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Saccheri, Giovanni Girolamo

1. Dates: Born: San Remo, Genoa, 5 September 1667; Died: Milano, 25 October 1733. Datecode: Lifespan: 66.
2. Father: Law; Giovanni Felice Saccheri was a notary. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. He entered the Jesuit novitiate in Genoa in 1685. Sent to Milan in 1690, he studied philosophy and theology at the Jesuit College of Brera. Here he was influenced to study mathematics by Tommaso Ceva. As an ordained Jesuit professed of the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1685, and was ordained a priest in 1694 at Como.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics. His two most important books, the Logica demonstrativa (1697), an explanation of logic more geometrico, and the Euclides ab omni naevo vindicatus (1733), were virtually forgotten until they were rescued from oblivion-the Euclides by E. Beltrami in 1889 and the Logica by G. Vailati in 1903. Much of his logical and mathematical reasoning has become part of mathematical logic and non-Euclidean geometry. In 1708 he also published Neo-statica, a work in the tradition of peripatetic statics.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; 1685-1690, taught at the Jesuit college in Genoa. 1694-1697, taught philosophy at Turin. 1697-1733, taught philosophy and theology at the Jesuit College of Pavia. 1699-1733, taught philosophy, then occupied the chair of mathematics in the University of Pavia (also called the Università Ticinese) until his death. Saccheri was appointed to this chair by the Senate of Milan.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; City Magistrate; Court Patronage; Saccheri dedicated his first book, Quaesita geometrica to Guzman, the governor of Milan. He dedicated Logica demonstrativa, 1697, to Count Filippo Archintio, a Milanese senator. He dedicated Neo-statica, 1708, and Euclides vindicatus, 1733, to the Senate of Milan, which had called him to the university chair. Saccheri taught in Torino for three years and came to know Vittorio Amadeo II, Duke of Savoy, who called upon him many times for complicated calculations. Later, in 1713, the Duke tried to bring Saccheri back to Torino as a professor of mathematics. There is also a story that Vittorio Amadeo wanted to elevate Saccheri to a bishopric, but several sources deny the story, asserting that there is no evidence for it. Venice also tried to bring Saccheri to Padua, to the very chair that Galileo had once filled. In Milan Saccheri was welcomed into the Academia Claelia Vigilantium, organized by Countess Clelia Grillo-Borromeo, Gambarana mentions that during vacation periods at the university Saccheri spent his time in Milan with the Colleggio di Nobili. In 1716 he arranged a celebration plus the inevitable volume of sycophancy in celebration of the birth of Prince Leopold.
9. Technological Connections: Non
10. Scientific Societies: One of his teachers at the Jesuit College of Brera was T. Ceva. Under Ceva's influence he published his first book, Quaesita geometrica (1693). Through Ceva he became a correspondent and friend of Giovanni Ceva and Viviani.

P. Fr. Gambarana, S.J., 'An Account of the Life of Girolamo Saccheri,' in A.F. Emch, The logica demonstrativa of Girolamo Saccheri, Ph.D. diss., Harvard, 1934 (from a manuscript in Modena). A. Pascal, 'Girolamo Saccheri nella vita e nelle opere,' Giornale di matematica di Battaglini, 52 (1914), 229-51. H. Bosmans, 'Le Géometre Jérome Saccheri S.J.,' Revue des questions scientifiques, 4th ser., 7 (1925), 401-30. E. Carruccio, 'Saccheri,' in Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arte, (Rome 1936), 30, 389-90. 'Introduction,' in G. Saccheri, Euclides vindicatus, ed. and tr. George B. Halsted, (Chicago, 1920). Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891), 7, 360-2.

Saint Vincent, Gregorius [Gregory of Saint Vincent]

1. Dates: Born: Bruges, Belgium, 8 September 1584; Died: Ghent, 16 October 1667; Datecode: Lifespan: 83
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian Area; Career: Belgian Area; It, Czechoslovak; Death: Belgian Area.
4. Education: University of Douai; Collegio Romano; Lou; D.D. He entered the Jesuit college of Bruges in 1595 and from 1601 studied philosophy and mathematics at Douai. After 1607, Clavius recognized his talents and arranged for him to remain in Rome to continue his studies in philosophy, mathematics, and theology. In 1612 he went to Louvain to complete his theological studies. There is no mention of any specific degrees, but he receive the equivalent of a B.A. in Jesuit institutions, and as an ordained Jesuit professed of the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. In 1605 he became a Jesuit novice and was received into the order in 1607. In Louvain, six years later he was ordained a priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Mechanics. As an established mathematician he presented a theory of conics from Commandino's editions of Archimedes (1558), Apollonius (1566), and Pappus (1588). He also developed a useful method of infinitesimals. His Theoramata mathemaica scientiae staticae, (Louvain, 1624), was defended by two of his students, Gualterus van Aebst and Johann Ciermans. Two other students, Guillaume Boelmans, and Ignaz Derkennis aided him in the preparation of his Problema Austricum on the quadrature of the circle. He requested permission from Mutius Vitelleschi, general of the order, to have his manuscript published in Rome. In 1625 he was called to Rome to modify the work upon Christoph Grienberger's (Clavius' successor) request. He returned two years later with no settlement of the issue. The following year he was called to Prague as the imperial confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II. He suffered a heart attack. Upon recovery he requested an assistant and received Theodor Moret. He continued his research until he fled to Vienna from the advancing Swedes. He left behind many of his papers, which he only received from a colleague ten years later. He published these papers as the Opus geometricum in Antwerp, 1647. When the controversy over the quadrature of the circle in the Opus subsided, he took up another classical problem, the duplication of the cube. He suffered a second heart attack in 1559 and died from a third attack in 1667. His work was completed by A.A. Sarosa. His last pupil, Joachim van Paepenbroek supervised the publication of Gregorius'treatise, Opus ad mesolabum. Among his earlier works are Theses cometis (1619) and Theses mechanicae (1620).
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; He was assigned to teach Greek for several years first at Brussels (1613), then Bois-le Duc (1614), and finally Coutrai (1615). From 1616-17 he was assigned as chaplain with the Spanish troops stationed at Belgium. He became the companion of Francois de Aguilon in the home of the Jesuits in Antwerp. He taught for three years at the Jesuit schoool becoming the successor to Aguilon. From 1621-5 he established himself as a mathematician at Louvain. (I find no indication that this means an academic appointment at the university.); He was the Emperor's chaplain from 1626-32. He became a mathematician at Ghent (in the Jesuit college) from 1632 until his death in 1667. He was a private tutor to members of the society while at Ghent. For part of the year in 1653 he was vice rector of the college.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Clavius recognized his unique talents. (After some hesitation, I am listing this as patronage. I do not list the rest of the order's utilization of Gregory's talents.)
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: In 1630 he was offered a position by the Madrid academy but because of his poor health he declined the offer.

Biographie nationale (Belgian). Looy, Herman van, 'Chronologie et analyse des manuscrits mathématiques de Gregoire de Saint Vincent (1584-1667),' Archivum Historium Societatis Jesu, 49 (1980), 279-303. English translation, in Historia Mathematica, 11 (1984), 57-75.

Sala, Angelo [Angelus]

1. Dates: Born: Vicenza, c. 1576; Died: Bützow, Germany, 2 October 1637; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Artisan; Bernhardino Sala was a spinner. No information on the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Sw, Germany; Dutch; Death: German
4. Education: None Known; Sala certainly did not attend a university. He is said to have learned chemistry in Venice.
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; The whole family moved to Geneva in the late 16th century, converting to Calvinism. While nothing in the accounts excludes the possibility that the family was always Calvinist and moved for that reason, it seems highly unlikely. Dragendorff, writing within a partisan Lutheran context, concludes from exclusively circumstantial evidence, that Sala must have been a Lutheran at the time of his death, when he was in the service of the Dukes of Mecklenburg-Güstow. I am not recording speculation of this sort.
6. Disciplines: Chemistry; Pharmacology; Iatrochemstry. Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Sala began publishing on chemistry and medicines in about 1608-9. He published rather extensively in the genre, including a book of medications in 1624. Early he was influenced by Paracelsus and published in the Paracelsian tradition. Later Sala became skeptical of some the Paracelsus' theories, and in his later years he strove to amalgamate Paracelsianism with Galenic medicine. Sala's theories on chemical composition were historically important. In 1617 he published a book on the plague and how to cope with it.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Schoolmaster; Sometime late in the 16th century Sala followed his grandfather to Geneva. 1602-12 were Sala's wanderjahren, through Switzerland and Germany. He served as physician to troops in Germany in 1610. Nothing indicates where he learned medicine. He settled in The Hague as a physician in 1612-17. During 1617-20 he was physician to Count Anton Günther of Oldenburg, and he supervised the pharmacies in the Count's territories. I am assuming that the supervision was a salaried governmental position. 1620-5, in Hamburg as 'chymiater,' which can only mean a Paracelsian physician. Sometime during his German experience, perhaps in these years, he supporoted himself in part by teaching medicine. In 1625 he became the personal physician to Johann Albrecht, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstow in Güstow, and then after 1636 as physician to Johann Albrecht's successor, Gustav Adolph in Bützow. Note that Sala, the uneducated son of a spinner, did well enough that his son, Kammerpräsident of Güstow sought ennoblement and his great grandson was named a Count of the Empire in the 18th century.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Sala was physician to Count Anton Günther of Oldenbuurg, to whom he dedicated Aphorismen, 1619. He spent the last twelve years of his life in the service of the Dukes of Mechlenburg-Güstow.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies:

Karl von Buchka, 'Angelus Sala (1576-1637),' Archiv für die Gesichichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 6 (1913), 20-6. G. Dragendorff, 'Angelus Sala, Leibarzt des Herzogs Johann Albrecht von Mecklenburg-Güstow, seine Bedeutung für Medizin und Chemie,' Jahrbücher des Vereins für mechlenburgische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 61 (1896), 165-81. R.P. Multhauf, The Origins of Chemistry, (London, 1966), 161-2. J.R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, (London 1961), 2, 276-80.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Georg Friedrich August Blanck, Angelus Sala, sein Leben und seine Werke, (Schwerin, 1883). This book, which the DSB touts as the only reliable source on Sala, does not appear to exist in the United States. Biographical sketch in G.F.A. Blanck, Die mechlenburgischen Ärtze von den Ältesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart, (Schwerin 1929), p. 83. Robert Capobus, Angelus Sala, (Berlin, 1933). A. Cossa, Angelo Sala, medico e chimico vicentino del secolo XVII, (Vicenza, 1894).

Sallo, Denys [Denis] de

1. Dates: Born: Paris, 1626; Died: Paris, 14 May 1669; Datecode: Lifespan: 43
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Official; His father, Jacques de Sallo, was a conseiller of the grand-chambre of the Parlement of Paris; his mother was the daughter of another conseiller of the Parlement. His family was from Poitou and descended from an ancient line of nobility of the sword. The family lived in a large house in Paris, inherited from highly placed forebears. De Sallo's brother, a cleric, held two important and wealthy benefices. De Sallo inherited the title of sieur de la Coudraye de Lucon, an estate on considerable value. In a word, the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: University of Paris; LD; He was educated at the Collège des Grassius. After studying philosophy he took up Greek and Latin, winning awards in his studies. After his classical studies he took a law degree. I assume either a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Communication. He was the founder of the first scholarly periodical, Journal des scavans. Thirteen weekly issues were published under his editorship in 1665. The Journal responded to several aspects of contemporary life. New facts, theories, and techniques posed issues that changed the basis of the thought of scientists, historians, philosophers, and others. The journal was a record of new books, a readable and critical account of current writings, and a marketable production. In its first three months some eighty publications were discussed. The journal was international from the outset: about half the books reviewed were published in Paris, while the rest came from London, Amsterdam, Rome, and other French and German cities. A quarter of the space was devoted to scientific material. In addition there were reports of current scientific and technological developments: William Petty's double-hulled vessel and Robert Holme's use of Huygens' clocks on the Atlantic voyages. The most important scientific article offered an account of a learned conference on comets held at the college of the Jesuits. The first three months of the journal's existence were rather stormy. Sallo managed to make enemies in the Faculty of Medicine, in literary circles, and among the Jesuits. The following nine month interruption has been explained by Sallo's critical ultramontanism, his mistake in criticizing people unaccustomed to being criticized, and his failure to submit pages for official approval. The Journal was suppressed in 1665, and when publication resumed in 1666 it was under a different editor.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Pers; Details of his life are extremely scarce. He was admitted to the Paris bar in 1652, and won respect for his solid judgement. He succeeded his father in the Parlement in 1653. In 1657 he was in Frankfurt for the preliminaries to the election of a successor to Ferdinand III. In a report to Colbert in 1663 about the members of various parlements, de Sallo was described as a man interested only in his studies and not in the position, which he wanted to exchange for another less demanding. Add to this the facts that he married the daughter of another member of the Parlement, and that he assembled two considerable libraries, one in Paris and one in his country estate in Poitou. Obviously he had personal means.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; He was granted a privilege for the printing of the Journal des Scavans for 20 years on 8 August 1664. In December the privilege was ceded to Jean Cusson, although Sallo edited the first issues that appeared in 1665. Colbert was his patron protecting him during the difficult times. Sallo may have been among the group of savants established by Colbert that preceded the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: Non; De Sallo undertook to drain the marshes of lower Poitou; the enterprise failed he absorbed a good part of his fortune. There is no suggestion, however, that he supplied any of the technical know-how.
10. Scientific Societies: Even before publication started, the journal had been actively promoted by J. Chapelain, poet, critic, and correspondent of many French and foreign scholars; by Henri Justel, acquainted with innumerable travelers and men of letters; and by Emeric Bigot, well-known in foreign learning centers. Oldenburg and Huygens promised their assistance, which is apparent in the early issues.

Betty Trebell Morgan, Histoire du Journal des Scavants depuis 1665 jusqu'en 1701, (Paris, 1928).  Harcourt Brown, Scientific Organizations in Seventeenth Century France, (New York, 1967), pp. 185-207. ________, 'History and the Learned Journal,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 33, (1972), 365-78. Dugast-Matifeux, 'Débuts du journalisme lettéraire en France: Denis de Sallo, fondateur du journal des Savants,' Annuaire départmental de la Société d'Emulation de la Vendée, 3rd ser. 3 (1883), 79-85.

Salviani, Ippolito

1. Dates: Born: Citta di Castello, Umbia, (if it matters, Marini ways Rome) 1514; Died: Rome, 1572; Datecode: Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Aristocrat; I found only the statement that he came from a patrician family. No information of the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Unknown; M.D. He studied medicine. There is no information on the university (Hoefer saying that Salviani was at the universities of his country), and no mention of a degree. Nevertheless, given the rest of Salviani's career, it is impossible to believe that he did not have an M.D., and I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. Salviani was physician to three Popes.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Zoology; He published one medical work, De crisibus ad Galeni censuram (1556). He is better known for his monumental work on ichthyology, Aquatilium animalium historiae, published some time between 1554 and 1558. It describes the fish of the Mediterranean.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; He was personal physician to Julius III, Paul IV, and Cardinal Cervini, who was Pope Marcellus II for a month before he died. Salviani also had many rich clients and became very wealthy. From 1551 until at least 1568 he was professor of practical medicine at the Sapienza. In 1565 he was made principal physician of the medical college of Rome. In 1564 Salviani was named conservatore (registrar) of Rome, an administrative position concerned with the preservation of antiquities.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Salviani's most important patron was Cardinal Cervini, who became Pope Marcellus II but died only a month later. Cervini encouraged and supported Salviani's book on fish, and to him it would have been dedicated had he not died. It was dedicated instead to Pope Paul IV. He was personal physician to Cardinal Cervini and to Popes Julius III and Paul IV. The Vatican gave him many honors: in 1564 the Cardinal in charge sent him to supervise the degree sessions in medicine; he was made principal physician of the medical college of Rome.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One);

A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker, 5, 160. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 43, 221. E.W. Gudger, 'The Five Great Naturalists of the Sixteenth Century: Belon, Rondolet, Salviani, Gesner and Aldrovandi,' Isis, 22 (1934), 21-40. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 402-5, and 2, 306-7 and 314-17. Prosper Mandosius, Theatrum in quo maximorum christiani orbis pontificum archiatros spectandos exhibit, a separately paginated inclusion at the end of vol. 2 of Marini, (Roma, 1784), pp. 63-4.

