the early 60's, and he influenced the founding of the French Academy of Sciences. His only notable direct contribution to science was in instrumentation: a bubble level, originally designed in 1661. From 1658-61 he conducted experiments on capillarity and the siphon. He made various astronomical and magnetic studies aided by Petit, Auzout, Frenicle de Bessy, and Huygens. In the 1660's he demonstrated the possibility that atmospheric pulsations had something to do with human and animal respiration. His most famous work was his collection of translations of voyages of discovery, Relations de divers voyages curieus, (Paris, 1663-72).
7. Means of Support: Pers, Government Official; Thévenot's sketch of himself, in Bibliotheca thevenotia, tells little enough. However, it is clearly the sketch of a man born to position and wealth who could not imagine himself without them, to the extent that he hardly seemed aware of their existence. He frequented the most upper circles of society, filled governmental positions, discussed issues with Colbert and Louvois, etc. He was the French ambassador to Genoa in 1647 and then to Rome in the 1650's. He participated in the conclave held after the death of Innocent X. He negotiated with the republic of Genoa as the envoy of the King. He was appointed keeper of the royal library in 1684.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was charged to keep the royal library. For the most part, Thévenot was patron rather than client, but the whole system was a set of pyramids within pyramids, and he was willing to accept patronage also-when it came from the King (or Colbert).
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Pharmacology; He designed a bubble level, which seemed to lack convexity in the glass tube, in 1661. The level was filled with alcohol and mounted on a stone ruler fitted with a viewing lens. His design did not come into common use until the mid-eighteenth century with the development of improved construction techniques. At the meetings of the Académie he discussed the use of lemon juice as a medicinal cure and ipecac as useful in treating dysentary. Although uneasy about this, knowing too well the sort of vague discussions on such topics that went on in the Royal Society, I will put it in.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1685-92; He attended Montmor's meeting at least as early as 1658. After about 1662 he provided occasions for additional meetings and experimentation in his country house at Issy, several miles south of Paris. There he supported the mathematician Frenicle de Bessy, the Danish anatomist Nils Stensen, and a chemical demonstrator. He held his meetings until 1665 when a lack of funds for apparatus and experimentation hindered his work-or perhaps when the organization of the Académie forcefully disbanded the so-called Academy Thévenot. About 1663 or 1664 a group that included him, Auzout, and Petit proposed a plan for a new academy of scientists. The proposed Compagnie would perform experiments and make observations for the perfection of the sciences and the arts and, in general, to search for all that can bring utility to the human race, and particularly to France. His utilitarian project for a compagnie des sciences et des arts was quite different from the one proposed by Charles Perrault. The Academy of Sciences that emerged in 1666 was more in Perrault's design than in his. He finally became a member of the Academy in 1685. Throughout the 1660's and 1670's he maintained a wide correspondence with numerous persons. Much of it related his translation and publication of voyages of discovery, Relation de divers voyages. His intimate friends included Huygens, Oldenburg, A. Auzuot, and numerous other mid-seventeenth-century personages.
Thomaz, Alvaro [Alvaro Tomas,
1. Dates: First mention, 1509; Last mention, 1513; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan:
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: French; Death: Unknown
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A. Identified as a regent of the Collège de Coqueret at Paris, 1509, in the colophon of his own principal work. I assume B.A. Mentioned in the archives of the university as receiving (I wonder if this doesn't mean rather functioning as) M.A. at the same college, 1513. However, if he functioned as a teaching master, he probably received the degree.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic philosophy, mathematics; Published Liber de triplici motu proportionibus, 1509, in the tradition of the calculatores-a work both of mathematics and of scholastic physics; Thomaz was the calculator par excellence in Paris in the early 16th century, the principal stimulus to the revival of interest in the Mertonian approach to natural philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Academic. Beyond the few details above, nothing is known about Thomaz.
8. Patronage: None Known;
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Available and Not Consulted: Julio
Rey Pastor, Los matematicos espanoles de siglo XVI, Biblioteca scientia,
no. 2 (Toledo, 1926), pp. 82-9.
1. Dates: Born: Basel, 5 August 1531; Died: Cologne, 8 July 1596 Datecode: - Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Merchant; His father, Jacob Thurneysser, was a goldsmith. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Germany; Italy; Germany; Birth: Basel, Switzerland. Career: Berlin, Germany, and Italy. Death: Cologne, Germany.
4. Education: None Known; He took up his fathers profession, but at the same time was a famulus to a Dr. Huber, a physician and alchemist in Basel. He never attended a university.
5. Religion: Lutheran. (assumed), Catholic. He was a Protestant (I believe a Lutheran) for most of his life, but converted to Catholicism near the end.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy.
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Patronage; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Military; Artisan; Pub; He was forced to flee Basel after having been discovered selling gold-covered lead as pure gold. He spent some time in Holland, northern Germany, France and England, working as a goldsmith, armorer, and soldier. 1552, he returned to Germany and joined the army of Albert, Margrave of Brandenburg. 1553, he was captured by the Saxon army and put to work in the mines at Tarenz in the Inn Valley. Following his release, he worked as a goldsmith and smelter in Nuremberg. 1558, he returned to the Tirol where he ran a mine and smelting facilities. His success brought him to the attention of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. 1560-70, he was in the service of the Archduke, on whose instruction Thurneysser traveled to England, France, Bohemia, Hungary, Italy, Spain, and North Africa to acquaint himself with metallurgical methods and medicines. 1571, Thurneysser published a book in Frankfurt an der Oder which brought him to the attention of Johann Georg, Elector of Brandenburg. After Thurnysser successfully treated the Elector's wife, Sabina, he was made court physician in Berlin at the high salary of 1352 Taler. He also conducted a medical practice in Berlin. In addition, he acted as adviser on metallurgy and mining, and established a huge laboratory-employing up to 300 people-at the Greyfriars monastery in Berlin for the production of saltpeter, mineral acids, alums, colored glass, drugs, essences, and amulets. He also founded a printing house which published calendars, prognostications, alchemical and medicinal tracts, and other polemics. (Since his books often contained words in languages he did not know, he was publically accused of harboring in his ink pot a devil who dictated to him.) Thurnysser became rich; he owned a large library, art collection, and a kind of natural history museum. He had agents in a number of German and Polish cities who advertised and sold his wares. In 1576, there was an outbreak of plague and Thurneysser fled with the court. In the years that followed, his second wife died, his business suffered terribly, and he became the object of increasing criticism from his colleagues. 1580, he returned to Basel, where he purchased an estate, 'Zum Thurn,' and styled himself Leonhard Thurnysser zum Thurn. He married the daughter of the Basel patrician Hebrott. Unfortunately, all of the large sum of money which he brought with him to Basel was given to his wife by the Basel town council in the divorce proceedings that followed. More or less broke, he returned to Brandenburg, reentered the service of Johann Georg, and spent some years trying to make gold. After failing to transmute a large amount of silver, he finally left and traveled to Italy. Ca. 1591, he found a patron in Ferdinand de' Medici. At this time he converted to Catholicism. He returned to Germany shortly before his death in 1596.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; His first major patron was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. By far his most significant patron was Johann Georg, Elector of Brandenburg (see above). While in Johann Georg's service he consulted with various other nobility and royalty, sometimes employing up to 10 or 12 secretaries for his correspondence. Among those he flirted with in this manner were the deranged Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia, Frederick II of Denmark, and Stephen Báthory, King of Poland. This flirtation does not seem to have been a great success; after dedicating Historia sive descriptia planatarum to Báthory and receiving less honorarium than he expected, he dedicated the next edition to Johann Georg. Ferdinand de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was his last patron.
9. Technological Connections: Metallurgy; Pharmacology; Med. His factory in Berlin produced pharmaceutical products. He also worked in metallurgy for periods of his life. He had a medical practice on top of everything else in Berlin.