Not Available and Not Consulted: DSB lists also G. Tiraboschi, Biblioteca modenese, (Modena, 1781-6), 7, pat. 2, ll9. Something is wrong: the work is only six volumes long, and I have not been able to find a biography of Salviani at its logical place among the S's.

Sanchez [Sanches], Francisco

1. Dates: Born: Braga, Portugal, 1551 Cobos says Tuy, Spain (on the Portuguese border), 1550. Died: Toulouse, France, November 1623; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 72
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: University of Sapienza (Rome); University of Montpellier; M.D. After studies at the Collège de Guyenne (which I take to be secondary), he went to Rome to the Sapienza. Rabade says he earned the title of Doctor in Rome. Doctor of what? The implication is philosophy. Cavalho, without mentioning a doctorate, says he continued in Arts (i.e, philosophy) in Rome. Cobos implies that it was a medical degree. He went on to earn an M.D. in Montpellier in 1574.
5. Religion: Jew, Catholic. It seems clear that Sanchez was of Jewish descent. He adhered to Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural philosophy, medicine. Subordinate Disciplines: mathematics; Sanchez wrote anatomical works and was a careful clinical observer. His Quod nihil scitur, 1581, was a rigorous skeptical attack on Aristotelian science. Only particulars can be known, but the senses also are imperfect. He questioned Clavius on mathematics, in print.
7. Means of Support: Medical practice. Secondary Means of Support: academic position; Sanchez established himself in Toulouse in 1575. The practice of medicine was his lifetime occupation and his principal source of income. He was Director of the Hospital of St. Jacques from 1581. He also held a number of academic appointments in Toulouse: Prof. of philosophy, 1585 - Prof. of medicine, 1612 - . He was also at some time Rector of the university.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Unknown. He dedicated Quod nihil scitur to Diogo [Jacobus] de Castro, who appears to have been one of the famous medical de Castros. Someone was behind those appointments in Toulouse.
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice
10. Scientific Societies:

José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Sanchez, Opera philosophica, ed. Joachim de Cavalho, (Coimbra, 1955). Sergio Rabade Romeo, 'Nota preliminar,' Sanchez, Quod nihil scitur, ed. & tr. S. Rabade, J.M. Artola, and M.F. Perez, (Madrid, 1984). J. Cobos, 'Renaissance et/du scepticisme,' Annalesde la University de Toulouse-Le Mirail, 15, 8 (1979), 53-72.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Joao Cruz Costa, Ensaio sobra a vida e obra do Sanchez, (Sao Paulo, 1942). J. Iriarte, 'F. Sanchez,' Razon y Fe, 110 (1936), 23-42, 157-8. Evarista do Maraes Filho, Francisco Sanchez na renaissancePortugal, (Rio, 1953). A. Moreira da Sa, Francisco Sanchez, Philosopher e mathematician, 2 vols. (Lisbon, 1947). C. Mellizo, Nueva introduccion a Francisco Sanchez, (Zamora, 1982).

Santorio, Santorio

1. Dates: Born: Capodistria [Justinopolis], now Koper, Jugoslavia, 29 March 1561; Died: Venice, 6 March 1636; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Position; His father, Antonio Santorio, was a nobleman and a high official of the Venetian Republic, who was sent to Capodistria as an official (Bombardier and Chief Steward of Munitions). Santorio's mother was Elisabetta Cordona, the heiress of a local noble family. Although everything is suggestive enough, there was in fact no mention at all of the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. He was educated at Capodistria and Venice, where he shared the same tutors as the patrician Morosini's sons. He received a thorough knowledge of classical languages and literature. In 1575 he enrolled in the University of Padua, where he studied philosophy and medicine and obtained his doctor's degree in 1582. As usual I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Instruments; His great achievement was the introduction of quantitative experimentation into biological science. In his Methodus vitandorum errorum (1602), a comprehensive study on the method of healing, he mentioned a few measuring instruments. His Commentaria in artem medicinalem Galeni (1612) contains the first printed mention of the air thermometer. The De statica medicina (1614) briefly describes the results of a long series of experiments that he conducted with a scale and other measuring instruments and argues a theory about insensible perspiration. Santorio also invented surgical instruments and what he called a pulsilogium. Beyond medicine he invented a wind gauge and a device to measure the force of water currents.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; Both Caparroni and Castiglioni say that immediately after completing his medical degree Santorio went to Poland as the personal physician to the King and the upper aristocracy. It is now generally agreed that this could not be correct, and that rather he was in Croatia between 1587 and 1599 at the invitation of a leading nobleman, probably Count Zrinski. Then, after 1599, he practised medicine in Venice. In 1607, together with Fabrizio, he treated and cured Sarpi after the attempted assasination. 1611-24, professor of theoretical medicine at the University of Padua, initially with a salary of 800 ducats, which was later raised to 1500. (I wonder if the sources are not in error on the unit; Padua stated salaries in florins.) When he retired in 1624 the Venetian Senate continued both his salary and his title until his death. While teaching in Padua, Santorio carried on a busy practice with the Venetian aristocracy, and he resigned the university chair in order to devote himself wholly to the practice. He put together a large fortune. In 1630 the Venetian government put him in charge of dealing with the plague.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; He owed his professorship partly to the support of his friends in the upper Venetian nobility. He dedicated Commentaria in artem medicinalem Galeni to Andrea Morosini. Originally he was supposed to have held the chair for six years; but at the end of that period, in 1617, the Venetian Senate extended his contract for six more years and granted him an exceptionally high salary. When he retired, the Senate awarded him both the continuation of his salary and the permanent title of professor. He dedicated Methodus vitandorum errorum to Ferdinand of Austria.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; He was the first to add a scale to the thermoscope, thereby transforming it into the thermometer. He also invented a hygrometer, a pendulum for measuring the pulse rate, a special syringe for extracting bladder stones, and a bathing bed. Beyond medicine he invented a wind gauge and a device to measure the force of water currents.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); In Morosini's home, a meeting place for the proponents of the new science, he met Galileo and became friendly with Paolo Sarpi, Girolamo Fabrici, Giambattista Della Porta, and Francesco Sagredo, among others. He was a member of the Palladium Academy of Capodistria. He was President of the Venetian College of Physicians.

Arturo Castiglioni, 'The Life and Work of Santorio Santorio,' tr. Emilie Recht, Medical Life, 38 (1931), 729-85. Davide Giordano, 'Parole dette in Capodistria il 9 giungo 1924 per la inaugurazione di un busto a Santorio Santorio,' in Giordano, Scritte e discorsi pertinenti alla storia della medicina e ad argomenti diversi, (Milano, 1930), pp. 204-10. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 4, 63-4. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici enaturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 2, 67-70. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. R.H. Major, 'Santorio Santorio,' Annals of Medical History, n.s. 10 (1938), 369-81.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: A. Capello, De vita cl. viri Sanctorii Sanctorii, (Venice, 1750). M. Del Gaizo, Ricerche storiche intorno a Santorio Santorio ed alla medicina statica, (Naples, 1889). P. Stancovich, Biografie degli uomini illustri dell'Istria, (Trieste, 1829), 2. Lietta Ettari and Mario Procopio, Santorio Santorio: la vita e le opere, (Rome, 1968). (Part of the Quaderni della nutrizioni.) Paolo Farina, 'Sulla formazione scientifica di Henricus Regius: Santorio Santorio e il De statica medica,' Rivista critica de storia della filosofia, 30 (1975), 363-99.

Sarpi, Paolo

1. Dates: Born: Venice, 14 August 1552; Died: Venice, 16 January 1623; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father:  Merchant; Francesco Sarpi was a small merchant who was a failure. The financial straits of the family, after the death of Sarpi's father, shifted the responsibility for his education to his uncle, Ambrogio Morelli, the head titular priest of San Marcuola in Venice. It is clear that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Padua; D.D. He studied philosophy, theology and logic under the Servite friar Giammria Capella, and entered into the Servite Order at the age of fourteen. By 1574 he had become a bachelor in theology, and in 1578 was awarded the degree of doctor of theology by the University of Padua.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered into the Servite Order in 1556. In 1579 he was elected provincial of his order. He was appointed state theologian by the Venetian Senate in 1606 and counseled defiance of the bull of interdict and excommunication launched against Venice by Paul V. Having failed to appear before the Roman Inquisition to answer charges of heresy, he was excommunicated in January 1607, and in October 1607 he was the object of an attempted assassination, which he accused the Roman Curia of engineering. Sarpi was the subject of frequent charges of heterodoxy. He was accused before the Inquisition no less than three times-in c. 1575 for questioning the Trinity, again in 1594, and then in 1607. After a long discussion Getto concludes that Sarpi was never a man of inner religious experience, and that he was always indifferent to issues of dogma. Hence he appeared to many to be moving away from the Catholic Church, and his constant contacts with Protestants did nothing to lessen that appearance. Some judged him to be a closet Protestant, and some judged him to be a Deist. Getto thinks this is quite wrong. Sarpi was not a man of action and not a reformer. Though critical of many aspects of Catholicism, he remained a Catholic, and not merely in appearance. On the other hand, the entire argument of Wootton's book is to argue that Sarpi was at best an agnostic and what he calls a moral atheist (one who rejects a God with providence). I have decided to accept Getto's position.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Chemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics; Magnetism; He is chiefly remembered for his highly biased Istoria del Concilio Tridentino (1619). His Arte di ben pensare has been credited with anticipating Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding. His letters and the notebooks, which touch upon every aspect of contemporary science, contain his original philosophical, physical, and mathematical thought. He devoted himself to anatomy from 1582 to 1585, and has been credited with correctly interpreting the function of venous valves and the discovery of the circulation of blood (though this is clearly very excessive). During this time he also carried out extensive chemical experimentation. He followed magnetism. For all that, science was never Sarpi's central concern. He was a critical spirit, primarily a student of human affairs who became caught up in Venice's struggle with the Papacy. It was hard to know what to list, and I ended up listing all of the fields in which he manifested interest at one time or another. However, one should not be misled into thinking him an important scientist.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; In 1570 he was appointed court theologian and professor of positive theology by the Duke of Mantua. He was there until 1574. In 1574-5 he was at Milan in the service of Bishop Carlo Borromeo. He soon returned to Venice where he taught philosophy; I assume that this was within the Servite order. In 1578 he was named head of his monastery in Venice. In 1579 he was elected provincial of his order for the province of Venice. From 1585 to 1588, he was procurator general in Rome, the second highest position in the order. While in Rome he attracted the attention and favor of Gregory XIII. Back in Venice, Sarpi lived quietly in study in his monastery. In 1606 he was appointed state theologian and canon lawyer of Venice. This position carried a salary, and though the appointment undoubtedly came through the channels of patronage, it was a governmental position. In 1606 he also became adviser to the Venetian Senate, an office he held (with that of state theologian) until his death.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; City Magistrate; Court Patronage; The Duke of Mantua appointed him court theologian and professor of positive theology in 1570. The Venetian Senate appointed him state theologian and adviser to the Senate in 1606. I have not found any information that fully clarifies Sarpi's position with the Venetian patriciate. Obviously some of them appointed him to his official positions. Sarpi does not appear to have lived high; on the contrary he was very severe. I tend to think, from the lack of references, that he did not receive other monetary patronage from the patricians. In 1601 the Senate tried to obtain a bishopric for him. He became a major figure in Venice whose influence was felt in appointments in Padua. James I of England offered Sarpi refuge and favor in England, and James was responsible for the publication of the History of the Council of Trent, which appeared originally in England in 1619.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; There is evidence that Venetian patricians consulted Sarpi on matters medical, and that Sarpi was learned in medicines.
10. Scientific Societies: In Padua he regularly attended colloquia sponsored by Giovanni Vincenzio Pinelli, He arbitrated the dispute between Galilleo and B. Capra, who had claimed the invention of the proportional compass as his own. In 1609 he recommended that the Venetian Senate refuse the offer to purchase one of the earliest telescopes, confident that his fried Galileo could construct an instrument of comparable if not superior quality. This Galileo did, and presented to the government as a gift in August 1609; in return he (Galileo) received a lifetime appointment to the University of Padua.

Giovanni Getto, Paolo Sarpi, (Florence, 1967). BR350.S3G3; A. Favaro, 'Fra Paolo Sarpi, fisico e matematico, secondi i nuovi studi del Prof. P. Cassani,' Atti del R. Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 6th ser., 1 (1882-3), 893-911. Gaetano Cozzi, 'Note introductive' in Paolo Sarpi, Pensieri, Gaetano and Luisa Cozzi, eds. (Torino, 1976), pp. xi-cxxxiii. David Wootton, Paolo Sarpi: Between Renaissance and Enlightenment, (Cambridge, 1983).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: A.G. Campbell, The Life of Fra Paolo Sarpi, (London, 1869). A.Robertson, Fra Paolo Sarpi the Greatest of the Venetians, (London, 1894). G. Abetti, Amici e nemici de Galileo, (Milan, 1945). Giovan Battista De Toni, 'Fra Paolo Sarpi nelle scienze esatte e naturali,' in Paolo Sarpi e i suoi tempi (L'Ateneo Veneto nel III centenario della morte di fra Paolo Sarpi), (Città di Castello, 1923).

Saurin, Joseph

1. Dates: Born: Courthezon, Vaucluse, 1 September 1659; Died: Paris, 29 December 1737; Datecode: Lifespan: 78.
2. Father: Church Living; His father was a Calvinist minister of Grenoble. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; Swiss; Death: French
4. Education: None Known; He was educated at home. After embracing Catholicism he started a new career in mathematics. He studied mathematics, but dthere is no mention of any formal university training. Among his friends were Varignon, l'Hopital, and Malebranche.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Catholic. (after 1690); He entered the Calvinist ministry in 1684 as curate of Eure. Outspoken in the pulpit, he soon had to take refuge in Switzerland. No less combative in exile, he refused at first to sign the Consensus of Geneva (1685). The pressure brought on him as a result apparently weakened his Calvinist persuasion. In 1690 he embraced Roman Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics. He made no original contribution to mathematics. Firmly committed to the new infinitesimal calculus, he explored the limits and possibilities of its methods and defended it against criticism based on lack of understanding. In 1702 he was involved in a dispute with Rolle over the calculus. He provided neat algebraic demonstrations of Huygens's theorem on centrifugal force, and defended Huygens's theory of the pendulum. Many of his works appeared in the Mémoires of the Académie from 1707-31.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Official; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; He became curate (Calvinist) of Eure in 1684, and soon took refuge in Switzerland, where he was pastor of Bercher, Yverdon. In 1690 he settled in Paris, where he studied and then taught mathematics, and was mathematical editor for the Journal des scavans. In 1707 he became pensionnaire géometre of the Académie des sciences.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage. Bishop Bossuet of Meaux aided Saurin in his decision to convert. He presented Saurin to the King who provided Saurin with a pension.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1707; By 1702, as a mathematical editor for the Journal des scavans, he was involved in disputes, most notably with Rolle, over infinitesimal calculus. Failing to get a satisfactory response from Rolle, he appealed to the Academy, of which Rolle was a member. The Academy avoided a direct decision in favor of an outsider by naming him an élève géometre in March 1707 and a full pensionnaire géometre in May 1707.

Fontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Saurin,' in Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences, 1737, 110-20. Q46.A6 1737.  Joseph Bertrand, L'Académie des sciences et les académiciens de 1666 à 1793, (Paris, 1869), 242-7.  Didot, Nouvelle biographie générale. CT143.H6RF; Niels Nielsen, Géometres francais du dix-huitieme siècle, (Copenhagen, 1935), pp. 397-402. QA28.N65

Sauveur, Joseph

1. Dates: Born: La Fleche, 24 March 1653; Died: Paris, 9 July 1716; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Law; His father was a notary. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French.
4. Education: University of Paris; He was mute until the age of seven and then only slowly developed control over his speaking. He first attended the Jesuit school of La Fleche, where arithmetic intrigued him. In 1670 he went to Paris, where he studied mathematics and medicine, and attended the physical lectures of Jacques Rohault. His uncle, a canon of Tournus, agreed to provide a pension for Sauveur to study theology and philosophy. As soon as Sauveur's interests turned away from the ecclesiastical path the pension was withdrawn. Apparently he did not earn a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mus; He was influential as a teacher of practical mathematics. He prepared tables for simple calculations and converting weights and measures. In 1681, he conducted hydrological experiments with Mariotte at Chantilly. While gathering information to write about fortifications, he joined practice with theory at Mons during the seige in 1691. At the request of the Marquis de Dangeau he undertook the investigation of winning at Bassette, a game of chance. He presented his results at court and published them in the Journal des Scavans. He introduced the current meaning of the term acoustics in his report to the Académie in 1700. His first work on the physics of vibration, presented to the Paris Academy in 1700, concerned the determination of absolute frequency. Later, in the work presented in 1713, he derived the frequency of a string theoretically. Among his interests, the subject of harmonics proved the most important for later developments--in mathematics, physics, and music. Through him and the Academy the ideas about harmonics became well known in the early eighteenth century. Among his works on acoustics are Determination d'un son fixe (1702) and Application des sons harmonique (1707).
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; After losing his pension (from his uncle), he started teaching mathematics and by 1680 he was a well-known teacher and a tutor at the court of Louis XIV. In 1686 he obtained the chair of mathematics at the Collège Royal. In 1696 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1703 he became examiner for the Engineering Corps.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; He was a tutor at the court of Louis XIV. Vauban, marshall of France, proposed Sauveur for examiner of the Corps of Engineers. The King agreed and honored Sauveur with a pension.  I assume that something I call patronage was involved in his investigation of games of chance for the Marquis de Dangeau.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Military Engineer; In 1691 he joined the practice and theory of fortifications during the seige of Mons. I list his work on practical computations here.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1696-1716

Fontenelle, 'Éloge', in Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences, 1716, (Paris, 1718), 79-87. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). Niels Nielsen, Géometres francais du dix-huitieme siècle, (Copenhagen, 1935), pp. 403-10. V.V. Raman, 'J. Sauveur, the forgotten founder of acoustics,' Physics Teacher, 11 (1973), 161-3.

Scaliger [Bordon, Bordonius], Julius Caesar

1. Dates: Born: Padua, 23 August 1484; Died: Agen, France, 21 October 1558; Datecode: Lifespan: 74.
2. Father: Artisan; Sci; Scaliger claimed noble descent from the great Veronese family, della Scala. There is no concrete evidence of this other than Scaliger's and his son's claim, and there is great evidence against it. I think that no one continues to believe this claim.  Scaliger's father, Benedetto Bordon, was an expert miniaturist and illuminator of manuscripts and books, and a graphic artist. He was also an astronomer, geographer, and cartographer. No secure information on financial status, though there are certainly hints that it was modest. The University of Padua excused Scaliger from the fees when he took his degree, something done only for poor students. Before his stint in the university Scaliger apparently followed a military career for about six years, clearly in order to support himself.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; France; (1528, naturalized citizen) Death: France.
4. Education: University of Padua; Ph.D. In 1519 he received his doctorate of arts at Padua. There is no proof that he received a medical degree, though he may have. There is a question as to whether he attended the University of Bologna or the University of Padua. I have been impressed by the evidence that it was Padua and only Padua. I assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. He may have briefly entered a Franciscan convent in Venice around 1505. In 1538, he was summoned before the Inquisition as a Huguenot sympathizer and later acquitted.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Medicine; Botany. Nostradamus and Rabelais were attracted to Agen to study with Scaliger. Rabelais left in 1530 to study under physicians who, unlike Scaliger, continued to follow the ancient and medieval doctrines. He presented editions of three ancient treatises in which he tried to effect a new and more consistent classification of plants. He felt it was necessary to submit everything to examination and not to embrace ancient authorities with 'servile adulation'. During his tour in the army he studied medicine and collected medicinal herbs in Northern Italy. He first established his fame by a savage attack on Erasmus (Paris, 1531). He confirmed his fame with a critique of Cardano expressed in his Exotericarum exercitationem (1557), which won him the admiration of Bacon and Leibniz. [Work on Manilius].
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage. Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Military. Apparently Scaliger was a soldier between roughly 1509 and 1515. In 1520, after he completed his degree, the University of Padua offer Scaliger a position, which he refused. He arrived at Agen as personal physician to Bishop Antonio della Rovere in 1524. At Agen he became a well-known and respected physician. He served as consul of Agen in 1532-3. Even after his duties as consul were over, Scaliger petitioned the Consuls of Agen to keep his tax exempt status in return for free medical services during time of plague, for the poor, and for lepers. Also, in return for his tax exempt status he promised to charge fees set by the consuls' ordinnances. Let it be added that Scaliger nevertheless earned enough to die wealthy. In Agen he married a young woman with a modest estate which Scaliger enjoyed. From 1548-9 he was the physician to the King of Navarre.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; About 1515 SCaliger composed a poem, 'Elysium,' dedicated to Alfonso and Isabella d'Este, but the outcome seems to indicate that he failed to gain the patronage he was manifestly seeking. He was the personal physician to Bishop Antonio della Rovere, having established himself in the favor of the family in Piedmont. He was the personal physician to the King of Navarre. In the sources I have consulted there has not been any information about dedications of his publications. I find it impossible to believe that Scaliger did not attempt to extract every possible ounce of advantage from dedications.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology.
10. Scientific Societies:

V. Hall, Jr., 'The life of Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558),' Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s. 40 (1950), 85-170. Q11.A57; J.H.C. Richards, 'The Elysium of Julius Caesar Bordonius (Scaliger),' Studies in the Renaissance, 9 (1962), 195-217. D223.S93; Myriam Billanovich, 'Benedetto Bordon e Giulio Casare Scaligero,' Italia medioevale e umanistica, 11 (1968), 187-256. PA9.I88 This study fully lays the Della Scala myth to rest. Jules de Bourrousse de Laffore, Jules-César de Lescale. Etude biographique, (Agen, 1860). From a century ago, this short work buys the Della Scala myth entirely. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 148, and 27 (1901), 98.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Joseph Justus Scaliger, Epistolae, (Leiden, 1627). Joseph Justus Scaliger, following his father's charade, gave the Della Scala myth its enduring statement in a published letter, which is available in quite a few sources. Adolphe Magen, ed., 'Documents sur Jules-César Scaliger et sa famille,' Recueil des travaux. Société d'agriculture, sciences et arts d'Agen, 2nd ser., 3, 161-276.

Schegk [Schegkius, Scheggius, Degen], Jakob [Jacobus]

1. Dates: Born: Schorndorf, 7 June 1511; Died: Tübingen, 9 May 1587 Datecode: - Lifespan: 76.
2. Father: Unknown; He was the son of a well-to-do burgher, Bernard Degen. I accept the statement-prosperous at least.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Schorndorf, Germany. Career: Tübingen, Germany. Death: Tübingen, Germany.
4. Education: University of Tübingen; M.A., M.D. Taught Latin as a boy by Johann Thomas, a student of Johann Reuchlin's. 1527, he entered the University of Tübingen to study philosophy. He received his B.A. in 1528, and his M.A. in 1530. He also studied theology and medicine, receiving an M.D in 1539.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. Reared as a Catholic, Schegk accepted without protest the conversion of Tübingen to Lutheranism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Schegk's first publication was a general compendium of Aristotelian physics. This set the tone of his life's work as a devoted Aristotelian, who became known as the leading Aristotelian in Germany. Strictly speaking, he does not appear to have been a Scholastic, but that seems the only suitable category. He also published some on medicine.
7. Means of Support:  Academic. 1531-77, taught philosophy, logic, and medicine at the University of Tübingen, at some point becoming professor of medicine and aristotelian philosophy. He was rector of the university six times. Schegk became blind in 1577, and in that year resigned his position, though he did not cease to publish.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Schegk had numerous connections with the court of Württemberg, which I assume was behind the academic appointment. He dedicated three books (including De demonstratione, 1564) to Duke Christoph and another (Organi Aristotelei pars prima, 1577) to Duke Ludwig. One of those two requested Schegk's opinion on a theological dispute concerning the communion and had his exposition published. Later there was another theological dispute in which he engaged upon the specific request of the Duke. He dedicated Anti Simonius, 1573, to Count Philipp Ludwig von Hanau und Rheineck, Schegk's student. And he dedicated Commentaria in libros topicorum, 1584-5, to Andreas Dudith, Herr von Horehuviz. He dedicated Epicteti dissert., 1554, to the Imperial Counsellor Sigmar von Schlusslberg. What I do not entirely understand, he (a Lutheran) dedicated De principatu animae, 1543, to Abbot Johann Scultetus. There were other dedications-to the Jurist Johann Sichard, and to the Rector and Senate of Tübingen. I do find it interesting that in 1540 Schegk was offered an appointment at the University of Leipzig; when he chose to stay in Tübingen, his salary nearly trebled. He then dedicated a commentary on Aristotle, 1544, to the Senate of the University of Leipzig. In the late 40's the University of Strassburg offered him another position which he also declined, but he dedicated yet another commentary on Aristotle, 1550, to the Council of the city of Strassburg.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; I found no evidence that he practiced medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Schegk engaged in a dispute with Ramus that ended only with Ramus' death.

A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 5, 59. Neal Ward Gilbert, Rennaissance Concepts of Method, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 158-62. [H.P.S. Reading Room]; C. Sigwart, 'Jacob Schegk, Professor der Philosophie und Medicine,' in C. Sigwart, Kleine Schriften, (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1889), 1, 256-91. W. Pagel, 'William Harvey Revisited, Part II,' History ofScience, 9 (1970), 1-41 (especially 26-30).

Scheiner, Christoph

1. Dates: Born: Wald, Swabia, 25 July 1573; Died: Neisse, Silesia, 18 June 1650 Datecode: Lifespan: 77.
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; & Italy; German; Birth: Wald (near Mindelheim), Swabia, Germany; Career: Germany and Italy; Death: Neisse, Silesia
4. Education: University of Ingolstadt; M.A., D.D. Attended a Jesuit Latin school at Augsburg. Attended a Jesuit college at Landsberg. 1600, after joining Jesuit order, he was sent to Ingolstadt, where he studied philosophy, especially mathematics under Johann Lanz. I assume B.A. 1605, returned from 'magisterium,' received his M.A., and began to study theology. As an ordained Jesuit professed of the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic, joined the Jesuit order in 1595. 1617, ordained as a priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; 1603-5, spent his 'magisterium' training as a teacher at Dillingen. 1610-16, professor of Hebrew and mathematics, University of Ingolstadt, which was a Jesuit institution. 1616, took up residence at Archduke Maximilian's (of Austria) court in Innsbruck. After Maximilian's death, Leoplold continued to favor Scheiner. 1620-1, sent to the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, but then recalled to Innsbruck. I don't think Freiburg was a Jesuit institution, but the Jesuits were well established in the city and undoubtedly had connections with the university. The information that Scheiner was 'sent' and then 'recalled' sounds as though he was functioning wholly within the Jesuit order. 1622, accompanied Archduke Charles, bishop of Neisse, to Neisse. 1623, appointed (by Archduke Charles) superior of the Jesuit college to be erected in Neisse. 1624-33, in Rome, occupied with administrative problems. He appears to have been on Hapsburg diplomatic business; it is apparently not true that he was on the faculty of the Collegio Romano. 1633-9, lived in Vienna. It is unknown what he was doing there, but unlikely that it was not involved with patronage. 1639-50, in Neisse involved in the Jesuit college that he had established there.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Merchant; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; 1606, äuke Wilhelm V of Bavaria became interested in Scheiner's pantograph and invited him to Munich. There is no evidence that he went. Scheiner sent his three letters on sunspots, 1612, to Welser, a noted maecenas and banker to the Jesuits. The publication of the letters mentioned this. Also his Accuratior disquisitio was addressed to Welser, and he named the fifth satellite of Jupiter (which he thought he had discovered) for Welser. Sol ellipticus (1615) and Refractiones caelestes (1617) are dedicated to Maximilian, Archduke of Tirol, who inited Scheiner to his court in 1616. Maximilian died in 1618. Leopold, Bishop of Strasbourg, brother of Ferdinand II, the new Archduke, then entrusted Scheiner with the construction of a new Jesuit chapel in Innsbruck. Another major patron was Archduke Charles, Bishop of Neisse, another brother of Ferdinand II, who took Scheiner with him to Neisse, but died on a trip to Spain in 1624. Scheiner dedicated Rosa ursina to Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, in whose shop it was printed. Ferdinand II himself called Scheiner back to Vienna in 1633, from Rome. Scheiner's Prodromus was published after his death by Ferdinand III, to whom in was dedicated.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments. Between 1603 and 1605 he invented the pantograph, an instrument for copying plans on any scale. He invented a machine helioscopique which allowed measurements, especially of sun spots.
10. Scientific Societies: None

Anton von Braunmuehl, 'Christoph Scheiner als Mathematiker, Physiker, und Astronom,' Bayerische Bibliotek (published by Karl von Reinharddstraettnes and Karl Trautmann), 24 (Bamberg, 1891). [Q143.S31 B8]; Guenther, 'Scheiner,' Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 30 (Leipzig, 1890), 718-20. [ref. CT1053.A4 v.30]; Antonio Favaro, 'Oppositori di Galileo, III. Christoforo Scheiner,' Atti de R. Instituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arte, 78 (1919), 1-107. P. Joh. Schreiber, P. Christoph Scheiner S.J. und seine Sonnenbeobachtungen, Sonderabdruck aus Natur und Offenbarung, 48 (Münster, 1902). Robert McKeon, 'Les débuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 231-3.

Schickard, Wilhelm

1. Dates: Born: Herrenberg, Germany, 22 April 1592; Died: Tübingen, 23 October 1635 Datecode: Lifespan: 43
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Birth: Herrenberg, Germany. Career: Tübingen, Germany. Death: Tübingen, Germany.
4. Education: University of Tübingen; M.A. University of Tübingen. He received a B.A. (1609), and an M.A. (1611). He continued studying theology and oriental languages until 1613.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Cartography.
7. Means of Support:  Academic. Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; 1613-19, he acted as deacon or pastor in several towns around Tübingen (e.g., in 1614 he was deacon at Nürtingen). 1619, professor of Hebrew, University of Tübingen. 1631, professor of astronomy, University of Tübingen.
8. Patronage: Unknown. Patronage is not mentioned in any of the sources, but it seems possible that Mästlin, who was Schickard's teacher and precursor in the chair of astronomy, had a hand in Schickard's academic appointments. In any event, there was no academic appointment without patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Mathematics; Instruments; Schickard was a skilled mechanic, cartographer, and engraver in wood and copperplate. He is famous as the inventor of the first calculating machine (1623). And he proposed to Kepler the development of a mechanical means of calculating ephemerides. As far as I know, he did not follow up on this. He is more significant for his work in cartography. He recognized that certain contemporary developments in cartographer made more accurate maps possible, and he advocated their use in Kurze Anweisung, wie künstliche Landtafeln auss rechtem Grund zu machen (1629). He also appears to have undertaken a survey of Württemberg, though I have seen little mention of this. He also invented a 'hand planetarum' (it is actually more like an orrery).
10. Scientific Societies: None known. Connections: He was a student, colleague, and eventual successor of Mästlin. He was a friend and correspondent of Kepler from 1617, and was among the first to mention and advocate Keplerian astronomy. He also corresponded with Boulliau, Gassendi, and Brengger.

Günther, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 31, 174-5. Friedrich Seck, ed., Wissenschaftsgeschichte um Wilhelm Schickard: Vorträge bei dem Symposium der Universität Tübingen im 500. Jahr ihres Bestehens um 24. und 25. Juni 1977 [Contubernium: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, 3] (Tübingen: Mohr, 1981). [QB36.S312 W57 1977]

Not Available and Not Consulted: Bruno von Freytag Löringhoff, Wilhelm Schickard und seine Rechenmaschine von 1623, (Tübingen, 1987).