10. Scientific Societies: He conducted a sort of alchemical school in Brandenburg, which numbered the distinguished apothecary Michael Aschenbrenner among its students.
Not Available and Not Consulted: J.C. Moehsen,
zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Mark Brandenburg (Berlin-Leipzig,
1783), 55-198. It appears that Moehsen is the definitive source on Thurneysser.
1. Dates: Born: Faenza (halfway between Bologna and Rimini), 15 October 1608. Died: Florence, 25 October 1647; Datecode: Lifespan: 39
2. Father: Artisan; Church Living; Gaspare Torricelli was a textile artisan. He sent Evangelista to the boy's uncle, a Camaldolese monk, who was at some point (probably later) the prior of a monastery, and who supervised his education. The father was dead by the time Evangelista was eighteen; the uncle was still alive when Evangelista died. The father is said to have been in modest circumstances, and sending his son to an uncle tends to support this. One of Evangelista's brother was a 'drapparolo.' I don't find the word but assume it meant cloth worker. In his will Evangelista referred to his two brothers as poor. Evangelista's extreme caution suggests someone not used to money. On the other hand in the history of the family there was always modest property. While the evidence on financial status has some ambiguity, it appears proper to consider that they were poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; Evangelist'a uncle, the Camaldolese monk, supervised his basic education. He attended a Jesuit college about 1624-5. Some sources say in Faenza. Galluzzi and Festa say it was in Rome (the Collegio Romano in that case) and that some of the family had transferred there. (The mother died in Rome in 1641, and both brothers were living there when Evangelista died.) In school Evangelista showed such promise that he was sent to study with Castelli, who recognized his talent and made him his secretary and occasionally his substitute. Though Castelli was a professor at the Sapienza, there is no mention of a university with Torricelli; the period at the Collegio Romano appears to have been at the secondary level.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics; Physics; Subordinate Disciplines: Hydraulics; Meteorology; Instruments; As a young man Torricelli was greatly interested in astronomy and was a committed Copernican. The condemnation of Galileo in 1633 changed all that. Torricelli was a cautious man, not inclined to tilt at authority, and astronomy simply disappeared from his scientific work. Torricelli's only published work was Opera geometrica, 1644, which included work on motion (or mechanics). In mathematics he employed Cavalieri's method of indivisibles, of which he became a master and which he extended to elegant solutions of volumes and other problems. Torricelli's first known work was a treatise on motion that amplified Galileo's doctrine of projectiles. This is what he included in the Opera geometrica. His Academic Lectures, published long after his death also dealt, in part, with mechanics. The Torricellian experiment (the barometer) was a major event in physics in the middle of the century. A paragraph in De motu gravium (part of the Opera geometrica), on the motion of fluids, was extremely important in the early history of hydrodynamics. His lecture on wind (Academic Lectures) rejected the notion that exhalations cause them and referred the winds instead to differences in temperature at different regions of the earth. Torricelli was perhaps the most gifted lens grinder of his age, who made many telescopes and who developed a microscope using tiny drops of crystal the size of a grain of millet.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Instruments; Secondary Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Academic; According to Torricelli's own word he was secretary to Castelli, for an uncertain period from about 1626 to 1632. He substituted for Castelli as a teacher when Castelli was absent from Rome. I list this position as Mis. Torricelli's means of support in the period 1632-41 is wholly unclear, but there is some evidence that he was secretary to Ciampoli at least part of the time. Again I include this under Mis. Torricelli joined Galileo as his assistant on 10 October 1641. Galileo died on 8 January 1642, and Torricelli was appointed to succeeed him as Mathematician (Mathematician only, not also Philosopher) to the Grand Duke. He was given lodging in the ducal palace. He held this position until his death. He was also appointed as lecturer in mathematics at the 'Studio fiorentino' (salary of 200 'florins'). It is said that the chair in mathematics, long vacant, was revived for him. Festa (who is alone in this) says that he was lecturer at the University of Pisa; I feel rather confident that Pisa was never involved and that the appointment was merely the overt form of the Grand Duke's patronage (like Galileo's earlier chair at Pisa). In 1644 he became also lecturer on military fortifications at the Accademia of Design (additional 40 'florins'), which I am listing as Academic; . Torricelli was a gifted lens grinder. In Florence he devoted much of his time to this, seeking to make himself wealthy.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Castelli recognized the young man's talent, employed him, and effectively launched him. Although the evidence is scant, it appears that Torricelli was secretary to Ciampoli at least some of the period 1632-41. He succeeded Galileo as Mathematician (not Philosopher) to the Grand Duke-from 1642 until Torricelli's death in 1647. The Grand Duke published his Opera geometrica. He frequently rewarded Torricelli with gifts of money for his optical instruments and once with a gold chain of 300 scudi, and the Grand Duke had a special medal struck for him. Galluzzi (pp. 43-6) offers a convincing argument that Torricelli, who never forgot his meager background and total dependence, avoided discussion of the full implications of his famous experiment for prudential reasons-in order not to antagonize the Jesuits and not to alarm his patron, the Grand Duke, that he had another scandal on his hands. He cites a letter of Borelli about the concern of the Grand Duke and his brother Leopold to avoid confrontations (though the letter seems to me to imply that this was a tactic to allow philosophy to proceed more effectively).
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Hydraulics; Military Engineer; In De motu gravium Torricelli calculated a whole set of firing tables for gunners and described a new square that made it easier for gunners to calculate elevations of their piece. However, when tests showed that the tables did not correspond to practice, he disavowed any practical intent. He also lectured on military architecture, and the lectures were published in the posthumous Lezioni accademiche. After hesitation I am listing this. He was a superbly skilled lens grinder, who made telescopes and invented a form of microscope (a perlina) using tiny crops of crystal. He had some 'secret' about grinding lenses that he passed on to the Grand Duke at his (Torricelli's) death. He helped to develop Galileo's air thermometer into a liquid one using spirit of wine. He thought of his tube as an instrument that would show the changing weight of the air. Torricelli offered advice on draining the Val di Chiana.
10. Scientific Societies: In addition to Castelli and Galileo he was close to Viviani and Vincenzo Renieri. He corresponded with Carcavi, Mersenne, and Roberval. With Roberval he had a fierce priority dispute concerning the area and center of gravity of the cycloid. Torricelli's correspondence is published in his Opere (Faenza, 1919) and in vol. 1, 1642-48, of Opere dei discepoli di Galileo-Carteggio, (Firenze, 1975). In Florence he formed an informal Accademia dei Percossi, which was, I gather, primarily a literary group. In 1642 he was elected to the Accademia della Crusca.