Schoener, Johannes

1. Dates: Born: Karlstadt, 16 January 1477; Died: Nuremberg, 16 January 1547 Datecode: - Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Karlstadt, Germany. Career: Bamberg and Nuremberg, Germany. Death: Nuremberg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Erfuhrt; First, he studied under the pastor of the Nuremberg Frauenkirche, master Daniel Schmidt. 1494, he studied theology at the University of Erfurt, but he left without taking a degree. He studied practical astronomy under Bernhard Walther (d. 1504) in Nuremberg.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. He was ordained a priest in 1515. 1527, he converted to Lutherism and married. Stevens writes that he married as early as 1524 and did not convert until later.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Geography. Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology; Medicine; Mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Schoolmaster. Secondary Means of Support: Artisan; He served as a prebend at the Church of St. Jacob in Bamberb. At the same time (or perhaps earlier), he assembled a printing shop in his house, where he set type, carved woodcuts, and bound books. He also made globes. He was relegated to officiate early mass as a parochial vicar at Kirchehrenbach, a small village near Frochheim, after having neglected to celebrate mass. He left the priesthood altogether after rebellious peasants threatened to kill all the Roman Catholic clergy in 1525. 1526-46, he taught mathematics at the Melanchton Gymnasium in Nuremberg on the recommendation of Melanchton.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; City Magistrate; Court Patronage; With his printed globe, he issued Luculentissima quaedam terra totius descriptio (Nuremberg, 1515), which he dedicated to the Bishop of Bamberg (Georg Schenk v. Limberg). He likewise dedicated his Solidi et sphaerici corporis sive globi astronomici canones usum et expeditam praxim ejusdem exprimentes (Nuremberg, 1517). In 1518 he was paid for binding a book for the Bishop. Eventually, all of his works were placed on the index of prohibited books. He dedicated one of his books to the Nuremberg magistrates. This laid the groundwork for Schöner's appointment to the Melanchton school. He had a patron named Johann Seyler, a prominent citizen of Bamberg, who provided financial support for his globemaking venture. His second globe, the one for which he is best known, was sold to Seyler in 1520. The globe of 1523 is dedicated to Reymer von Streytpergk, canon of the church of Bamberg, chaplain to Wigand, Bishop of Bamberg. Globi stelliferi sive sphaerae stellarum fixarum usus... and Opusculum geographicum et diversorum libris ac cartis... (1533) are dedicated to Prince Johann Friedrich of Saxony, for whom Schöner made a terrestial and a celestial globe.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Perhaps he might be listed for instruments inasmuch as he made globes, but this doesn't seem identical to others in this category. He certainly practiced cartography, however.
10. Scientific Societies: According to Stevens, he sent observations to Copernicus.

Günther, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 32, 295-7. Henry Stevens, Johann Schöner, Charles H. Coote, ed. (London, 1888) [Lilly GA271.S32 Mendel]. Franz Wieser, Magalhâes-Strasse und Austral-continent auf den Globen des Johannes Schöner, (Innsbruck, 1881).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Karl Schottenloher, 'Johann Schöner und seine Hausdruckerei,' Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, 24 (1907), 145-55.

Schooten, Frans van

1. Dates: Born: Leiden, ca. 1615 (Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek does not insert the 'ca.'); Died: Leiden, 29 May 1660 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Academic; Engineer; Frans van Schooten (the elder), professor at the engineering school connected with Leiden. The father was also a military engineer. No clear indication of financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch.
4. Education: University of Leiden; Enrolled in Leiden in 1631. No source says anything about a degree, and given the tendency always to mention one, I assume then that Schooten did not persevere to one. He travelled to Paris and London about 1637, and there met the leading mathematicians. He was back in Leiden in 1643.
5. Religion: Calvinist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. He was trained in mathematics at Leiden, and he met Descartes there in 1637 and read the proofs of his Geometry. In Paris he collect manuscripts of the works of Viète, and in Leiden he published Viète's works. He published the Latin edition of Descartes' Geometry. The much expanded second edition was extremely influential. He also made his own contribution (modest, everyone agrees) to mathematics, especially in Exercitationes mathematicae, 1657.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster. 1643, he became the assistant to his father. 1645, upon the death of his father, Schooten succeeded him in Leiden. He trained DeWitt, Huygens, Hudde, and Heuraet. In the 1640's (at least) he gave private lessons in mathematics in Leiden. 1644, he considered moving to The Hague to teach mathematics. Descartes recommended him to Constantijn Huygens as the tutor to his sons. However, since the Huygens boys were coming to Leiden, Schooten decided to remain there.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage. Descartes' introduction opened to Schooten the circle of natural philosophers and mathematicians around Mersenne in Paris. Descartes also recommended him to Constantijn Huygens to tutor his sons in mathematics, replacing Stampioen. Schooten tutored Christiann Huygens for a year. Descartes and Constatijn Huygens supported him for the position vacated by his father's death. In some respects Schooten does not seem to have been as keyed in to patronage as most; thus he dedicated his edition of Viète to his teacher Gool. However, he dedicated this Exercitationes to Chanut, Descartes' friend and the French ambassador to Sweden. He dedicated the first edition of the Latin Geometry of Descartes to Elizabeth van de Palts.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: Schooten maintained a wide correspondence, especially with Descartes. First in Paris and then in London (1641-3) he made the acquaintance of mathematical circles, with which he maintained a correspondence that is now lost.

J.E. Hofmann, 'Frans van Schooten der Jüngere,' Boethius, 2 (1962). Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek.

Schott, Gaspar

1. Dates: Born: Koenigshofen, near Wuerzburg, Germany, 5 February 1608; Died: Wuerzburg, Germany, 22 May 1666 (If it matters, Sommervogel puts his death in Augsburg.); Datecode: - Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Koenigshofen, near Wuerzburg, Germany. Career: Sicily (i.e., Italy), Germany. Death: Wuerzburg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Wurzburg; Religious Orders; D.D. 1627, entered the Society of Jesus and was sent to the University of Wuerzburg, where he studied philosophy under Athanasius Kircher. (I'll leave this in, but I suspect, especially from the presence of Kircher, that Schott was in a Jesuit college there.) The Swedish invasion (1631) forced teacher and students to flee. Schott may have accompanied Kircher to France at first. He completed his studies in theology, philosophy, and mathematics at Palermo. I am convinced that Schott studied at the Jesuit college there, not in the university. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. As an ordained Jesuit professed of the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. He joined the Jesuit order in 1627.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mathematics; Natural Philosophy. His books were largely compendia of reports he received or books he read. He did repeat experiments, but is said to have done no original research.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; He remained in Palermo for twenty years, mostly teaching in the Jesuit school at Palermo, although he spent two years in Trapani. 1652-5, he was sent to Rome for three years to collaborate with Kircher on his research. 1655-66: He returned to Germany. He went first to Mainz, then to Wuerzberg, where he taught mathematics and natural philosophy. I am convinced that he taught always in Jesuit colleges. He visited Rome in 1661 and applied for a post to teach mathematics there, but was instead offered the position of head of the Jesuit college at Heiligenstadt, which he declined.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; He always revered Kircher as his master. Presumably Kircher was involved in summoning Schott to Rome in 1652. Someone always stood behind an academic appointment, even within the Jesuit order; I assume here that it was Kircher. Schott dedicated part of his Magia universalis (1658-9) to Kircher. He dedicated the work as a whole to the Bishop of Bamberg. Schott dedicated his Technica curiosa (1664) to the Elector of Mainz (who was the Archbishop). He dedicated his Thaumaturgus physicus, 1659, to the Archduke (I don't know of what) Charles Joseph. He dedicated Cursus mathematicus, 1661, to Leopold I. He dedicated Physicua curiosa, 1662, to the Elector Charles Leopold (of Mainz, I think). He dedicated Schola Steganographica, 1666, to Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden.
9. Technological Connections: Mechanical Devices; Instruments; Schott is most widely known for his works on hydraulic and mechanical instruments. A treatise on 'chronometric marvels' contains the first description of a universal joint and the classification of gear teeth. He developed a leveling instrument for use in surveying.
10. Scientific Societies: As a result of his compendium, Mechanica hydraulico-pneumatica, he became the center of a network of correspondence from other Jesuits as well as lay experimenters. He received letters from Guericke and Huygens, and was the first to make Boyle's work on the airpump widely known in Germany.

Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 131. G. Duhr, Geschichte der Jesuiten in der Laendern deutscher Zunge, 3, (Munich-Regensburg, 1921), 589-92. A. de Backer, Bibliotheque des ecrivans de la Compagnie de Jesus, K. Sommervogel, ed., 7, (Paris, 1896), 904-12.

Scheuchzer, Johann Jakob

1. Dates: Born: Zürich, 2 August 1672; Died: Zürich, 23 June 1733 Datecode: - Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1645-88), was a successful physician in Zürich. In 1679 he became Stadtarzt. He died when Scheuchzer was not quite sixteen. During the 17th and 18th centuries the family was one of the leading families in Zürich. I assume he was affluent.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Swiss; Sw. Birth: Zürich, Switzerland. Career: Zürich. Death: Zürich.
4. Education: University of Zurich; University of Altdorf; University of Utrecht; M.D. 1675-9, German school. 1679-85 (or 87), Latin school. 1687-9, student in the Karolinum. 1692, he was granted a scholarship by the city of Zürich and enrolled in science and medicine courses at the University of Altdorf near Nuremberg, where he was especially influenced by Johann Sturm (1635-1703). I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 1693, entered the University of Utrecht. He received an M.D. in 1694. After spending some months exploring the Alps, he went to Nuremberg in 1695, where he studied astronomy and mathematics for a diploma, but he was recalled to Zürich.
5. Religion: Calvinist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Paleontology; Geography; Botany. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Mathematics; Mineralogy;
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Medicine; Schoolmaster; He was assistant municipal physician and medical supervisor of the orphanage in Zürich from the end of 1695. 1698, head of the public library in Zürich. He also served as the curator of the Kunstkammer (a sort of museum of natural history). He evidently also taught during this time, but because he could not obtain an academic position he occupied a niche between the Karolinum and the University, reading private botanical and medical lectures as preparation, it seems, for medical study. He also gave lessons in physics and mathematics. In a letter, Scheuchzer mentioned a small medical practice. Steiger says that his correspondence contains almost nothing about a medical practice, He deliberately held himself back from it in order to have time for his studies (though note that most of his municipal posts were medical). This may indicate private wealth, as many details of his career do, but I have not found mention of it. 1710, he became professor of mathematics, a reasonably low post, at the Carolinum. 1733, he became the municipal physician of Zürich and professor of Natural Philosophy at the Carolinum, and Chorherr. He was also an army doctor in his canton. He served as field physician during the Toggenburger Krieg (1712).
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Sci; 1691, he petitioned the Zürich mayor and council for a scholarship. He received 200 gulden, and then another 50 gulden for his study at Utrecht. It is clear from Steiger's account (in keeping with everything I know about the age) that every municipal appointment involved an exercise in influence or patronage, with other candidates competing under other patrons. It would also appear that Scheuchzer never had sufficient patronage; though apparently more learned than others in Zürich, he never had a position commensurate with his qualities. Leibniz arranged for him to be called by Peter the Great to be his personal physician. After this occured he received a raise in pay and decided to remain in Zürich. In 1702, the city of Zürich granted him money to support his Alpine excursions. 1708, he became a member of the Royal Society, which published his Ouresiphoites sive Hinera Tria (1708). The costs were paid by members of the society (Newton himself paid 20 pounds), who each received one of the copperplates. Hans Sloan, a member of the Royal Society, was his patron in that organization. Seuchzer dedicated a little book, Otia aestivalia circa thermas Badenses (1730), to him.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine some. He was also famous for his studies of the medical effects of altitude.
10. Scientific Societies: Lp, Royal Society (London); While still a student in Zürich, he was active in the circle around Dr. Wagner which was interestedin natural history. 1694, he was invited to join the 'Collegium der Wohlgesinnten,' a Zürich science society. In 1697, he became actuary of the Wohlgesinnten and remained such for 10 years until the decay of the society. He was also selected as the 'Dog Days Lecturer,' which was apparently a municipal institution to provide edification for students during the summer vacation. 1697, he became (on the recommendation of Johann Wagenseil) a member of the Academia naturae curiosum (the Leopoldina), under the name Akarnan. 1708, He became a fellow of the Royal Society. He carried on an extensive scientific correspondence-see Steiger.

Hans Fischer, Johann Jakob Scheuchzer: Naturforscher und Arzt [Veröffentlichungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich, 175] (Zurich: Leeman, 1973). [Geol. Q67.Z96 Bd. 175]; Rudolf Steiger, Johann Jackob Scheuchzer (1672-1733), (Zürich, 1927). This very fine account stops about the year 1702; apparently the second volume never appeared.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C. Walkmeister, 'J.J. Scheuchzer und seiner Zeit,' Bericht der St. Gallischen naturwissenschaft Gesellschaft (1896), 364-401.

Scilla, Agostino

1. Dates: Born: Messina, Sicily, 10 August 1629; Died: Rome, 31 May 1700; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Government Position; His father was a notary, a public official. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; Scilla was the student (in art) of Antonio Ricci-Barbalunga, who got the Senate of Messina to send Scilla to Rome to study with Andrea Sacchi.
5. Religion: Catholic. (by assumption)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Pal; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; He is particularly remembered as the author of La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso (1670), one of the classics of geology and paleontology. Scilla was primarily a painter. After he left Messina, his paintings were largely pastoral, so that he had an obvious interest in natural history. He accompanied Boccone on his botanical expeditions to Sicily and was cited by Boccone quite favorably. In the field of learning his primary interst was not science but numistmatics.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; After five years in Rome as a student (no dates that I found are given) he returned to Messina. He was a well-known painter, who worked in Messina until 1678, many of whose works decorate the churches of Messina and Syracuse. He also had commissions in Calabria. Scilla opened a school of painting in Messina. He took part in the Messina revolt against the Spanish and was forced into exile after 1678, first briefly at the court in Turin and then at Rome from 1679, where he still functioned as a painter.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; See above for the Senate of Messina. I am assuming that some ecclesiastical official commissioned those paintings in churches. Scilla was a member of the Accademia della Fucina, which met at the house of Carlo Gregorio, Marquis of Poggio Gregorio, a Messinese patrician. Here Sicilian gentlemen gathered to discuss literature and science-and politics. Academies of this sort were expressions of the patronage of their leaders, and I am treating this one in such terms. I am listing the stay at the court in Turin. It is reported that in Rome Scilla was known and valued by various princes, both as a painter and as a numismaticist, and his museum of natural curiosities was much frequented. Note that Scilla's patronage was connected primarily to his painting, although there are indications of respect for his learning. Even here it is partly his knowledge of numismatics.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: In Messina Scilla was a member of the Accademia della Fucina, an academy of literature and science. In Rome Scilla became a member of the academy of painting (I think this is the Accademia di S. Luca) and eventually its president. As mentioned above, he was friendly with the natural historian Boccone.

A. Mongitore, Bibliotheca sicula, 2 vol. (Panormi, 1708-14), 1, 91. Michaud, Biographie générale, 38, 506. Nicoletta Morello, 'Notizie biobibliografiche,' in La nascita della paleontologia nel seicento: Colonna, Stenone e Scilla, (Milano, 1979), pp. 148-51. G. Seguenza, Discorso intorno Agostino Scilla, (Messina, 1868).

Sendivogius [Sedzimir, Sedziwoj, Sdziwj z Skrska], Michael

Pseudonyms: Helicantharus Borentius (Borealis); Cosmopolitanus; Sensophax. Anagrams: Divi Leschii genus amo; Angelus doce mihi jus.
1. Dates: Born: Skorsko or Lukawica, Poland, 2 February 1566; Died: Cravar, Silesia, June [?] 1636 Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 70; Note that Pollak indicates that the year of birth is uncertain-either 1556 or 1566. Pollak and Brückner claim he died in 1646. The generally accepted dates, however, are 1566-1636.
2. Father: Aristocrat; His parents, Jacob Sedizimir and Catherine Pelsz Rogowska, were both of noble families and had a small estate near Nowy Sacz, in the Cracow district. They are said to have been wealthy.
3. Nationality: Polish; Czechoslovak; Polish; Germany; Birth: Skorsko or Lukawica, Poland. Career: Prague, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Germany; Death: Cravar, Silesia
4. Education: University of Leipzig; University of Vienna; No confirmed primary or secondary education; probably stuied in a monastic school in Krakow. 1590, entered the University of Leipzig. In this year he met Alexander Seton in Germany. 1591, moved to the University of Vienna. No mention of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Official; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Merchant; 1593, entered the service of Emperor Rudolf II in Prague as a courier and later served simultaneuosly as secretary to the Polish King Sigismund III. 1594, he married Veronica Stieber, a wealthy widow. In 1595 his name appears on the rolls of the University of Altdorf, probably as an imperial official rather than as a student. He may also have visited Rostock, Ingolstadt, and Cambridge. Toward the end of the 1590s Sendivogius became increasingly influential at court. In 1597, he bought the Fumberg estate from the widow of the English Alchemist Edward Kelley. He also owned two other estates (Lukawic and Lhota). In 1598, he was named privy councillor and was granted such large sums of money that he soon became one of Bohemia's most significant landowners. 1597-8, on order from Rudolph II, he travelled to the East, visiting Greece et al. In 1599, he left Prague after having been imprisoned for swindling his patron, the rich Merchant Koralek. He returned to Poland, where Wolski introduced him to King Sigismund III. He was recalled to Prague in 1602 and named privy councillor. In 1605, while on a diplomatic mission to France, to act as an intercessor for the release of Seton from a Saxon prison, he was lured to the court of Duke Friedrich of Wuerttemberg at Stuttgart. He was imprisoned, but released. After a visit to Cologne (1607), he returned to Poland, where he became a courtier to Queen Constantia, the second wife of Sigismund III. With crown marshall Mikolaj Wolski he established many smithies and iron and brass foundries in Krzepice, which later became a leading industrial center. This was undoubtedly lucrative, for he soon became the owner of several houses in Cracow. (I list this under Merchant.); Around 1619, he transferred allegiance to Emperor Ferdinand II, for whom he established lead foundries in Silesia. In 1626 he was appointed privy councillor at a salary of 500 Fl. (later 1000 Fl.), and in 1631, as compensation for long-unpaid salaries, he received the estates of Cravar and Kounty in Crnow county, Moravia.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Upon his arrival in Prague Sendivogius stayed with the physician Nikolaus Loew von Loewenstein, through whom he met the patrician merchant Ludwig Koralek von Teschin, who was an early patron. Sendivogius began his alchemical work in Koralek's own laboratory. Koralek lent Sendivogius 5600 'Schock meissnisch' (which I presume was some form of currency from Meissen) around 1595. Sendivogius still owed 2000 Schock in 1599. Sendivogius was accused of involvement in Koralek's death in 1599. He served Emperor Rudolf II and Sigismund III simultaneously in the 1590s. He became a favorite and trusted friend of Rudolf II through his alchemical work. In 1599, he was accused before the municipal court of Prague of being responsible for the death of a friend and fellow alchemist, Koralek, and sentenced to prison. After intervention from Sigismund III and/or Herrn von Hasenberg, a patron of alchemists, he was released. Rudolf's inaction in getting him out of prison soured him, and he left Prague. He was lured to the court of Duke Friedrich of Wuerttemberg at Stuttgart in 1605, who had noticed Sendivogius' claim in De lapide philosophorum (1604) to possess the secret of the philosopher's stone. The Duke put Sendivogius in prison. Sigismund III, Rudolf II, and several German princes intervened and Friedrich grew alarmed. He arranged for Sendivogius to escape and put the blame on his court alchemist, Heinrich Muehlenfells, who was condemned to die. Also related to his patronage by the Polish King Sigismund III: he was courtier to Queen Constantia, Sigismund III's second wife. Already in 1575, in Poland, he had the support of Mikolaj Wolski, then Starost (a kind of royal sheriff, often in charge of district courts) of Krzepice (near Czestochowa), and later Crown Marshall. In 1603, Sendivogius resumed alchemical work at Krzepice with continued support from Wolski and Jerzy Mniszek, the Wojewod (Palatine) of Skandomeirz. (Mniszek was famous for his role in sponsoring the false Dmitri's efforts to claim the throne of Muscovy.); 1619, he transferred allegiance back to the court of the Holy Roman Emperor, now Ferdinand II, to whom he was appointed privy councillor (1626) and from whom he received two estates (1631). According to the D.S.B., 'He was undoubtedly a political double agent.'
9. Technological Connections: Metallurgy; Sendivogius was responsible for establishing foundries in Krzepice and Silesia and evidently made money out of it. He established lead foundries in Silesia.
10. Scientific Societies: Connections: His friends included the alchemists Alexander Seton, Joachim Tancke, Oswald Croll, J. Orthel, J. Kapr von Kaprstein, V. Lavinus, R. Egli, Martin Ruland, Michael Maier, and Ludwig Koralek. In 1615-16 he visited Johannes Hartmann's laboratory at Marburg.

J. Svatek, Culturhistorischen Bilder aus Boehmen (Vienna, 1879), pp. 78-84. Aledsander Brückner, Dzieje Kultury Polskiej, vol. II Polska u Szczytu Potegi. 2nd ed. (Wydawnictwo J. Przeworskiego: Warszawa, 1939), p. 230. Roman Pollack, Bibliografia literatury polskiej. Pismiennictwo staropolskie. Warsaw: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawn., 1963-5, III: 229-31. Bogdan Suchodolski, gen. ed., Historia Nauki Polskiej, 3 vols. Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia ossolinskich wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1970. Vol. 1: Sredniowiecze, by Pawel Czartoryski and Odrodzenie by Pawel Rybicki. Vol. 2 Barok: by Henryk Barycz and Oswiecenie by Kazimierz Opalek.

Not Consulted: H. Barycz, 'Rozwoj nauki w Polsce w dobie Odrodzenie,' Odrodzenie w Polsce. Materialy Sesji Nauk. PAN 25-30 Pazdziernika 1953 r. T. 2: Historia Nauki. Cz. 1 w-wa 1956 pp. 61-2; 135-6. Osob. pt. Dzieje nauki w Polsce w epoce Odrodzenia. R. Bugaj, W poszukiwaniu kamienia filozoficznego. O Michale Sedziwojo, najslnniejszym alchemiku polskim. (Warsaw, 1957). T. Estreicher, 'Z dziejow alchemii,' Przeg. Powszechny, 1927 t. 174 s. 178-83. C. Lechicki, Mecenat Zyg. III, (Warsaw, 1932). W. Hubicki, 'The True Life of Michael Sendivogius,' Actes du XI Congres international d'histoire des sciences, 4 (Warsaw, 1965), 31-5.)

Sennert, Daniel

1. Dates: Born: Breslau, 25 November 1572; Died: Wittenberg, 21 July 1637; Datecode: - Lifespan: 65.
2. Father: Artisan; His father, Nicolaus Sennert, was a shoemaker from Laehn, Silesia. He was sixty-seven when Daniel Sennert was born. No firm information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Breslau, Germany; Career: Wittenberg, Germany. Death: Wittenberg, Germany
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; M.A., M.D. University of Leipzig; University of Jena; University of Frankfurt (an Oder);University of Basel; Attended schools in Breslau. 1593, enrolled at the University of Wittenberg. Received his M.A. in 1598. I assume a B.A. Studied medicine for three years at Leipzig, Jena, and Frankfurt a. d. Oder. 1601, he entered medical practice under the supervision of Johann Georg Magnus. Made a short stay at the University of Basel. 1601, he received his M.D. from the University of Wittenberg.
5. Religion: Lutheran. (assumed); Claude Bonnet, a professor at Avignon, produced an expurgated edition of his works suitable for use by Roman Catholics in 1655. Sennert was acquitted from the charge of heresy levelled by Johannes Freiburg, professor of medicine at Helmstaedt. The charge was made because Sennert held that the souls of animals as well as men were created by God out of nothing.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry; Natural Philosophy; Sennert's first book was Institutiones medicinae, 1611, and later there were other medical works. Epitome scientiae naturalis, 1618, and Hypomnemata physicae, 1636, both dealt with general issues in natural philosophy. He contributed to the revival of atomism. Sennert was influenced by Paracelsus without being truly a Paracelsan; he wrote influentially on chemistry. Sennert's collected works alone went through nine editions within the space of forty years, and individual works were also republished.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic. He practiced medicine while still a student (see above). 1602-47, professor of medicine, University of Wittenberg. He was Dean of the medical faculty six times during that period. I assume he also practiced medicine because he is referred to as having served as a physician in Wittenberg and having been as well-known as a physician as a teacher. It is recorded that Sennert remained at his post in Wittenberg through seven plagues and died in the eighth.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Academic; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Perhaps Johann Georg Magnus served as a patron of sorts, though I have no evidence of their relationship other than the fact that Sennert practiced under him. The 1619 edition of De Chymicorum cum Aristotelis et Galenicis consensu ac dissensu is dedicated to the Archbishop of Magdeburg. He could have received the chair at Wittenberg only from the court. However, the sources attribute the appointment to Johann Jessen, a professor in Wittenberg. Sennert did become the personal physician to the Elector of Saxony, Johann Georg, after treating him successfully. Ramsauer mentions Sennert's medical service to a wide range of aristocrats and rulers.
9. Technological Connections: Med.
10. Scientific Societies: None

Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 34, 34-5. Partington, 2, 271-6. Thorndike, 7, 201-17.  Rembert Ramsauer, Die Atomistik des Daniel Sennert, (Kiel, 1935). Pietro Brentini, Die Institutiones medicinae des Daniel Sennert (1572-1637), (Zurich, 1971).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Jonas Graezter, Lebensbilder hervorragender schlesischer Aerzte (Breslau, 1889). August Buchner, Dissertationum academicarum volumen II, (Wittenberg, 1651).

Serres, Olivier de

1. Dates: Born: Villeneuve de Berg, 1539; Died: Villeneuve de Berg, 2 July 1619; Datecode: Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Lawyer; Gentry; His father, Jacques de Serres and his mother Louis de Leyris came from established families of small landowmers and lawyers in Vivarais. One of Serres' brothers was Jean de Serres, a historiographer of France. Serres inherited an estate on which he lived all his life. I think one must say that the family was affluent at the least.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France;
4. Education: Vlc His classic education is uncertain because his father died when Serres was still young. He studied for a while at the University of Valence. There is no evidence that he graduated. By nineteen he appears to have had a liberal education. He was versed in Greek and Latin. He studied all that was written about agricultural practices.
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; As a young man he was converted to Protestantism. As early as 1561 he seems to have been regarded as a leader of the local Huguenots. He was a deacon of the church of Berg. He was sent by his congregation to find a minister. During the civil war the parish church vessels were entrusted to Serres for sale. In 1562 he was appointed by the 'Etats particuleurs' of Vivarais to a position under Count Crussol. He commanded forces from 1560-70 in local campaigns. He was driven from his family estate, Pradel, more than once during these years. He also participated in the conferences to arrange local peace.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Entomology; Serres spent time at the end of the century in Paris presenting plans to Henry IV for expansion of sericulture and the diffusion of the mulberry tree. He is largely responsible for the mulberry craze and inspired the King to make extensive plantings in France. He is sometimes given the title of father of French agriculture. Serres' Théatre d'agriculture (1600) was a very popular work appearing in several editions throughout the century. The work aimed to present a complete survey of all aspects of agriculture starting with advice on running a household. He discussed domestication and cultivation of all the plants and animals he knew. He was an enthusiastic advocate of the use of irrigation to improve meadows, of careful drainage, and of conservation of water. He was among the first agriculturist north of the Alps to argue for innovation and experimentation. He supported the sowing of artificial grasses. He introduced hops to France and was the first agricultural writer to desrcibe and encourage the cultivation of maize and potatoes. I have categorized this under botany; it is the only similar case I have met. Serres acquired a national reputation as an authority on the silkworm and sericulture. Two sections of his book were published separately. La cuillette de la soye, which appeared as a preprint in 1599, gave the first detailed accounts of the life cycle of silkworms. La seconde richesse du meurier-blanc promoted a method of manufacturing course cloth from the bark of the mulberry trees.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Serres lived his entire life on his estate, Pradel, where he practiced many of the methods presented in his Théatre. Henry IV instructed Serres to oversee the planting and care of the mulberry trees in the Tuilleries and in other areas of France.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Serres dedicated his Théatre to Henry IV; La seconde richess to M. de Believre, Chancelier of France; and La cueillette to members of the Hostel de ville de Paris.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; Serres introduced sericulture to France. He also proposed a method manufacturing coarse cloth from the bark of the mulberry tree.
10. Scientific Societies:

M. de Fels, Olivier de Serres, (Paris, 1963). H. Vaschalde, Olivier de Serres, seigneur du Pradel, sa vie et ses travuaux, (Paris, 1886).

Servetus, Michael

1. Dates: Born: Villanueva de Sixena, Huesca, Spain, 29 September 1511. There is an element of uncertainty about the year. Servetus himself supplied conflicting evidence; he also gave the year 1509. However, most agree that 1511 is probable. Died: Geneva, 27 October 1553; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Law; Antonio Servetus, alias Reves, was a notary. No indication of financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sp; Career: Sw, French; Death: Sw
4. Education: Tou; University of Paris; M.D. Possibly he attended the University of Sarazoga, but I am not listing it. He pursued legal studied in Toulouse in 1528-9. He studied in Paris in 1533 at the Collège Calvi, and then, after an interval, undertook medical studies in Paris in 1536. Although there is no university record of a medical degree, he probably earned one. I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; At the age of fifteen Servetus entered the service of a Franciscan friar, Juan de Quintana, an Erasmian. He was already spreading arianism by 1530. In 1531 he published De trinitatis erroribus and in 1532 De trinitate. As a result of these two works he had to live under the pseudonym, Michel de Villeneuve. In 1553 he published another arian, pantheistic book, Christianismi restitutio, which led first to his condemnation by the Inquisition in France, and then, after he escaped, to his execution at the stake in Geneva.
6. Disciplines: Geography; Pharmacology; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Astrology. While practicing medicine around Lyon under the pseudonym, Servetus published two influential editions of Ptolemy's Geography. While he was working as a proofreader in Lyon he became interested in medicine and published two books concerned with medicine and pharmacology. One of these, a work on syrups, devotes much space to a theory of digestion. In Christianismi restitutio he published for the first time in the Latin West the concept of the minor circulation of the blood through the lungs. In Paris he defended astrology in print.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Publishing; Schoolmaster; Servetus entered the service of the Franciscan Quintana in 1526. After an interruption to study law at Toulouse, in 1529 he went with Quintana, newly appointed confessor of Charles V, in the imperial retinue, travelling through Italy to Germany. He had left his patron by 1530. He was in Basel for ten months in 1530-1, staying with Oecolampadius and probably supporting himself as a corrector for a printer. After a brief period of study in Paris under his pseudonym, he moved to Lyon where he worked for a printer, as a corrector and editor. When he returned to Paris to study medicine, his Syroporum universa ratio, on the use of syrups as medicines, was highly successful and may have helped to finance his medical education. He also gave lectures to support himself. After his medical studies, Servetus practised medicine for about fifteen years-in Lyon, Avignon, Charlieu, and then, sometime after 1540, in Vienne where he stayed for twelve years. For at least a three year period in there he was the personnal physician to Archbishop Palmier of Vienne. He was also physician to Guy de Maugiron, the lieutenant governor of Dauphiné.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Medicine; Patronage of Government Official; In addition to functioning as personal physician to Archbishop Palmier, Servetus dedicated his second edition of Ptolemy's Geography to him. Hugues de la Porte was the patron of Servetus's first edition of Ptolemy and of his edition of the Bible. Symphorien Champier, a medical humanist of Lyon, was Servetus' patron during his period in Lyon. Servetus' pharmacological tracts were written in defense of Champier against Leonard Fuchs. See above for his relation with the lieutenant governor.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: In Paris he was in a lively medical circle. His teachers included Sylvius, Fernel, and Guinter. Guinter hailed him, with Vesalius, as his most able assistant in dissection. On the whole, however, Servetus was a figure isolated by his theological views.

Roland Bainton, Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael Serveus, 1511-1553, (Boston, 1953).

Not Consulted: B. Becker, ed., Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion, (Haarlem, 1953). Eloy Bulln y Fernndez, Miguel Servet y la geografa del Renacimento, 3rd ed., (Madrid, 1945). Juan-Manuel Palacios Snchez, El illustre aragons Miguel Servet, (Huesca, 1956).