Not Available and/or Not Consulted: _____,
ed., Opere scelte di Evangelista Torricelli, (19th century). This
contains a biographical introduction. R. Caverni, Storia del metodo
sperimentale in Italia, 6 vols. reprint ed. (New York, 1972), 4
and 5. A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium,
(Pisa, 1778), 1, 340-99. Giuseppe Rossini, Lettere e documenti
riguardenti Evangelista Torricelli, (Faenza, 1956). Evangelista
Torricelli nel terzo centenario della morte, ed. A. Procissi, (Firenze,
1951). Torricelliana, pubblicato dalla Commissione per le onoranze
a Evangelista Torricelli, III centenario della scoperta del barometro,
anno 1944, (Faenza, 1946). As nearly as I can make out, there was a regular
publication from Faenza with this name. Only two copies of this issue (sometimes
referred to as Torricelliana per anno 1944), and no copies of any
other issue, appear to exist in the United States. I think it is this issue
that carries an article by G. Regoli, 'Evangelista Torricelli segretario
di mons. Giovanni Ciampoli.' E. Festa, biographical sketch in F. de Gandt,
ed., L'oeuvre de Torricelli: science galiléenne et nouvelle géométrie,
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de
1. Dates: Born: Aix-en-Provence, 3 June 1656; Died: Paris, 28 November 1708; Datecode: Lifespan: 52
2. Father: Gentry; Government Official. Tournefort came from a family of minor nobility. His father, Pierre Pitton, seigneur of Tournefort, inherited the estate from his father who had gained it by marriage. Pierre Pitton was a lawyer with sufficient means to purchase the office of royal secretary, which conferred the rights of nobility. Tournefort's mother, Aimare de Fagoue, was the daughter of a royal counselor at the chancellery of Provence. Although clearly affluent, the family was not wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France;
4. Education: University of Montpellier; Scientific Organization; M.D. University of Paris; M.D. Tournefort, originally destined for the church, received an excellent education in classical languages and science from the Jesuits at their college in Aix. After his father's death in 1677 he was free to pursue his own desired studies. His paternal uncle encouraged him towards medicine. In 1679 he began to study medicine at the University of Montpellier. Until 1683 he divided his time between botanizing and his courses in chemistry, medicine, and Magnol's course in botany. He left Montpellier without a degree, and was probably never officially enrolled there. In 1688, while on a botanizing trip in southern France, he received an M.D. from the University of Orange. (I had not knowns there was such a university, and remain sceptical.); In 1695 he was admitted to a license by the medical faculty in Paris, and in 1696 he received an M.D. from Paris. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Mineralogy; Chemistry; Zoology; To the field of botany Tournefort contributed the concept of genus in the modern sense and applied it skillfully to his findings. His goal was to 'reduce each species to its true genus' and define the genus by a specific character. His work in botany added to the research being done in the classification of plants, but along the other line of research, inner structure of plants and their functions, Tournefort contributed little. He did not use a microscope and did not participate in any of the research on plant sexuality and reproduction. Although Tournefort was subject to criticism for these limitations in his work, his conception of genus contained a fundamentally new contribution that was elaborated in the works of Linnaeus, Jussieu, and Adanson. His most significant work was Élémens de botanique, 1694, in which he presented his new system of classification based on the corolla of the plant. Tournefort's success in botany was due to his extensive trips to the Iberian peninsula, England, the Netherlands, and many regions in France. Louis XIV sent Tournefort to Greece, Asia, and Africa to make observations for natural history as well as on the religion, customs, and commerce of the people. Tournefort was interested in minerals and shells (he drew up a classification of shell fish) and had a impressive natural history collection. He published at least one paper on chemistry and included an important discussion of chemistry in his Histoire.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner. Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; In 1683 through the efforts of Fagon and Mme de Venelle, a grand dame at court, Tournefort was chosen to be Fagon's substitute at the Royal Garden. His duties included teaching as well as taking care of and cultivating the plants of the garden. He became Fagon's sole substitute. Tournefort was named professor of medicine at the Collège Royal in 1696. After he returned from his Levantine trip, he returned to this position. Tournefort had a considerable practice in addition to his academic duties. He had some difficulty resuming his practice upon his return from the Levant (1702) but he still had his academic duties. Hazon writes that Tournefort was a doctor at the Hotel Dieu after his return. Upon his return from the Levant he was offered the post of personal physician to the rouyal grandson, just named Philip V of Spain, but Tournefort refused. In 1706 he did become personal physician to Bignon. In 1708 he was appointed professor interieur et exterieur des plantes at the Royal Garden.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Medicine; Patronage of Government Official; Through the efforts of Mme. Venelle and Fagon (the powerful court physician, who was also involved with the Jardin), Tournefort was recommended for the position at the Royal Garden. Tournefort dedicated his Élémens de botanique to Louis XIV and his Histoire des plantes . . . de Paris, 1698, to Fagon. Tournefort was sent on his Levantine trip by Louis XIV. Herman at Leiden offered to name Tournefort as his successor for his chair with a very generous salary, but Tournefort declined this offer. Abbé Bignon nominated him to the Académie. Tournefort left his botanical books to Bignon. (I treat the Abbé as a governmental official.) Pontchartrain was also his protector.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; His Historie des plantes . . . de Paris had a long section on medicines. After his death there was a publication of a manuscript on materia medica.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1693-1708; Abbé Bignon nominated Tournefort to the Académie. Among his correspondents were Magnol at Montpellier and Herman at Leiden. His letters to Fagon have been published.
Not Available and Not Consulted: Bonnet,
ed., 'Lettres de Tournefort à Fagon,' Journal de botanique,
5 (1891), 372-6, 393-5, 420-4.
1. Dates: Born: Towneley Hall, near Burnley, Lancashire, 1629; Died: York, 22 January 1707; Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Gentry; Charles Towneley, of a celebrated Catholic family. Obviously wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Unknown; Probably at one of the English colleges in the Low countries. His younger brothers both studied at Douai. I assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. The family was one of those which stoutly refused to conform to the established Protestant church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Physics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Meteorology; Instruments; In addition to his general interest in Cartesian philosophy, of which he was a thoroughgoing follower, his role in Boyle's law (an investigation carried out with Henry Power), and his astronomical observations, Towneley carried out extended meteorological measurements and improved the micrometer (for use in astronomical observations). He introduced Flamsteed to the micrometer. As an astronomer he perpetuated the tradition of observation established in that region earlier by Horrocks, Crabtree, and Gascoigne. He also investigated capillary phenomena and the use of the barometer to measure altitudes.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Inherited wealth-the family estate. 8. Patronage: None Known; He was himself a patron. As a Catholic he was excluded from any public preferment, and he had no need of other patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Mechanical Devices; Towneley constructed a carriage that passed smoothly over rough roads. He improved on Gascoigne's crude micrometer.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal connections: Influenced and encouraged by his uncle, Christopher Towneley, and like his uncle earlier, he gathered a circle around him which included Henry Power and his brothers. Close friendship with René Francoise Sluse. He corresponded with the Royal Society, and with Boyle and Flamsteed. The Towneley scientific group.
1. Dates: Born: Florence, 27 November 1656; Died: Vallombroso, 29 January 1743; Datecode: Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Unknown; We know only his name: Francesco Simone Tozzi. He is said to have been of modest means; on the other hand he had sufficient means to educate his son. I have to say there is no clear indication of his financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; We are told only that he was able to study philosophy before his investiture at the age of twenty-no mention of a university or a degree. On the other, hand he apparently won a reputation for learning in his order. Nevertheless there should be reference to a university and a degree if there were such.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the order of the monks of Vallombroso on 14 May 1676. He eventually became abbot of the house at Vallombroso and procurator general of the order in Rome.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Tozzi was deeply interested in botany. He collected on his travels for the order, and between 1700 and 1725 he went on many excursions with Micheli, whose teacher and then friend he was. He became good at watercolors in depicting plants. He was especially interested in fungi, lichens, algae, and bryophytes. Tozzi published nothing during his life, but he nevertheless established a reputation among the naturalists (and especially botanists) of all Europe, and he was an important figure in the science of botany. (Saccardo lists a publication of 1703, which others deny to have existed.); Especially in his old age he also collected information on birds and insects. His Sylva fungorum, a manuscript, is preserved in the Bibliotheca nazionale in Florence.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Tozzi spent his whole adult life as a monk. Late in life he was invited to teach in London, an offer which he declined.