Severin [Soerensen, Longomontanus], Christian

1. Dates: Born: Longberg, Jutland, 4 October 1562; Died: Copenhagen, 8 October 1647 Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Soeren Poulsen, described as a humble peasant; Clearly poor; the father died when Christian was eight.
3. Nationality: Birth: Longberg, Jutland, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Rostock; M.A. Being quite poor, he did not complete his basic education until 1588. 1588, University of Copenhagen, where he studied astronomy under Tycho. I assume a B.A. Sometime between 1597-9, on leave from his position as Tycho's assistant, he studied in several German universities; he received an M.A. from the University of Rostock.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy.
7. Means of Support: Academic. Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Schoolmaster; Miscellaneous. Soerenson came from such poor circumstances that he had to support his studies by intermittent manual labor. 1588-99, in the service of Tycho Brahe. This relation may have continued until Tycho's death in 1601. 1603, rector of the school of Wibourg. 1605, Professor paedagogicus, University of Copenhagen. Chancellor Friis wanted him as a professor of mathematics so much that he offered to pay him out of his own pocket, because no chairs were available. Then a professor paedagogicus opened up. 1607-47, professor of mathematics and astronomy, University of Copenhagen. 1616-7, Rector of the university. 1621, moved up to chair in astronomy (known as 'Mathematicus Superior').
8. Patronage: Scientist; Government Official; Court Patronage; Tycho supported him in the early part of his career, but he had died by the time Severin was appointed at Copenhagen, and so could not have directly influenced that. After Tycho's death he stayed with Holgar Rosenkrantz for a time. See the role of Chancellor Friis above. Astronomica Danica, which he edited, was dedicated to Christian IV.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

J.-B.-J. Delambre, Histoire de l`astronomie moderne, I (Paris, 1821), 262-287. Holgar F. Roerdam, Kjoebenhauns Universitets Historie fra 1637 til 1621, Copenhagen: Bianco Lunos Bogtrykkeri, 1873-7), vol. 3. Kr. P. Moesgaard, 'Christian Soerensen Longomontanus,' Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 9, 109-10. Victor E. Thoren, The Lord of Uraniborg: A Biography of Tycho Brahe, (Cambridge, 1990), p. 199 and passim.

Shakerley, Jeremy

1. Dates: Born: Halifax, Yorkshire, November 1626; Died: India, c.1655. The last thing known about Shakerley is a letter addressed to him, in India, in 1655. By 1675 (I cite Sherburne's book of that year) he was known to be dead. Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 29
2. Father: Unknown; William Shakerley. There is no information other than his name. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English. Career: English (I consider that he was in English culture in India.); Death: English (again the English culture in India).
4. Education: None Known; Self educated
5. Religion: Anglican; Largely by assumption-there is not much information.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology. Anatomy of 'Urania Practica', 1649, a criticism of a publication by Wing. Synopsis compendiana, 1651. Tabulae britannicae, 1653. He was the first mathematician to recognize the significance of the work of Horrocks, which he found in manuscript in the Towneley household. In India he observed a transit of Mercury, 1651, the second transit of Mercury ever observed, and a comet in 1652. He also studied the astronomical knowledge of the Brahmins. His correspondence with Lilly indicates that Shakerley, like most astronomers of his age, accepted astrology as well, though he became increasingly skeptical as the correspondence continued.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Unknown. The London astronomer, William Lilly, supplied him with books, stationery, and other aids, 1640s-50. Lilley withdrew his support when Shakerley attacked Wing. He was a member of the Towneley household at Carré Hall, Lancashire, 1649-51. He emigrated to India in 1651, possibly as an employee of the East India Company, although his name does not appear in the company's records. The trip is obscure. He did not go there solely to observe the heavens. He could hardly have gone on his own.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Gentry. William Lilly, the astrologer. Although Lilly appears to have withdrawn his support, his connections in London may have helped Shakerley. Shakerley was taken into the Towneley household in 1649 and encouraged in his scientific pursuits.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Correspondence with W. Lilly, 1648-50.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 17, 1283. Allan Chapman, Three North Country Astronomers, (Manchester, 1982), pp. 36-7. There is not much information about this fairly obscure man.

Sharrock, Robert

1. Dates: Born: Adstock (in some accounts Drayton Parslow), Buckinghamshire, c.June 1630.  He was baptized on 29 June. Died: Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire, 11 July 1684; Datecode: Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Church Living; Also Robert Sharrock, the father was Rector of Adstock and of Drayton Parslow. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, L.D. Winchester College. Oxford University, New College, 1649-61; B.C.L., 1654; D.C.L., 1661. I count the B.C.L. as equivalent to a B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Anglican; The Puritan authorities made him perpetual fellow of New College. He was an ordained minister in the Anglican Church after the Restoration.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; History of the Propagation and Improvement of Vegetables, 1660. The book indicates an experimental approach to botany and shows extensive knowledge of the cultivation of plants. Sharrock was not primarily a scientist. He wrote as well on religion, law, and political philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Perpertual Fellow of New College, Oxford, from 1649. Ordained 1661. The college rectory of Horwood Magna in Buckinghamshire, 1665-8. Installed as prebendary of Winchester, 1665. Rectory of East Woodhay in Hampshire, 1668. Rector of Bishop's Waltham in Hampshire, 1669. Archdeacon of Winchester, 1684.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Unknown; He owed his Fellowship at Oxford initially to Parliamentary visitors. He owed those ecclesiastical appointments to someone. To be sure, the intial one was a college advowson. I did not see any evidence that the other two were, and I think that the prebend and archdeaconry could not have been. He dedicated his book (History of the Propagation) to Boyle, but in this case, where Sharrock also wrote prefaces to Boyle's books, I will count this as pure friendship rather than patronage. It is relevant as well that Boyle had desired that Sharrock write the book.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; Note the word 'Improvement' in the title of the book, a word which the extended continuing title emphasized. The final edition of it, after Sharrock's death, bore the title An Improvement to the Art of Gardening. Arber calls it a practical handbook for husbandmen and gardiners.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Boyle. He wrote prefaces to three of Boyle's physical treatises and dedicated his own book to Boyle.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 17, 1368-9. J. Britten and G.S. Boulger, A Biographical Index of Deceased British and Irish Botanists, (London, 1931), p. 272. J.R. Green, A History of Botany, (London, 1914), pp. 52, 125. Agnes Arber, 'Robert Sharrock (1630-1684): a Precursor of Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) and an Exponent of 'Natural Law' in the Plant World,' Isis, 51 (1960), 3-8.

Sherard, William

1. Dates: Born: Bushby, Leicestershire, 27 February 1659; Died: London, 11 August 1728; Datecode: Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Unknown; George Sheerwood (or Sherwood) is described only as a gentleman. Perhaps that could mean gentry, but I find it too indeterminate to categorize. Sherard's initial career as tutor does not suggest gentry. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Irish; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, L.D., University of Paris; University of Leiden; Merchant Taylor's School. Oxford University, St. John's College, 1677-83; B.C.L., 1683; D.C.L., 1694. He studied botany at Paris and Leiden between the two degrees at Oxford, 1685-8
5. Religion: Anglican. By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Natural History; Sherard collected plants in the Alps, in Italy, Greece, and Anatolia, and in Cornwall and Jersey; from his expeditions he furnished lists that John Ray utilized in his works. He published Schola botanica, a list of plants in the Jardin du Roi in Paris, 1689, and Paul Hermann's Paradisus batavus, 1698. About 1695 he began a revision of Bauhin's Pinax on which he worked for the rest of his life, though he never finished or published it.
7. Means of Support: Merchant. Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Government Position; Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1683-1703; Tutor to Sir Arthur Rawdon, 1690-4, in Ireland. Tutor to Charles, Viscount Townsend, 1694. Tutor to the eldest son of Lord Russell, 1697-9. Tutor to Henry, Duke of Beaufort, 1700-02. Commissioner for the sick and wounded, and for the exchange of prisoners, 1702. I'd like to know how he got this appointment; I'd bet a month's salary it was through the patronage of one of those families in which he tutored. The position appears to have been the beginning of his prosperity. Consul of the Levant Company, 1703-17. He amassed a considerable fortune.
8. Patronage: Gentry; Aristocratic Patronage; Sir Arthur Rawdon. Henry, Duke of Beaufort. Sherard made a tour to the continent as tutor to Charles, Viscount Townsend in 1694. He made another journey through France and Italy with the oldest son of Lord Russell. It is worth noting that when he was rich Sherard became a patron himself: Dillenius, Catesby, and the Italian naturalists Micheli and Boccone. He was instrumental in the publication of Vaillant's Botanicon parisiense, 1727. He gave his herbarium, papers, and library to Oxford and endowed the chair in botany there.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Close friendship with Jacob Bobart. Friendship with Ray. He was a pupil of Tournefort, and Hermann. Quarreled with Sloane for some years. Assisted Boerhaave in editing the life work of the ailing Sebastien Vailant; Edited Paul Hermann's manuscript of Paradisus Batavus in 1695 (published in 1698). Assisted Pier Antonio Micheli and Paolo Boccone with subscriptions for publication. Bequeathed ?3000 to endow the chair for botany at Oxford, nominating Dillenius as the first professor (under the endowment). He had brought Dillenius to England in 1621 to assist him on the Pinax. Sherard is another demonstration of the existence of a true scientific community (in this case concerned with botany). He was the friend and correspondent of nearly every major botanist of his age. A considerable number of letters to and from him survive among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library, in the Royal Society, and at Oxford. Royal Society, 1718. Council, 1719, 1720.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 18, 67-8. G.T. Gunther, Oxford Gardens, (Oxford, 1912). J. Britten and G.S. Boulger, A Biographical Index of Deceased British and Irish Botanists, (London, 1931), p. 274. Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, (London 1790), 2, 141-50. W.L. Tjaden, 'William and James Sherard and John James Dillenius: Some Errors in the Biographies,' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 8 (1977), 143-7. This article corrects a number of small factual errors about Sherard.

Not Available and Not Consulted: B.D. Jackson, 'A Sketch of the Life of William Sherard,' Journal of Botany, 12 (1874), 129-38.

Sigüenza y Gongora, Carlos de

1. Dates: Born: Mexico City, 20 August 1645; Died: Mexico City, 22 August 1700; Datecode: Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Schoolmaster; The father was tutor to Prince Balthazar before going to New Spain. This is difficult, but in accordance with other practice I'll categorize it under Schoolmaster. No specific information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish colonial; Career: Spanish colonial; Death: Spanish colonial
4. Education: Mex; Sigüenza's father was tutor to Prince Balthazar before going to New Spain. Sigüenza entered the Jesuit Colegio de Tepozotlan at about the age of 15 and took his first vows in 1662. He continued his studies at the Colegio del Espiritu Santo at Pueblo, but in 1667 either he was expelled for disciplinary reasons (as some contend) or he withdrew from the order voluntarily. In the following years he was a student at the University of Mexico. Apparently he never took a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Though not a Jesuit, he remained a secular priest his whole life.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astonomy, Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: mathematics; Though a professor of astrology, he was strongly opposed to it. In 1681, wrote on comets to calm fears aroused by the great one of 1680-1. This work led to an exchange with a Jesuit, and ultimately to Sigüenza's Libra astronomica (1690), a book which showed his strong mathematical background. As royal cosmographer, he drew charts, including the first map of all New Spain, a map of the valley of Mexico, and later one of Pensacola Bay. As royal cosmographer, he published almanacs which included astronomical observations. He observed the solar eclipse of 1691, and he attempted to determine the longitude of Mexico City.
7. Means of Support: Church living, Academic. Already as a student at the university he was chaplain at Amor de Dios Hospital. He continued in this position through his whole life; it provided income and lodging. 1672: appointed to chair of astrology ands mathematics at the university; held the chair for more than 20 years, until about 1693. Note that there was a competition for this chair.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Governmental official; The Inspector of the Royal Funds, Don Sebastien de Guzman y Cordova published Sigüenza's Libra astronomica at his own expense. Sigüenza was close to a succession of viceroys, but especially Conde de Galve, who sent him on the expedition to Pensacola; he received a salary, and members of his family who were dependent on him received support while he was on the expedition. Sigüenza christened the bay with de Galve's name. Sigüenza was de Galve's official historian, and his works mention orders from de Galve to write things. His manifesto on the comet of 1680 paid compliments to the wife of the viceroy; whom he called his patroness. He was appointed royal cosmographer by a special decreee of Charles II. Although this had to have been arranged from Mexico, it seems proper to consider it courtly patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Hydraulics; Military Engineer; His map of the valley of Mexico was drawn in connection with work on the drainage problems of Mexico City. He also was appointed Examiner of Gunners, and he helped with the fortification of the coast.
10. Scientific Societies: Sigüenza corresponded fairly widely with European men of science. He spoke of an 'insatiable desire' to communicate with other men learned in the sciences (Leonard, p. 56)

José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Irvin A. Leonard, Don Carlos de Sigüenza y Gongora, (Berkeley, 1929).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Francisco Perez Salazar, Obras de Carlos de Sigüenza y Gongora, (Mexico City, 1928). B. Santillan Gonzalez, Don Carlos Sigüenza y Gongora, (Mexico City, 1956).

Sloane, Sir Hans

1. Dates: Born: Killyleagh, County Down, Ireland, 16 April 1660; Died: London, 11 January 1753; Datecode: Lifespan: 93
2. Father: Adm, Government Official; Alexander Sloane was receiver-general of taxes for County Down for the Earl of Clanbrassill; that is, he was an agent for the Earl (to whom he was related) in the administration of the Earl's estate. Note that the name Hans was fairly common in the Hamilton family (the family of the Earl); Hans Sloane was clearly named as a compliment to his father's patron. In the census of 1659 the father held land on which there were 22 tenants. He died when Hans, the youngest of seven sons, was only six. No one knows anything about the family finances after that, but I do not see how to deny that he grew up in relatively prosperous circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Irish (though of the English, in this case actually Scottish, ruling class); Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Scientific Organization; M.D. Sloane did not have a university education or a bachelor's degree. He studied medicine in London, 1679-83, and then went to Paris for a year. In Paris he studied at the Jardin du Roi, not at the university. He then took a medical degree at the University of Orange in 1683. Orange, like quite a few others in France (Rheims, Angers, Caens, to name no more) examined but did not instruct. He went on to Montpellier for further study, again not as a formal student. Sloane is, if I remember correctly, only the second for whom I list M.D. without a B.A. or its equivalent. The other one I recall is Nicolas Lemery. Created M.D. at Oxford, 1701. I am not listing this. M.D., conferred by Dublin, 1743. Or this.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Anglican; The Sloane family went to Ireland early in the 17th century as part of the group led by their relatives, the Hamiltons. It was a Presbyterian group, and Sloane grew up as one of them. He was the classic conformer, and he conformed to the Anglican Church during his long career in London.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Org; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Sloane became interested in natural history as a boy and never lost the interest. His great collection, in which natural history was quite prominent, became (through his bequest) the nucleus of the British Museum. He pursued natural history in Jamaica, and from that trip came two books: Catalogus plantarum quae in insula Jamaica sponte proveniunt, 1696, and Voyage to Madiera, Barbadoes, and Jamaica, with the Natural History of Jamaica, in two widely spaced volumes, 1707 and 1725. He also published quite a few papers in the Philosophical Transactions, most of them on natural history. Clearly plants were at the center of his natural historical interests. Sloane's greatest service to science may well have been to its societies in London. As Secretary of the Royal Society, 1693-1712, he was one agent in reviving it after its near collapse. Later he was President for fourteen years, succeeding Newton. He was also President of the Royal College of Physicians for sixteen years, beginning in 1719. Though a highly successful one, Sloane was not a great physician. He did, within his limited powers, strive to dethrone superstition and to raise the standard of medicine. He published one book, An Account of a Medicine for . . . Distempers of the Eyes, 1745.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Personal Means; Secondardy: Government Position; Set up practice in London, 1684 until not long before his death. He was quickly one of the most successful physicians in the city, especially after his return from Jamaica. He is said to have charged the wealthy one guinea per hour. Physician to the Duke of Albemarle, Christopher Monck, Governor of Jamaica, 1687-9, with a salary of ?600. Monk died not long after the arrival in Jamaica. Sloane accompanied his widow back and stayed on in her household as her personal physician for about five years. This connection, together with his Sydenham connection, launched his successful practice. In Jamaica he invested heavily in quinine and sugar. Several years after his return he married the widow of a rich planter in Jamaica; she brought a fortune with her. That is, Sloane became a very wealthy man. Physician to Christ's Hospital, 1694-1730, ?30, which he gave back to the hospital. Physician to Queen Anne, 1712-14. Physician-general to the army, 1722-7. First physician to George II, 1727.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Brooks is convinced that the patronage of the Hamilton family was necessary to launch Sloane's career-his medical study in London and Paris. It is far from evident to me that Sloane's family was even close to poverty. Boyle, with whom Sloane became acquainted, recommended him to Thomas Sydenham when Sloane returned from France. Sydenham promoted his early career. Among other things he seems to have been responsible for Sloane's election into the College of Physicians. The Albemarle connection was important. Sloane dedicated his Catalogus, 1696, to the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians. By then he was well launched. He was already Secretary of the Royal Society. I am not inclined to treat that dedication as an aspect of patronage. Appointed physician to Anne, and later to George II. He dedicated the first volume of the Natural History of Jamaica to Anne and the second volume to George I. He dedicated his medical work, An Account, 1645, to George II. Sloane preserved the life of Anne a few hours at a critical juncture and thus preserved the Hanoverian succession. George I conferred a baronetcy on him in 1716. When Sloane became wealthy, he became a patron himself. He took young physicians with him exactly as Sydenham had done for him. Books were dedicated to him. When he purchased Chelsea manor, he conveyed the Physick Garden to the impoverished Company of Apothecaries virtually as a gift. Above all, he gave his great collection to the nation. Perhaps Sloane, especially his correspondence, might help to illuminate the motives of the patron.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Sloane was interested in the pharmacological uses of plants; he contributed some new drugs from Jamaica into the accepted pharmacology. He included material of this sort in his Natural History of Jamaica. He apparently concocted Sir Hans Sloane's Milk Chocolate as a medicine. He helped to establish the use of quinine. The Account was about an ointment (based on viper grease!) for sore eyes; it is said to have continued in wide use for some time. As President of the College of Physicians he pushed a revised London Pharmacopaeia, 1724. De Beer claims that Sloane introduced scientific method into medicine with his insistence on empirical observation. This seems greatly exaggerated to me. However, Sloane did promote all sorts of projects to improve health care in London, including the foundation of the Foundling Hospital. He greatly helped the introduction of inoculation for small pox after 1718, and did inoculate members of the royal family.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Berlin Academy; Russian Academy (St Petersburg); Informal Connections: Close friendships with John Ray, Robert Boyle and Tancred Robinson, beginning in the 1670s; with Thomas Sydenham, beginning in 1684. Friendship with John Locke, Samuel Pepys, Isaac Newton, Edmond Halley, William Courten, Christopher Wren, and John Evelyn. Most of his immense correspondence is in the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library. See Books, p. 118, for a summary of the location of Sloane's correspondence. His correspondence with Ray at least is published, in the Derham volume. Royal Society, 1685; Secretary, 1693-1712; President, 1727-41. Royal College of Physicians, 1687; Censor, 1705, 1709, 1715; Elect, 1716; President, 1719-35. College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 1705. Academy of Sciences of Paris, 1709. Royal Academy of Science, Berlin, 1712. Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, 1735. Royal Academy of Madrid, 1735. Academy of Sciences of Gottingen, 1752.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 18, 376-80. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.1, 3697-706. Gavin R. de Beer, Sir Hans Sloane and the British Museum, (London, 1953). Eric St. John Brooks, Sir Hans Sloane, The Great Collector and His Circle, (London, 1954). Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, (London 1790), 2, 65-96.