8. Patronage: None Known; Tozzi is one of the few in this whole sample who appears to have been completely uninterested in patronage. He twice refused to be abbot of his house though he eventually agreed. Though he did accept the position of procurator general, he later twice refused to be Superior General. Cardinal Caligola, who learned to appreciate Tozzi while he was in Rome, wanted to install him as a bishop. Tozzi wanted the peace of Vallombroso. Note that he did not publish-and thus did not dedicate. After 1730 he retired to a secluded cell at Vallomboso.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); He was close to other naturalists in his order, and close to Micheli, whom he taught initially and then collaborated with. He shared his collections and drawings with William Sherard; he carried on active correspondence with Boerhaave, James Petiver, Hans Sloane, and Micheli. With Micheli he founded the Società Botanica Fiorentina. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Not Available and Not Consulted: J. Proskauer,
'Bruno Tozzi's Little Mystery, or a Quarter Millenium of Confusion,' Webbia,
20 (1965), 227-39. R. Pirotta and E. Chiovenula, 'Flora romana. Bibliografia
e storia,' Annuario del R. Istitute Botanico di Roma, 10.2 (1901),
292-5. Anonimo, 'Letterati, scrittori ed artisti Vallombrosani, CDLXXXV,
Tozzi Don Bruno,' Il Faggio Vallombrosano, 23 (Firenze, 1936), no.
4, 122-6; no. 5, 145-9. I am not able to find any reference to this publication
in an American library.
Tradescant, John (I)
1. Dates: Born: probably Suffolk, c.1570. Early sources say he was born in the Netherlands. Allan says London. The first documentary record of him is his marriage in 1607. Died: South Lambeth, Surrey, 15/16 April 1638; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Unknown; His name was probably Thomas Tradescant. Allan calls him a husbandman, but her evidence is most exiguous. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; The evidence indicates that he did not have a classical education and thus could not have attended grammar school, let along university.
5. Religion: Anglican; Tradescant was steadfastly orthodox in his religious connections.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; The two John Tradescants, father and son, were skilled gardeners with minimal claims to be considered scientists. However, the elder John Tradescant collected everything curious in natural history-minerals, birds, fish, insects, as well as coins, medals, and miscellaneous curiosities. Plantarum in horto Johannum Tradescanti nasentium catalogus, 1634. As gardeners, he and his son introduced a number of new plants into England.
7. Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Patronage. Secondary Means of Support: Military; Merchant; I find it difficult to categorize him. I have put in Miscellaneous for gardener. I could with justice list him as an artisan; his son became a member of the Gardeners Company. As gardener to a series of high aristocrats and the Queen, his support (including details of his salary, which was high, and various favors) verges into patronage. I find it impossible to see a difference in his patrons' use of his talents to project an image of magnificence and their collections of paintings for the same purpose. There is some evidence that he was gardener to William Brooks at Cobham Hall before 1600. Certainly he had established his reputation as a gardener by 1610 when Salisbury began to employ him. Gardener to the Earl of Salisbury, 1610-14, (mostly at Hatfield, but also at Cranborne in Dorset and at Salisbury House in London) with the high salary of ?50. If the salary sounds like ordinary employment, the additional gifts, such as ?100 in 1612, sound like patronage. This was Tradescant's first documented employment. Salisbury sent him on expeditions to the continent to purchase vines, trees, plants, and flowers for Hatfield House. Salisbury (Robert Cecil) died in 1612; Tradescant continued with the heir until 1614-15. Gardener to Edward Lord Wotton at Canterbury in Kent, c.1615-23. During this time he joined Sir Dudley Digges' embassy to Russia as a botanist, and brought home some plants. In 1620 he joined an expedition against the Barbary corsairs. Gardener to the Duke of Buckingham, c.1624-8. He accompanied Buckingham's expedition to La Rochelle in 1628. Buckingham arranged for Tradescant to hold the sinecure of yeoman garnetter at the Whitehalff granary (which I categorize as patronage). By the time of Buckingham's assassination, Trandescant had acquired enough to be financially independent. He set up a garden and museum (called the Ark) in South Lambeth, 1628. This was run as a commercial enterprise, with a fee to enter. It appears that he also ran the garden as a commerical nursery. Gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria with a salary of ?100 (very high for a gardener), 1630 until his death. He continued to operate his own establishment in South Lambeth, and there is some evidence that he functioned as a consultant on gardens to various aristocrats associated with the court. He was appointed keeper of the new physic garden at Oxford in 1637 (?50), and held the position until his death. I include this under the category of Miscellaneous (for gardener).
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; The Earl of Salisbury. Lord Wotton. The Duke of Buckingham. The King and the Queen.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; He introduced some new species into England.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: He set up the first botanical garden and museum in England and attracted many naturalists and botanists. Connection with the French gardeners, Jean and Vespasien Robin and René Morin.
Tradescant, John (II)
1. Dates: Born: Meopham, Kent, 4 August 1608. At least he was baptized on 4 August. Died: South Lambeth, Surrey, 22 April 1662; Datecode: Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Mis; John (I) Tradescant, a gardener and natural historian. I categorize him as gardener (i.e., Miscellaneous). The father came to own fairly extensive property, and was clearly prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; King's School, Canterbury. No university education.
5. Religion: Anglican; Like his father, he was steadfast in his attachment to the established church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Like his father, Tradescant was a skilled gardener, and his claim to be a scientist is minimal. He did make three expeditions to Virginia, and he collected specimens, especially plants, while he was there. Musaeum Tradescantianum, 1656. The collection (originally assembled by John I Tradescant, the father) recorded in this publication passed, after Tradescant's death, through the hands of Ashmole to Oxford, where it bears Ashmole's name rather than Tradescant's.
7. Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Personal Means; Patronage. Secondary Means of Support: Merchant; Gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria, 1638-42 (when the Queen fled the Civil War). Tradescant succeeded his father; as with his father I categorize him both under Gardener (Miscellaneous) and under Patronage. His status appears to me as a perfect embodiment of the ambiguity of patronage relation. From his father he also inherited the museum, which continued to be run as a commercial enterprise. After the Parliamentary victory and the termination of his relation with the court, the museum was Tradescant's principal means of livelihood. Although I did not find an explicit reference, I assume that like his father he also operated the garden as a commercial nursery. There is evidence that he functioned as a merchant in overseas trading during the late 50's.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Medical Practioner; Queen Henrietta Maria. Add that Tradescant dedicated the second edition of Musaeum Tradescantianum, 1660, to Charles II, and that when an official tried to make Tradescant get a license to operate the museum, Charles gave him a warrant to proceed without one. Possibly Elias Ashmole should be mentioned here. He financed the publication of Musaeum in 1656. However, the conventional wisdom (which is supported by considerable evidence and thus accepted by me) is that Ashmole was then already scheming to get the collection into his own hands. I won't treat this as patronage. Tradescant dedicated the first edition to Musaeum to the President and Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians. Tradescant was growing medicinal plants for the college at this time and was negotiating with them over the establishment of a physic garden.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; He and his father introducted a number of new plants into England.
10. Scientific Societies: Company of Master Gardeners of London, 1634.
Trulli [Trullio, Trullius], Giovanni
1. Dates: Born: Veroli, Frosinoe province, 1598; Died: Rome, 27 December 1661; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Unknown; We are told only that his name was Leonardo Trulli. It may be relevant that Trulli's brother Stefano was also a physician in Rome and that Stefano's son, another Giovanni Trulli, became a lecturer in anatomy and surgery at the Sapienza. No indication about the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: France; Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; All we know of his early years is that he went to France for training in surgery. In the 17th century this would mean somewhere other than a university.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Discipline: Medicine; Surgery; Trulli was consulted on the blindness of Galileo, and his written opinion in response to Galileo's (lost) description of his symptoms, is the fullest medical document on the blindness. Trulli is in the DSB solely because of that opinion. However, he is not wholly lacking in modest scientific credentials even though he never published anything. In connection with the correspondence about Galileo it appears that Trulli had formulated a theory about cataracts. He developed a very high reputation as a surgeon. He proposed to publish a collection of observations and a treatise on aneurisms, although he did not in fact carry through with the plan. Severino carried on a scientific correspondence with him. He became one of the Italian supporters of the circulation of the blood.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Trulli settled in Rome in 1636 as surgeon to Cardinal Francesco Barberini and to Urban VIII and later to Alexander VII. Urban established a special chair in surgery for him at the Sapienza, which he occupied until Urban's death. He was also surgeon at the Santo Spirito Hospital. A contemporary reference to him spoke of the many cures he had effected in France, Genoa, and Rome, and of 26 operations for the stone in Rome during the first two years he was there. There are other references to his medical practice in correspondence of the day.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; See above for his service to Cardinal Francesco Barberini and Popes Urban VIII and Alexandre VII (but not to Innocent X, who came between them). Urban established a chair in surgery for Trulli at the Sapienza, with a salary of 200 scudi. (The roles of the university show his actual salary as 300.) He was called upon to embalm Urban's corpse in 1644. He was called to Florence to the Medici court in 1646.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: Nine letters of his scientific correspondence with Severino survive.
Tschirnhaus, Ehrenfried Walther
1. Dates: Born: Kieslingswald, near Görlitz, Germany, 10 April 1651; Died: Dresden, 11 October 1708 Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Position. He was the youngest son of Christoph von Tschirnhaus, a landowner and nobelman of upper Lusatia. His father was also 'kurfürstlicher und sächsischer Rath und Landesältester in Görlitzischer Fürstenthum.'; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Kieslingswald, near Görlitz, Germany. Career: Kieslingswald, Germany. Death: Dresden, Germany.
4. Education: University of Leiden; Excellent education from private tutors. 1666, entered the senior class at the Görlitz gymnasium. He also attended private lectures in mathematics. 1668, enrolled at the University of Leiden to study philosophy. mathematics, and medicine. (He matriculated at the medical faculty in 1669.) He also received private instruction from Pieter van Schooten. There is no mention of a B.A., which would have been irrelevant to one of his standing. 1674, he began an educational tour that took him to Leiden, London, and Paris.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Physics. Subordinate Disciplines: Chemistry.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; 1672, at the beginning of the war between Holland and France, he joined the student volunteer corps, but did not see action in the year and a half he served. 1674, after a short visit to Krieslingswald, he returned to Leiden, where he was introduced to Spinoza. 1675, with a recommendation from Spinoza he went to see Henry Oldenburg. He visited John Wallis in Oxford and met John Collins. Later in 1675, bearing recommendations from Oldenburg to Leibnitz and Huygens, he moved to Paris. To support himself in Paris he taught mathematics to Colbert's sons (since his French was not fluent, he taught in Latin). 1676, he accompanied Count Nimpsch of Silesia on a trip to southern France and Italy, returning in 1679. 1679, he returned home, where he remained substantially for the rest of his life. He studied intensively from 1679-81 hoping to obtain a paid position at the Acadèmie Royale; it was his intention to obtain a position that would allow him to devote his life to science without worrying about worldly concerns. He became a member in 1682, but without a pension. Perhaps the French assumed that because he was the son a nobleman that he was of independant means. After returning to Germany from a visit to France in 1682, since his father was still alive, he lived off the proceeds of a small neighboring estate. He probably received the property as a by-product of his marriage to Eleonore Elisabeth von Lest, the daughter of an influential figure at the court of the Elector of Saxony. A couple of years after their marriage, Tschirnhaus's father died, leaving the family estate of Kieslingswald to Tschirnhaus and his brother Georg Albrecht. Though he ran the estate together with his brother at first, Eleonore soon allowed Tschirnhaus to do precisely what he wanted-devote himself entirely to science without the distractions of everyday life-by administering the details of running the estate herself. In accordance with his position in society, Tschirnhaus was also Assessor at the Lusatian parliament. Through the 1680s, he interested himself with industrial processes, mostly the maufacture of porcellain and glass. He solicited funds for his research from the Elector. He lobbied the court sucessfully to construct three glassworks, which supposedly saved Saxony 20000 thaler a year in its external trade. In 1692, the Saxon court commissioned him to produce an especially large burning mirror. The contract was for 1000 taler, yearly pension, and the title of court counsellor. He never completed the commission, but did receive the title. After the death of Elector Johann Georg IV of Saxony (1694), Friedrich August (later August II, King of Poland) succeeded him. The state was in dire financial straits and Friedrich August gave Tschirnhaus the assignment of searching all of Saxony for deposits of precious stones. This project became a major project of Tschirnhaus's laboratory. The need to make more money also focused the attention of the laboratory on certain manufacturing techniques, like making large glass blanks and high-temperature porcellain. This activity was not undertaken solely for the good of the state; Tschirnhaus hoped to fund the scientific society he planned with proceeds from his Schliefmaschine (glass polishing machine), porcellain techniques, and precious stone polishing. After negotiations in 1704, it was decided that Tschirnhaus would receive for his academy a fraction of the proceeds of whatever successful processes he developed with the alchemist Böcher. Böcher was being held by the Saxon government and Tschrinhaus had been given the responsibility of overseeing his work in 1702. Tschirnhaus's fortunes took a turn for the worse after the Swedish invasion of 1706-7. His personal holdings in Lausitz were hit hard, and Böttcher was liberated by the Swedes. However, after the war, various governments began negotiating with him. The Elector of Brandenburg offered him the position of Chancellor at the University of Halle with a salary of 3000 taler, trying not only to win him for Halle but also to obtain his potentially lucrative porcellain techniques. Tschirnhaus was already closely tied to A.H. Franke, but negotiated with his associate, Freiherr von Caustein, a trusted noble at the Prussian court. Tschirnhaus would not sell his secrets, saying that they had already been bid for by August II. Tschirnhaus said his bid was 1) 2000 taler cash, 2) up to 1000 taler for the construction of a laboratory, and 3) the right to undertake 'certain lucrative propositions.' This was an old bid; Tshcirnhaus had obtained 100 taler in 1692 and had been negotiating for the rest ever since. Franke and Caustein tried to overbid. Franke wanted a glassworks as well. Eventually, Tschirnhaus drove Krieslingswalde so deeply into debt that the estate no longer belonged to him, and he became financially dependant on Franke. Other rulers that offered Tschirnhaus administrative positions were the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Kassel. It seems that even after negotiating with the other governments that Tschirnhaus was too closely tied to Saxony court and had too much invested in his lab to move away.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; The student volunteer force of which Tschirnhaus was a member was run by a friend of his, Oberstein Baron von Nieuwland, whom he impressed enough to be offered a position of captain in hopes that he would stay. He received recommendations during his student years from Spinoza to Oldenburg, from Oldenburg to Huygens, and from Huygens to Colbert. Colbert certainly assisted him in Paris, and later tried in vain to get him back to Paris. Colbert recommended him to the Acadèmie. Tschirnhaus's Medicina mentis was meant to be dedicated to Colbert, but after hearing of his death, Tschirnhaus dedicated it to Louis XIV instead. He spent three years travelling with Count Nimpsch of Silesia directly after his years in Paris. Tschirnhaus lobbied Leibnitz, hoping to get him to use whatever influence he might have to get him a paid position at the Académie. At Tschirnhaus's bequest, Leibnitz also approached Duke Johann Friedrich, recommending Tschirnhaus for a paid scientific position in 1678. After settling down in Krieslingswalde, Tschirnhaus became more closely tied to the Saxon court and the electors Johann Georg and Friedrich August. Friedrich August should be counted as his greatest patron. Tschirnhaus cultivated his relationship with Egon von Fürstenberg, a trusted advisor of August II (that is, Friedrich August after he become King of Poland), to solicit funds for his fledgling academy. Tschirnhaus hoped with von Fürstenberg's help to produce mirrors of unprecedented width. Von Fürstenberg also made Tschirnhaus's trip to Holland and France (1701-1702) possible. Tschirnhaus was godfather to the Bergrat Pabst von Ohain's son (1702). Ohain was a close friend and member of Tschirnhaus's scientific circle, and together they watched Böttcher. By the end of his life, Tschirnhaus was deeply in debt to A.H. Franke.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; Instruments; Tschirnhaus made a number of technological advances, most of which are referred to above. He is most noted for the techniques of making hard-paste porcellain. It was Böttcher who actually rediscovered the technique, but Tschirnhaus supervised him at every step of the way. He also developed the techniques for polishing minerals and producing large blanks of optical glass. He developed a lens polishing machine. Tschirnhaus clearly saw science as capable of producing certain valuable techniques whose commercial success he sought to harness to support the academy he sought to found.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); He became a member of the Acadèmie Royale in 1682, but without a pension. After failing to get a paid position at the Acadèmie, Tschirnhaus tried for the rest of his life to get enough support to found a Saxon academy of sciences. His scientific circle included J. 'Becker' Hoffman (d. 1703), Mohrendal (d. 1697), Knorr (d. 1699), Paulli, Avon, Schönberg (a noble), and Ohain (a councillor). Tschirnhaus even paid van Gent a salary to act as a correspondent. He was a contributor from the beginning to the 'Acta eruditorum' and a member of this circle. Connections: He had strong connections with Spinoza, Oldenburg, Huygens, and Leibnitz. However, he was eventually also on bad terms with Leibnitz, Fatio de Dullier, Huygens, La Hire, and Jacob I and Johann I Bernoulli-mostly for publishing their discoveries as his own.