Not Consulted: 'Sir Hans Sloane,' British Museum Quarterly, 18 (1953), 1-26. This whole issue is devoted to Sloane. W.R. Sloan, 'Sir Hans Sloane, F.R.S.: Legend and Lineage,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 35 (1980), 125-33.

Sluse, René-Francois de

1. Dates: Born: Vise, Belgium, 2 July 1622; Died: Liège, 19 March 1685; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Gentry; Law; Sluse came from a petit noble family. His father was a notary and a clerk of the court. His maternal uncle, Gualthere Waltheri had a doctorate in law and was the secretary of the papal briefs to Innocent X and Alexander VII. His other maternal uncle, Jean Waltheri, was canon and later dean of the collegial church of Vise. The family is called well-to-do. Considering everything above, I think they had to have been wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgium Area; Career: Belgium Area; Death: Belgian Area.
4. Education: Lou; University of Sapienza (Rome); Ll.D. He attended the University of Louvain from 1638 to 1642. He travelled to Rome in 1642 and the following year he received his doctorate in law from the University of Sapienza. He remained in Rome for several more years becoming proficient in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac, and studying astronomy and mathematics.
5. Religion: Catholic. His well-to-do family had destined him to an ecclesiastical career. Sluse took the tonsure in 1631. In 1650 he received a canonry in the collegial chapter of Vise. He renounced this benefice which then was given to his brother Pierre. Sluse accepted a prebend in the chapter of St. Lambert in Liège. His understanding in law and his great knowledge brought him many high positions within the Church. 1655-director of the chapter; 1659-member of the privy council of the Bishop of Liege. 1666-abbé of Amay; 1676-vice provost of the Cathedral
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Physics; Natural History; Sluse's administrative success in Liège separated him from the intellectual life he had known in Rome. He had made a thorough study of Cavalieri and Torricelli on the geometry of the indivisible. At Liège his only means of communication was his extensive correspondence. Early in his career he published Mesolabium, a work on geometrical construction in which he discussed the cubature of various solids and the solutions to third and fourth degree equations. He perfected the methods of Descartes and Fermat for drawing tangents and determining the maximum and minimum values. He generalized the method for solutions of equations through the construction of roots by means of curves. His correspondence introduced him to the problem of the cycloid and the theories of games of chance. With Huygens he published Descartes' last work. Although Sluse's work was primarily in mathematics, he wrote on astronomy, physics, natural history, history, and of course on theological issues in his adminstrative work.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Sluse held many high positions during his ecclesiastical career. The fact that his family destined him for the church leads me to conclude that he was a younger son who did not inherit wealth.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; Sluse was appointed to his ecclesiastical posts by Innocent X. It appears obvious that his family's position and influence did not hurt.
9. Technological Connections: Non
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); 1674-85. In order to keep his scientific interests alive he conducted extensive correspondence with several members of the scientific community, Pascal, Huygens, Oldenburg, Wallis, Ricci, Dati, Lambecius, and Prince Leopold of Tuscany.

C. Le Paige, 'Correspondence de René Francois de Sluse publiée pour le premiere fois,' Bulletino di bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 17 (1884), 494-726. C. Le Paige, 'Notes pour servir a l'histoire des mathematiques dans l'ancien pays de Liège,' Bulletin de l'Institut archeologique liègeois, 21 (1890), 457-65. F. van Hulst, René Sluse, (Liège, 1842). Etienne Helin et al., 'René-Francois de Sluse (1622-1685),' Actes du Colloque international Amay-Liège-Visi, 20-22 mais 1985, Buttetin de la Société royale des sciences de Liège, 55 (1986), 1-269.

Snel [Snellius or Snel van Royen], Willebrord

1. Dates: Born: Leiden, 1580; Died: Leiden, 30 October 1626 Datecode: Lifespan: 46
2. Father: Academic; Professor of Mathematics at Leiden. From various evidence clearly prosperous
3. Nationality: Dutch; Dutch; Dutch; Birth: Leiden, Netherlands; Career: Netherlands; Death: Leiden, Netherlands
4. Education: University of Leiden; M.A. University of Paris; He was the son of a well-to-do father who was himself a considerable scholar and professor of mathematics at the University of Leiden. In 1603 his father was connected with the court of the Landgraf Maurice of Hesse. He studied law at the University of Leiden, but became interested in mathematics at an early age. I assume a B.A. Already in 1600 he was allowed to offer lectures on mathematics at Leiden on special days. 1602- February 03, studied law in Paris. I am assuming that this as at the university. 1608, received an M.A. from Leiden.
5. Religion: Calvinist by assumption
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Navigation; In the first decade of the century he translated Stevin into Latin, and later translated van Ceulen. In correspondence with Landsberg he calculated the value of pi via van Ceulen's method. He worked at reconstructing Apollonius, dedicating part of the publication to Stevin and part of it to Prince Maurice. Snel published extensively on pure mathematics. His most important work, Eratosthenes batavus (1617) expounded a method of measuring the earth by triangulations and published the results of such. He had been about to abandon this work (I gather for lack of funds) when the brothers Sterrenberg (barons) took it over and completed it, with Snel's participation. This was the foundation of modern geodesy. He published works on astronomy c. 1618, including a work on comets; he never became a Copernican. In 1624 published Tiphys batavus, a work on navigation, a thorough investigation of the rhumb line (or loxodrom, a name Snel coined). He composed a canon of trigonometric functions calculated in decimals. It is well known that he devoted extensive time to optics and discovered the sine law.
7. Means of Support: Academic; 1600, taught mathematics at the University of Leiden. But soon after traveled to Wuertzburg, Prague, Altdorf, and Tübingen, where he visited all the major astronomers of the day. 1602, in Paris studying law. 1604, returned home after having traveled to Switzerland with his father, who was then in Kassel at the court of Prince Maurice. 1613, suceeded his father at the University of Leiden. 1615, became professor of mathematics. It is relevant to his means of support that in 1608 he married the dasughrer of the Burgemeister of Schoonhoven.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Snel's father was the teacher of Prince Maurice. Snel dedicated a work to Maurice. Some influence stood behind his succession to his father's chair. He received (from whom? apparently the government) gifts of 700 florins to support his triangulations (in 1622-4). Van Ceulen, Stevin, and his father, Rudolf Snellius or Snel van Royen, were influential for Snel being allowed to teach mathematics in 1600. In 1608, Snel both translated Stevin's work into Latin to bring it before the European community and dedicated a work to Stevin; recall Stevin's relation to Maurice. There is probably a connection which explains how Snel suceeded his father at Leiden after his death. De re numeraria (1613) is dedicated to Grotius-i.e., he was familiar with the reigning intellectuals of the Netherlands.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; Mathematics. Tiphys batavus (1624) consists of lessons on navigation. See also above.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Note his connections with Tycho, Kepler, Wilhelm IV, as well as the Dutch scientists.

Nouvelle biographie universelle. P. van Geer, 'Notice sur la vie et les travaux de Willebrord Snellius,' Archives neerlandaises de sciences exactes et naturelles, 18 (1883), 453-68. Leo Beek, 'Willibrord Snellius,' in Beek, Dutch Pioneers of Science, (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1985), pp. 32-9. C. De Waard, Nieuw nederlands biographisch woordenboek, 7 (1927), 1155-63.

Not Consulted: N.D. Haasbroek, Gemma Frisius, Tycho Brahe and Snellius, and their Triangulations (Delft, 1968).

Soto, Domingo de

1. Dates: Born: Segovia, 1494 or 5. Died: Salamanca, 1560; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Unknown; The only information is that he was of modest means-that means poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: University of Alcala; D.D. University of Paris; M.A. Soto was from a poor family; it is unclear how he was even able to attend university. He did enter the university of Alcala at 18; there he teamed up with a young noble, Pedro Francisco de Saavedra, in a very close relationship. They went to Paris together, returned together, and eventually both became Dominicans (but not together). Although I have not found any suggestion of the financial side, it is hard to imagine that Soto's ability to go on to Paris was not due to Saavedra. B.A. Alcala, 1516. To Paris, first to Collège de Santa Barbara, then to Collège de Montaigue where the two Coronels (also from Segovia) were. M.A. Began to study theology. Returned without degree. Back to Alcala, where D.D. (or equivalent) in 1524.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Academic position, Patronage; Began to teach philosophy in Alcala in 1520. Became a Dominican in 1525. In 1526 began to teach theology at Salamanca where he spent most of the rest of his career. Charles V sent him to the Council of Trent as the imperial theologian. In 1548, Charles named him his confessor. Charles sent him back to Spain to preside over a Junta at Valladolid. In 1549 Charles was preparing to name him Bishop of Segovia, but Soto begged off. Soto returned to Salamanca where he held various professorial and administrative positions until his death.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; See details above
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies:

José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedadespanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). Pierre Duhem, Etudes sur Leonarda da Vinci, 3, passim, esp. pp. 135-41, 242-6, and 543-55. Hubert Elie, 'Quelques maitres de l'université de Paris vers l'an 1500,' Archives d'historie doctrinale de littéraire du moyen age, 25-6 (1950-1), 193-243. William Wallace, ' The Enigma of Domingo de Soto,' Isis, 59 (1968), 384-401. _____, 'The Calculatores in Early 16th Century Physics,' British Journal for the History of Science, 4 (1968-9), 221-32. Ricardo G. Villoslada, 'Juan de Celaya,' La Universidad de Paris durante los estudios de Francisco de Vitoria, vol. 14 of Analecta Gregoriana, Series Fac. Hist. Ecc. Sectio B, num. 2 (Roma, 1938), pp. 384-401. Gran Enciclipedia RIALP. Felipe Picatoste y Rodriguez, Apuntes para una bibliotecacientifica española del siglo XVI, (Madrid, 1891).

Not Available: V. Beltran de Heredia, Domingo de Soto, (Salamanca, 1960). _____, 'Domingo de Soto,' La Ciencia tomista, 46 (1933), 41-67. Vicente Munoz Delgado, Logica formal y filosofia en Domingo de Soto, (Madrid, 1964)-Publicaciones del Monasterio de Royo, 16.

Spiegel, Adriaan van den 
[Spieghel, Spigelius, Spiegelius, Spigeli]

1. Dates: Born: Brussels, 1578; Died: Padua, 7 April 1625 Datecode: Lifespan: 47;
2. Father: Physician; Government Position; Same name, a surgeon and Inspector General of military and naval surgeons of the Dutch republic. The father died in 1600. That certainly sounds affluent to me.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian; Career: Italy, Czechoslovakia; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Louvan; University of Leiden; University of Padua; M.D. He studied at Louvain and Leiden and later at Padua, where he registered in 1601. There is no record of a degree from Padua, but it appears probable. Both Favaro and Biographie nationale speak exlicitly of a medical degree. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Catholic. Apparently initially a Calvinist. Converted to Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Medicine; Anatomy. Subordinate Disciplines: Embryology; Pharmacology; His first book was Isagoge in rem herbariam (1606); He later published works on the tapeworm and on malaria. He composed a great work on anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica, published posthumously in 1627. He left behind a manuscript (also published posthumously) on embriology, De formatu foetu. His works on anatomy are filled with passages on physiology.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic. Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; 1606, appointed physician to the students of the Germanic Nation in Padua. Apparently he assisted Fabrici in his private practice. There is documentary evidence that he practiced in Padua during both periods when he was there. Favaro indicates, from this evidence, that his practice was not extensive, however. Spiegel left Padua in 1612. After a brief stay in Belgium he travelled through Germany and settled in Bohemia, where he was medicus primarius of Bohemia. Favaro renders this as protomedicus, that is, medical examiner, which was an official position. 1616, appointed to chair of anatomy and surgery at Padua. Spiegel earned enough to dower his daughter with 4,000 ducats, but Favaro indicates that he did not leave a large fortune, in contrast to some other physicians.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; There was an illuminating episode near the beginning of Spiegel's career. Spiegel dedicated his first book (Isagoge) to the German nation in Padua. The officials of the nation wanted to give him a monetary gift, but were unable to do so for lack of fund. In 1607, when a medical chair was vacated by death, the German nation (at Spiegel's request) recommended him to the Riformatori for the position. Clearly more influence than this was needed; Spiegel did not get the chair. Fabricio, Spiegel's mentor, clearly had an important role in his career. Spiegel accompanied him as assistant when he went to Florence to treat a Medici prince and when he attended the wounded Sarpi. The terms of Spiegel's appointment in Padua, which mention what is reserved to Fabricio, seem to indicate clearly that Fabricio was one force behind his appointment. However, the appointment was made on the nomination of the Venetian patrician, Giustiniani, Venetian ambassador to the emperor in Prague when Spiegel was there. Compare the outcome in 1616 with that in 1607. Again in 1623, when there were voices raised in opposition to Spiegel in Padua, Giustiniani, who had returned to Venice by then, intervened in his support, apparently decisively. In 1623, Spiegel was elevated to the rank of Knight of San Marco.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies:

Biographie nationale. Giuseppe Favaro, 'Contributo alla biografia di A. Spigeli nel terzo centenario della sua morte (1625-1925),' Atti del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 85, pt 2 (1925-6), 213-52.

Not Available and Not Consulted: M. Morren, 'Adrien Spiegel,' Revue de Bruxelles, 1 (1838), 51-79. Apparently this article evaluates his contribution to botany. J.B. Marinus, 'Eloge de van den Spiegel,' Bulletin de l'Academie Royale de Medicine, 5 (1846), 842-60.