Not Available and Not Consulted: R.H. Vermij,
'De Nederlandse breinderkring van E.W. von Tschirnhaus,' Tijdschrift
voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en
Techniek, 11 (1988), 153-78.
1. Dates: Born: Amsterdam, 11 October 1593; Died: The Hague, 12 September 1674 Datecode: Lifespan: 81;
2. Father: Merchant; Pieter Dirkz, a wealthy merchant. Tulp himself first took this name, which means 'tulip,' from a decoration on the gable of his house.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: Leiden, M.D. Matriculated in 1611. M.D. in 1614. I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Pharmacology. Subordinate Disciplines: Zoology; His Observationum medicarum libri tres, 1641, contains 228 case histories. He proposed the first pharmacopoeia of the Netherlands and apparently supplied most of its contents. He first described the chimpanzee scientifically.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Magistrate; After taking his degree he settled in Amsterdam, where he quickly developed a lucrative practice. He was appointed praelector of anatomy in 1618, a position he held until 1652. The position involved public lectures on anatomy and public dissection-see the famous painting by Rembrandt. He was very prominent in the political life of Amsterdam and served four times as mayor.
8. Patronage: None Known; I take it as obvious that his connections in Amsterdam materially forwarded his career. Nevertheless I did not find any mention of anything I would call patronage. Perhaps he was from the beginnning simply too prosperous to have need of patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); The Amsterdam Medical College was organized to enforce the decree that demanded sole use of Tulp's pharmacopoeia.
Not Available and/or Not Consulted: G.A.
Lindeboom, 'Medical Aspect of Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp,'
64 (1977), 179-204. J.S. Theissen, 'Nicolas (Claes Pieterz.) Tulp,'
in Gedenkboek van het Athenaeum en de Universiteit van Amsterdam,
(Amsterdam, 1932), pp. 695-6.
Tunstall [Tunstal, Tonstall],
1. Dates: Born: Hackforth, Yorkshire, 1474; Died: London, 18 November 1559; Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Gentry; Tunstall was a natural son of Thomas Tunstall, legitimized later by the marriage of his parents and accepted as a member of the family. Whether because he was not the first born son or whether because of his quasi-illegitimate origin, he was sent to the university and destined for the church. Clearly the family was prosperous if not more.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, Cmb; University of Padua; L.D. Oxford, c.1491, Balliol College. Apparently because of the plague he migrated to Cambridge. Cambridge, c.1496, King's Hall (merged before long into Trinity). Biographia britannica says there is no recorded B.A. I am assuming a B.A. or its equivalent, however. Padua, 1499-1505; L.L.D., 1505, in both Canon and Roman law.
5. Religion: Catholic. Tunstall did not accept the Protestant Reformation. He did temporize with the murderous issue of royal supremacy and held on to his position under both Henry and Edward. He was finally deprived of his position at the end of Edward's reign, was restored under Mary, and then deprived again under Elizabeth less than two months before his death.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Tunstall was an outstanding classical scholar, the friend of both Thomas More and Erasmus. He assisted Erasmus in the preparation of the second edition as his Greek New Testament. He was primarily an official, however, both in the government of England and in the administration of the church. He composed a number of religious works. His presence in this catalogue is due to De arte supputandi, either the first or nearly the first book on arithmetic published in England. Compiled from the works of others, the book does not make any claim of originality.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Government Position; Tunstall returned to England from Padua about 1505 and immediately found ecclesiastical preferment. As far as we know, he never resided in any of the parishes he held except for Harrow. Rector of Barmston (Yorkshire), 1506-7, apparently from a family connection. Chancellor of Archbishop Warham, 1509. This was the decisive connection. It must have stood behind the three benefices on 1508-9, and it introduced him to the Court. Rector of Stanhope (Durham), 1508-20, ?67. Rector of Aldridge, 1509, resigned same year. Rector of Steeple Langford, (Wiltshire), 1509-11, ?34. Add to them Rector of Harrow on the Hill (Middlesex), 1512-22, ?88. Prebend of Stow Longa, Lincoln cathedral, 1514-20, ?33; Archdeacon of Chester, 1515-22, ?65; Prebend of Botevant in York Cathedral, 1519-22, ?17; Dean of Salisbury Cathedral, with a prebend and a parish, 1521-3, the whole worth ?263. By now he was deeply involved with the royal government. Ambassador at Brussels to Charles, Prince of Castile, 1515-17 (with per diem allowance of ?1); Ambassador to Charles V's court at Cologne, 1519-21 (per diem now up to ?2); and other diplomatic mission in 1525-6, 1529, and 1545-6. The diplomatic assignments were expensive beyond their remuneration, but they installed Tunstall in the graces of Henry. He was a member of Henry's Council by 1515. Master of Rolls, 1516-22, with 'annuity' of ?31 and apparently fees. Keeper of the Privy Seal, 1523-30 with salary of ?365 and again fees. President of the Council of the North, 1530-38, ?800; he continued on the Council after he ceased to be its president. Through the King he obtained serious ecclesiastical preferment. Bishop of London, 1522-30, ?1119. Bishop of Durham, 1530-59, ?2810. He was deprived at the end of 1552 under Edward, restored almost immediately under Mary, then deprived under Elizabeth in 1559 just before his death. Note that all of these positions were the result of patronage, but the recompense came through the church and the government.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; . Lady Margaret Boynton, related if I recall to Tunstall's sister-in-law, installed him in Barmston. Archbishop Warham started his meteoric career and arranged all sorts of ecclesiastical appointments. He introduced him to the Court. Tunstall held onto favor under Wolsey. Henry VIII had him appointed to the sees of London and Durham successively and to the governmental positions listed above. Mary reinstated him in 1553 after his deprivation in 1552. Tunstall was intimate with the whole circle of English humanists. He dedicated De arte supputandi to Thomas More, who in turn wrote many flattering things about him. I do not consider this patronage in view of the reciprocal flattery. With his eminence Tunstall became a patron himself. Books were dedicated to him-e.g., a translation of Plutarch and Lucian into Latin by the diplomatist Richard Pace, whom Tunstall got to know in Padua, and Grynaeus' edition of the Greek text of Euclid. He is reported to have kept a learned circle around him in Durham. He bestowed money and books on Cambridge for its library.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; De arte suppotandi was explicitly practical in intent; he was not composed as an exercise in mathematical theory. The dedication stressed the practical intent.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Close friendship with Thomas More, Linacre, and the whole circle of English humanists, and with Erasmus.
Not Available and/or Not Consulted: J.K.
McConica, English Humanists and Reformation Politics, (Oxford, 1965).
1. Dates: Born: London, 1586; Died: London, January 1652; Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Medical Practioner; The father, also Peter Turner, was a physician in London. His father, William Turner, is also in this catalogue as one of the fathers of English natural history. I assume physicians are at least prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Oxford University, St. Mary Hall, then Christ Church; B.A., 1605; M.A., 1612. M.D., conferred during a royal visit, 1636. I do not count this as an advanced degree.
5. Religion: Anglican; Turner was close to Archbishop Laud. He was a dedicated royalist during the Civil War.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Turner left no writings. He was known more as a Latinist and linguist. He held two chairs in mathematics, and was said by Wood, for whatever his opinion counts on this subject, to be a learned mathematician. I am leaving Turner in, but his claim to being part of the scientific community is as thin as anyone in this catalogue.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Military; Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 1607-48. Professor of geometry at Gresham College, 1620-30. Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford, 1630-48. He was ejected, as as royalist, from both the chair and the fellowship, in 1648. Served under Sir John Byron in the Civil War, 1641.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Archbishop Laud was instrumental in his appointment to the Savilian chair. Turner was one of the most active members of the committee that produced the Laudian statutes of Oxford. I assume that it was in this connection that he caught Laud's eye. Wood says that Turner was much loved by Laud, who wanted to make him a Secretary of State or a clerk of the Privy Council. According to Wood, Turner prefered the studious life-and, Wood adds, he had hopes of becoming the Warden of Merton.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Connection with Gresham College.
1. Dates: Born: Morpeth, Northumberland, 1508; Died: London, 7 July 1568; Datecode: Lifespan: 60
2. Father: Artisan; Turner is believed to have been the son of another William Turner, a tanner. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; German; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A. University of Ferrara; University of Bologna; M.D. Cambridge University, Pembroke Hall, 1526-33; B.A. 1530; M.A., 1533. Studied medicine in Italy, at Ferrara Bologna, 1540-2. M.D. at one or the other. He was later incorporated M.D. at Oxford.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Already at Cambridge he embraced the Reformation, apparently under the influence of Latimer and Ridley; as a mature man he was never a Catholic. In 1540 he began travelling about preaching until he was arrested. He then went into exile to study medicine. He returned when Edward succeeded to the throne and went again into exile under Mary. If not before, he became a Calvinist at this time, and when he returned with Elizabeth's succession he wanted to bring the English church into agreement with the reformed churches of Germany and Switzerland. He was suspended for nonconformity in 1564.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Zoology. Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Quite early in his career Turner became interested in natural history and set out to produce reliable lists of English plants and animals. He is known as the father of English botany. Libellus de re herbaria, 1538. The Names of Herbes, 1548. New Herball, 1551-68. He is also called the first ornithologist in the modern scientific spirit. Avium praecipuarum historia, 1544. An edition of Longolius, Dialogue de avibus et earum nominibus. Turner composed an essay on fish, primarily a list of English fish, which Gesner published. Turner was always interested in the pharmacological uses of plants. He composed as well a treatise on baths, especially Bath, a book on wines (concerned with their medicinal value), and an essay on triacles (medicines).
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; : Fellow of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1530-c.40; Junior Treasurer, 1532; Senior treasurer, 1538. While still on the continent after completing his medical degree, he became physician to the Earl of Emden. Back in England he became Chaplain and physician to the Duke of Somerset, and through Somerset's influence he obtained eccelsiastical preferment; Dean of Wells Cathedral, 1551-3, 1560-4 (worth ?151 in all), and Prebend of Botevant in York Cathedral, 1550. The position as Somerset's physician also led to practice among upper society. In Weissenburg, 1553-8, during the Marian exile, he supported himself as a physician. Some claim that he was a member of Parliament under Edward. The evidence looks very thin to me.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The New Herball says that Turner (the son of a tanner) enrolled in Pembroke Hall under the patronage of Thomas, Lord Wentworth. To Wentworth he dedicated a religious work in 1538, and to Wentworth's son the second part of the New Herball in 1562. Turner states in the New Herball that he was physician to the Earl of Emden, Lord of East Friesland, during the mid 40s. Duke of Somerset (who incidentally was related to Lord Wentworth). To him Turner dedicated the first part of the New Herball in 1551. Turner owed his Prebend at York and the Deanship of Wells Cathedral at least partly to Somerset. It was, however, the Archbishop of York who installed him in the prebend. Turner also dedicated a religious book to Latimer in 1551. He dedicated Aevium prasecipuarum historia, 1544, to Prince Edward (later Edward VI). The preface to The Names of Herbes, 1548, appeals to William Cecil, who had been a fellow student at Cambridge, for patronage to carry on his natural history, and several letters (quoted by Jackson) discuss possibly preferments. These letters certainly suggest that he was Cecil's client. Later he dedicated the New Boke of Wines, 1568, to Cecil. He dedicated A New Book of Spiritual Physick, 1555, to several prominent aristocrats-but I gather the book hectored them, so that I doubt that we should see this dedication as patronage. He dedicated his Book on the Nature and Properties of Bathes, 1562, to the Earl of Hertford, Somerset's son. Elizabeth restored Turner to his positions; he dedicated the completed New Herball, 1568, to her.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Turner's work in natural history was always slanted toward medicinal usage. He intended the New Herball for apothecaries, and he included in it his book on baths. A New Boke on the Natures and Properties of all Wines, 1568, had pharmacological intent behind it, as also the included treatise of triacle.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Intimate friendship with Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer. In Italy he studied with Luca Ghini, by whom he was much influenced. Friendship with Hugh Morgan, an apothecary and herbalist, and with John Rich, an apothecary, both of London. Friendship with Konrad Gesner. Correspondence with Leonhart Fuchs. He may also have met Valerius Cordus. One of the interesting aspects of Turner is his connection with a number of natural historians, a vestige of a nascent scientific community.
Turquet de Mayerne, Theodore
1. Dates: Born: Mayerne (near Geneva), 28 September 1573; Died: London, 15/16 March 1655; Datecode: Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Let; Mayerne was the son of a noted Huguenot historian and political theorist, Louis Turquet de Mayerne. His mother, Louise le Macon was the daughter of Antoine le Macon, treasurer-at-war in the reigns of Francis I and Henry II of France. No explicit information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: France; English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Heidelberg; University of Montpellier; M.D. He completed his early schooling in Geneva. He took his undergraduate degree at the University of Heidelburg. After travelling widely in Europe, he decided to get a medical degree. He matriculated at the University of Montpellier in 1591 and received his M.B. in 1596 and his M.D. in 1597. On his first trip to England he was incorporated M.D. at Oxford (1606).