Stahl, Georg Ernst

1. Dates: Born: Ansbach, Germany, ca. 20 October 1659; Died: Berlin, 4 May 1734 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Government Position; His father was Johann Lorenz Stahl, who was 'Fürstlicher Hof-Raths-Secretarius' until 1664 and 'Secretär des Anhalt-Brandenburgischen Kirchenkonsistoriums' from 1664-72. If that isn't affluent, I don't know what is.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Ansbcah, Germany. Career: Halle, Germany. Death: Berlin, Germany.
4. Education: University of Jena; M.D. 1679, matriculated at the University of Jena, where he studied medicine with Hoffmann, Rolfinck, and especially Georg Wolfgang Wedel. He received his M.D. in 1684. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Lutheran. He was a devout pietist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry;
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Med. Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1684-7, he habilitated and lectured at the University of Jena as a Privatdozent. 1687-94, court physician at Weimar. 1694-1715, the second professor of medicine (there were two) at the new University of Halle. He received the reasonably low salary of 200 taler in 1698 and did not receive a raise until 1708. 1700-1 and 1710-11 he was Prorektor. There is explicit mention that he maintained a medical practice during these years. 1715-34, court physician at Berlin to Frederick William I of Prussia.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Med. He was physician to the Dukes of Weimar, appointed by Duke Johann Ernst of Sachsen-Weimar. Frederick III, elector of Brandenburg, founded the University of Halle in 1694 in an effort to surpass his neighbors. He attracked Friedrich Hanke as first professor of medicine, who, needing help, was instrumental in Stahl's appointment as second professor of medicine. At the request of Friedrich Wilhelm I, he became court physician at Berlin.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine his entire career, both as court physician and professor of medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: Lp, Medical College (Any One); 1700, he became a member of the Kaiserlich-Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch-Deutsche Akademie with the name 'Olympiodoros.'; He founded the short-lived chemical journal 'Observationum chymico-physico-medicarum curiosarum mensibus singulis horro cum Deo continuandarum' (1697-8). 1715, he became the president of the Collegium medicum, the highest medical association in Prussia.

A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte allerZeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 5, 384-5. B. Lepsius, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 35, 780-6. Irene Strube, Georg Ernst Stahl [Biographien hervorragender Naturwissenschaftler, Techniker, und Mediziner, 76] (Leipzig: BSB B.G. Teubner, 1984).

Stampioen, Jan Jansz. de Jonge

1. Dates: Born: Rotterdam, 1610. Died: The Hague, after 1689 Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 79;
2. Father: Artisan; Eng; Jan Jansz. Stampioen, maker of astronomical instruments and an official surveyor. I list him as both artisan and engineer. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: None Known; No mention of a university
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; 1632, published on spherical trigonometry. 1639, a work on algebra. A challenge problem involving cubics that he issued anonymously generated a bitter dispute with Waessenaer, in which Descartes was covertly involved.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; He taught mathematics in Rotterdam. He became tutor to Prince William (II) in 1638 and moved to the Hague. In The Hague he opened a printing shop, but it appears that it sole function was to issue Stampioen's writings. In 1644 he became tutor in mathematics to the two Huygens boys.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; See above; He dedicated his Algebra to Prince Frederik Hendrik.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Navigation; He issued a topographical map in 1650. In 1698 (the last thing known about him) he served as a technical expert in a test of a method to determine longitude.
10. Scientific Societies:

Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. Bierens de Haan, 'Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der wis- en natuurkundigen wetenschappen en de Nederlanden, XXX: J.J. Stampioen de Jonge en Jacob à Waessenaer,' Verslagen en mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde, 3rd ser., 3, (Amsterdam, 1887), 69-119. There is simply not much information about Stampioen, who is known primarily for having crossed swords with Descartes.

Starkey [Stirk], George

1. Dates: Born: Bermuda, 8 or 9 June 1628; Died: London, 1665; Datecode: Lifespan: 37
2. Father: Church Living; George Stirk was a Puritan minister of Scottish origin in Bermuda. No clear information on financial status. We are told that his salary of ?40 was often in arrears. He died when Starkey was nine years old. However, Starkey did obtain an education.
3. Nationality: Birth: English colonial (Bermuda); Career: English colonial and English; Death: English
4. Education: Har, M.A. Harvard College, 1643-6; B.A., 1646; M.A. sometime before 1650, probably 1649.
5. Religion: Calvinist; His father was a stout Calvinist, and Starkey, who moved to England when the Puritans were in power, moved immediately into the Puritan circle of Hartlib. He was described as a Presbyterian.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy; Iatrochemstry. Starkey was the immensely influential Eirenaeus Philalethes, whose treatises circulated in manuscript and were published mostly after his death-especially The Marrow of Alchemy, 1654, Introitus apertus, 1667, and Ripley Reviv'd, 1678. He also published alchemical works in his own name-Natures Explication and Helmont's Vindication, 1657, and Pyrotechny Asserted, 1658. Starkey was also a Helmontian who entered vigorously into the defense of Helmontian medicine with a number of pamphlets in the late 50s and early 60s.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner. Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Miscellaneous; Pharmacology; Medical practice at Boston, 1646-50, in England, 1650-65. He relied on John Winthrop, Jr. for books, chemicals and apparatus when he was in Boston. Starkey moved to England in 1650 and almost immediately obtained the support, first of Hartlib, and then of Boyle who subsidized his experiments in the early 50s, beginning as early as 1651. In 1655-6 he worked for a salary in a metallugical enterprise in Bristol, employing his chemical knowledge in the refining of precious metals. I have no category that corresponds to this; I list it under Miscellaneous. As a Helmontian physician, Starkey made and marketed a variety of medicines. It is far from clear that he was very successful at all of this. The final decade of his life was apparently a constant struggle with grinding poverty. He died sometime in 1665, having contacted the plague while treating its victimes.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Scientist; Magistrate; Partrick Copeland, a minister in Bermuda, recommended him to John Winthrop; without more information I am not ready to call this patronage, though possibly it was. I am uncertain of how to classify Winthrop, but governmental official seems most accurate. See reference above to Boyle. Starkey dedicated Natures Explication and Helmont's Vindication, 1657, to Robert Tichborne, the Puritan Lord Mayor of London. (Tichborne was a regicide.); In 1660 Starkey, who had been associated with Hartlib's Puritan circle, suddenly produced three royalist tracts, which he dedicated to Charles II, the Duke of York, and two royalist aldermen of London. Until I get evidence to the contrary, I am not going to count these dedications as evidence of patronage; they appear, on the contrary, as efforts to ingratiate himself with the new order.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Chemistry; Metallurgy; Starkey was a vigorous proponent of Helmontian medicine, and he was apparently the inventor of some new ones. With Boyle he worked at developing an ens veneris, a copper compound they believed to be an efficacious medicine. His pamphlet, George Starkey's Pill Vindicated, seems to speak to one of his medicines. Newman calls him the inventor of drugs, dyes, perfumes, and philosophical mercuries. He developed a method of 'augmenting' (i.e., multiplying) saltpeter. He produced what was called Starkey's soap. Although it is difficult to distinguish the activity from alchemy, he did work on methods of refining gold and silver by the use of mercury, a process long in use in the Spanish colonies but just being introduced into Europe at that time.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with John Winthrop, Jr. Connection with S. Hartlib's circle, from 1650, and with Boyle. Friendship with John Allen. He was one of the Helmontians who organized the Society of Chymical Physicians in 1665.

Ronald S. Wilkinson, 'George Starkey, Physician and Alchemist,' Ambix 11 (1963), 121-52. J.L. Sibley, Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University, (Cambridge, Mass., 1873). William Newman, 'Newton's Clavis as Starkey's Key,' Ambix, 1987, pp. 564-74. William Newman, Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an Alchemist of Harvard in the Scientific Revolution. I have read this in manuscript, but it should be published very soon. It supplants all existing literature on Starkey, and also provides a guide to that fairly extensive literature.

Not Consulted: Harold Jantz, 'America's First Cosmopolitan,' Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 84 (1973), 3-24. William Newman, 'Prophecy and Alchemy: The Origin of Eirenaeus Philalethes,' Ambix, November 1990, pp. 97-115. George Turnbull, 'George Stirk, Philosopher by Fire, (1628?-1665),' Colonial Society of Massachusetts: Publications, 38 (Transactions 1949), 219-51. Ronald Sterne Wilkinson, 'Some Bibliographical Puzzles Concerning George Starkey,' Ambix, 20 (1973), 235-44. Ronald Sterne Wilkinson, 'The Hartlib Papers and Seventeenth Century Chemistry, Part II: George Starkey,' Ambix, 17 (1970), 85-110.

Stelluti, Francesco

1. Dates: Born: Fabriano, Italy, 12 or 29 January 1577; Died: probably Rome, perhaps November 1652; Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Gentry; Bernardino Stelluti was a member of a patrician family of Fabriano. Ramelli lists quite a few members of the family, over the centuries, who occupied prominent positions. Stelluti's career as a client makes it clear that the family should be seen as minor, provincial patricians. There is a suggestion that the family finances were uncertain, but the suggestion is not nearly clear enough to call them poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; Stelluti's modest literary activities imply that he had a standard humanistic education. Apparently he was sent to Rome to study law, before he entered Cesi's service. There is no mention of a university.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization. Subordinate Disciplines: Microscopy; Mineralogy; Stelluti's presence in the DSB depends entirely on his role as procurator of the Accademia dei Lincei. In 1625 he published the first microscopical observations to appear in print-made with the microscope that Galileo presented to Cesi. In 1637 he published Trattato del legno fossile, which argued that fossilized wood is a peculiar form of mineral. While I am putting this in, I need to add that the book is anything but recognized as a classic in mineralogy.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; In 1603 Stelluti entered the service of Federico Cesi and remained in his service (apparently with a short interruption) and then that of his widow until her death in 1642. When Cesi's father disbanded the Accademia in 1604, Stelluti went back to Fabriano and then to Parma where he attached himself to the ducal court. The correspondence implies that Cesi still saw him as a client. At any rate, he returned to Rome and definitely to Cesi's service in 1608 or 1609. After the death of Cesi's widow, he was apparently in the service of Duchessa Livia della Rovere for a short time. Apparently he was back in Rome in 1644 and apparently he died there, perhaps in November 1652. In fact, close to all that we know about Stelluti's life is his service to Cesi.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Patronage of Government Official; See about Cesi above. He also addressed a poem to Olimpia Aldobrandini, Princess of Rossana. In 1630 Stelluti republished an altered version of the Apiarum of 1626 (itself a piece of flattery of the Barberini family) in a volume of translations of the satires of Persius dedicated to Card. Francesco Barberini. He also dedicated a book about fossilized wood and a translation of Porta, both in 1637, to the Cardinal. In 1651 he dedicated Cesi's Tabulae phytosophicae, published in the Rerum medicarum novae hispaniae thesaurus, to Rodrigo de Mendoza, the ambassador of the King of Spain to the Vatican.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Stelluti is repeatedly said to have had mathematical capacity. He did a map of the region of Todi and Aquasparta (published in the Trattato del legno fossile (1637) and one of the region of Rosaro. He also furnished Magini with information of the border of the Marches and Umbria for Magini's map of Italy.
10. Scientific Societies: Acad dei Lincei Leopoldina; Stelluti was one of the four original Linceans. Cesi named him procurator of the Accademia in 1612.

Giuseppe Gabrieli, 'Francesco Stelluti linceo fabrianese,' Atti della Reale Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di scienze morali e storiche, ser. 7, 2 (1941), 191-233. _____, 'Il carteggio linceo della vecchia accademia di Federico Cesi (1603-30), ibid., ser. 6, 7, (1938-42), passim. This is easily the principal source on Stelluti, although the information is scattered through a thousand pages. C. Ramelli, 'Discorso intorno a Francesco Stelluti da Fabriano,' Giornale arcadico di scienze, lettere ed arte, 87 (1841), 106-44. Charles Singer, 'The Earliest Figures of Microscopic Objects,' Endeavour, 12 (1953), 197-202.

Stensen [Steno], Niels

1. Dates: Born: Copenhagen, 1 or 10 or 11 January 1638; Died: Schwerin, Germany, 21 or 25 November or 5 December 1686 Datecode: Lifespan: 48
2. Father: Merchant; His father was Sten Pedersen (d. 1644), who had a flourishing business as a goldsmith and vintner. Apparently he died while Stensen was still a child; I don't know when. The law required that upon the death of a father a guardian be appointed for the child. In Stensen's case this was a treasury official called Jorgen Carstensen (who was married to Stensen's half-sister), who oversaw the investment of the child's 1402 Rix dollars. There can't be any doubt that Stensen grew up in affluent circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Copenhagen, Denmark; Career: Italy, Denmark, Germany; Death: Schwerin, Germany.
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Leiden; M.D. He attended the renowned Vor Frue Skole grammar school in Copenhagen. 1656-60, University of Copenhagen. He studied medicine and came under the influence of Simon Paulli and Thomas Bartholin. He selected Bartholin as his tutor. Unfortunately his education was disrupted by the invasion of Swedish troops. 1660-3, University of Leiden, where he studied under Sylvius, Johannes van Horne (1621-70), and Jakob Golius (1596-1667). Unfortunately, he was called home by the death of his stepfather. He received his M.D. in absentia in 1664. 1664, he travelled to Paris, where he spent a year living with and in the circle of Thévenot, the King's chamberlain. He then travelled to Montpellier (1665) and Pisa (1666). He remained in Tuscany 1666-8, mostly at the court of Grand Duke Ferdinand II in Florence. 1668-70, he returned to Denmark, but 1670-2 he returned to Florence, where he again worked in Tuscany, doing some exploring for the Accademia del Cimento.
5. Religion: Lutheran. Catholic. He came from a deeply religious Lutheran family, but converted to Catholicism in 1667. In 1675, he was consecrated a priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Physiology; Geology; Subordinate Disciplines: Embryology; He distinguished glands from the lymph nodes according to their function, and found a series of glands furnishing fluid to each of the body cavities. In his Observationes anatomicae (1662), dealing with his new discoveries concerning the glands, he described the lachrymal apparatus in great detail. His De musculis et glandis (1664) shows an abundance of new observations and discoveries concerning the anatomy and physiology of individual muscles, and the triangularis. His Prodromus (1671), which outlines the principles of modern geology, contains new insights in almost every sentence or paragraph.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Church Living; When Stensen returned to Copenhagen in 1664, he hoped to be appointed professor of anatomy at the University of Copenhagen, but Thomas Bartholin's nephew, Matthias Jacobsen, received the position. 1666, he recieved an apartment in the Palazzo Vecchio and a position as anatomist at the hospital Santa Maria Nuova. He was in Tuscany from 1666 to 1668, mostly at the counrt of Grand Duke Ferdinance II. 1672, he was recalled to Denmark as royal anatomist (as a non-Lutheran he could not hold a faculty position at the University of Copenhagen, so he was named royal anatomist). He received a salary of 400 Rdlr. 1674, he returned to Florence, where he worked for two years as an educator and tutor to the crown prince, Cosimo III. He was consecrated as a priest in 1675 in Florence. 1677, he was invited to Rome by Duke Johann Friedrich of Hannover and was appointed apostolic vicar of northern missions by Pope Innocent XI and consecrated titular Bishop of Titiopolis. 1677-80, he ministered to the remnants of Catholicism in northern Germany, Denmark, and Norway. 1680-3, after the death of the Duke, he was appointed suffragan Bishop of Münster and dean of the collegiate church St. Ludgeri (this appointment was a common way of raising someone's salary). 1683, he left in protest against the simonaic election of the bishop's successor and occupied himself with apostolic activity in Hamburg (1683-5) and Schwerin (1685-6) for the remaining years of his life.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He dedicated his De musculis et glandulis observationum specimen (1664) to Frederick III, King of Denmark, hoping for an appointment to the University of Copenhagen. He received invitations from Copenhagen with promises of a professor's salary when he was in Italy in 1667 and 1668, but he continued his journeys of study. Only when Griffenfeld obtained assurances of his freedom of religious practice in Denmark did he return to Copenhagen in 1672. But as a non-Lutheran he could not hold a faculty position and was instead appointed royal anatomist (a position that was, I gather, was created for Stensen). In Italy, he stayed initially in Pisa with Francesco Redi (1666). Thereafter, he received financial support and living quarters from the Medicis, predominantly Grand Duke Ferdinand II. He was also physician to Ferdinand. In 1675, he assumed responsibilty for the education of the later Duke Ferdinand III. Later, at the behest of Cosimo III, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Steno's body was brought from Germany to Florence where it was interred. He was called from Florence to Rome by Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hannover, so that he could be appointed to serve the northern remnants of Catholicism. He was appointed suffragan Bishop of Münster by the Princebishop of Paderborn and Münster, Ferdinand von Fürstenberg, who should certainly be counted as a patron.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; There is evidence that he was physician to Ferdinand II.
10. Scientific Societies: Cm; He was a member of the Accademia del Cimento, which was founded by Grand Duke Ferdinand II's brother Cardinal Leopoldo. He had life-long connections with student friends from Leiden: Jan