5. Religion: Calvinist; Theodore Beza was Turquet's godfather. Turquet resisted efforts to convert him in France. Religion was the ultimate reason for his move to England following the assassination of Henry IV.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Iatrochemistry. Subordinate Disciplines: Entomology; Though he was not a prominent scientific figure in his own right, he was influencial in the introduction and support of chemical therapy in medicine. After 1597, Turquet went to Paris and became the protegé of Jean Ribit [Riverius], his teacher at Montpellier and the chief physician to Henry IV. Both Ribit and Turquet endorsed the use of chemical remedies in their practice and fostered the training of apothecaries in the preparation of new medicants. Turquet gave lectures to whatever students would come, which included mostly surgeons and apothecaries. His advocacy of iatrochemistry embroiled him in a bitter polemic with the Paris Faculty of Medicine. His opposition wrote the Apologia pro medicina Hippocratis & Galeni, contra Mayernium & Quercetanum, in which G. Heron, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, wrote a few paragraphs in support of the diatribe against Turquet and his colleagues. Turquet responded with a written defense of chemical therapy (also titled Apologia). Subsequent attacks from the opposition were instigated by Riolan Sr. and led to the censuring of Turquet. Since by 1603 Turquet had the position of a royal physician, the official censure of the Faculty did not effect his practice at court. However, he ultimately left for England. He served on the committee that produced the Pharmacopoeia Londonensis in 1618. He was the first in England to establish definitively the clinical study of medicine and recording observations as in 'case studies.'; The year after receiving a fourteen year monopoly for the production of distilled spirits and vinegars in London he published The Distiller of London. In 1644 he published Prophylactica, a set of precautions for the plague. Among his other writings are travel logs and a culinary guide to French cooking. In fact, Turquet did not contribute greatly to medicine, but after his death a number of his writings were published posthumously, especially Mayernii opera medica. He was the editor of Mouffet's posthumous book on insects; the prefatory epistle indicates that he had considerable knowledge of the subject.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; As Ribit's disciple he built up a successful practice that included many Huguenot nobles. On Ribit's death (1605) he took over their joint practice. See above for the lectures he gave on the preparation of iatrochemical medicines. In 1600 Henry IV appointed him to attend the duc de Rohan on his embassies to the courts of Germany and Italy, and upon his return he became a court physician which included duties as a medical officer in the Paris district. He enjoyed steadily mounting favor at the court. In 1606 Turquet cured an influential Englishman of some disease in Paris. He was invited over to England and was appointed physician to the Queen. Whether Turquet remained in England from 1606 until the death of Henry IV is uncertain. After the death of Henry IV in 1610 at least, Turquet did move to England where he became the chief physician to James I. Turquet had a dazzling career in England and attracted high nobles to his practice. With Henry Atkins, President of the Royal College of Physicians, he helped to establish the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries. Turquet served as chief physician to three kings. (After the execution of Charles I he was appointed titular physician to Charles II). He received ?800 for his services to the King and Queen, a house, and benefits worth ?1400/year. This does not include the many other clients he had outside the immediate royal household. In 1618 he bought an estate in Aubonne. In 1638 he received a fourteen year monopoly for producing distilled spirits and vinegars in London. It is unknown if Turquet benefited from this monopoly since the business was not enrolled until 1658 and only received a livery in 1672.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; He dedicated his Apologia of 1603 to Achilles Harlaeus, President of the Parlement of Paris. Through Ribit's influence he became a royal physician. Turquet was chief physician to four kings. He also counted among his many clients several Huguenot nobles and in England court aristocrats. James I knighted Turquet in 1624.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Chemistry; Turquet endorsed and helped introduce Paracelsian chemical remedies. He brought calomel into use. He was the first to prepare mercurial lotion (black wash). He had a hand in the Pharmacopaeia Londonensis, 1618. About half of his posthumous Opera medica is devoted to a pharmacopoeia. He also developed pigments and enamels, especially the purple necessary for carnations tints in enamels. Among his friends were several artists, Rubens, Van Dyke, Peter Lely, and Jean Petitot. He composed a manuscript treatise on pigments for painters.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); In 1616 he was elected fellow to the Royal College of Physicians. Upon his death he bequethed his library to this organization.
1. Dates: Born: Bristol, 20 January 1651; Died: London, 1 August 1708; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Merchant; Magistrate; Also Edward Tyson, he was a wealthy merchant and city magistrate in Bristol, who had inherited a considerable estate from his own father. Note that Tyson went to Oxford as a fellow commoner.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A., M.D. Cambridge University; M.D. Oxford University, Magdalen Hall; B.A., 1670; M.A., 1673: M.B. (which I list as M.D.), 1677. Cambridge University, M.D., 1680. According to the story about this degree, Tyson went up to Cambridge in 1680 intending to perform all the exercises, but the university refused and demanded only the fee. Tyson, offended by the university, nevertheless paid the money and took the degree, which allowed him to practice legally in London. He became a Candidate to the Royal College of Physicians that same year. I list other universities and degrees under similar circumstances, and so I list this one.
5. Religion: Anglican; The family had a tradition of Anglicanism which he fully embraced. Late in life he endowed his native church in Bristol with an annual sermon on St. Stephen's day.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Natural History. Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; In Oxford Tyson became interested in natural history. His manuscripts contain considerable material on this study, including detailed descriptions of a number of plants and of such species as the sea-anenome. Tyson published more than two dozen articles in the Philosophical Transactions on anatomy, natural history, morbid anatomy and pathology. He was a pioneer in correlating post mortem dissections with specific diseases. He discovered the 'Tyson glands' in the penis. He was a leader in comparative anatomy: Phocaena, or the Anatomy of a Porpess, 1680, which contains an extensive discussion of his idea of a natural history of animals based on comparative anatomy. Later he added an anatomy of a rattlesnake and of some other animals. He contributed two descriptions of fish to Willoughby's History of Fishes, 1686. In 1698 an anatomy of a female opossum and in 1704 of a male. 1699: Orang-Outang (a chimpanzee)-this was his most important work. His manuscripts contain many more descriptions and dissections than he found time from his medical practice to publish. Incidentally, he used the microscope in many of his dissections. He also published on medicine in Bartholin's Acta medica.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Org; He inherited a fortune from his father, 1667. Practice in London, 1677-1708. He set up there following his B.M. degree in 1677. There is good evidence that the practice flourished. His will indicates that he died quite wealthy. Physician to Bethlehem and Bridewell Hospitals, 1684-1708. Ventera readership in Anatomy at the Surgeons Hall, 1684- 99. He was also the anatomical curator and prosector of the Royal Society (salaried at ?20) in 1683.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; The Lord Keeper North used his influence at court to arrange Tyson's appointment to Bethlehem and Bridewell Hospitals. Hooke introduced him to the Royal Society and arranged his dissections in 1679. (I'll leave this information here, but not count it as patronage.); He dedicated Phocaena, 1680, to Sir Joseph Williamson, President of the Royal Society, and to the Council and Fellows. He dedicated Orang-Outang, 1699, to John Lord Somers, the Lord Chancellor but also at that time President of the Royal Society. (The Royal Society gave its imprimatur to this book.) The Royal Society played a major role in Tyson's life, and with Tyson's personal wealth also in mind, I am not considering these dedications as aspects of patronage. James Keill dedicated his Anatomy to Tyson.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Strongly influenced by Plot when he was young; he maintained a correspondence on natural history with Plot until Plot's death. Close relationship with Hooke after 1678. Collaboration with Samuel Collins on his System of Anatomy, and later with William Cowper who collaborated with Tyson in some of Tyson's work. Friendship with the Danish physician Holger Jacobeus. He was part of the Oxford Group and later was elected to the Oxford Philosophical Society in 1686. Royal Society, 1679; Council in 1681 and many later years. Royal College of Physicians, 1683; Censor, 1694.
Ulstad [Ulstadt], Philipp
1. Dates: Born: unknown, before 1525; Died: unknown, after 1543 Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: -
2. Father: Unknown; Philipp Ulstad was a Nuremberg patrician. I suppose we might infer from this that his father was also, though nothing is known about his parents. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Sw, Un; Birth: Nuremberg, Germany (assumed). Career: Fribourg, Switzerland. Death: Unknown (perhaps Fribourg, Switzerland).
4. Education: None Known.
5. Religion: Unknown;
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Iat
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Little is known of his life except that he was a Nuremberg patrician who taught medicine at the academy in Fribourg.
8. Patronage: None Known.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; I have found no evidence that he himself practiced medicine, but according to Fichmann (DSB), 'Concerned with culling from the medieval alchemical corpus those techniques and ideas of practical utility, he ensured that they were made available to as large an audience as possible, including all apothecaries, surgeons, and medical doctors.'
10. Scientific Societies: Forbes states, without evidence, that Ulstad was an associate of Hieronymus Brunschwig.
Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall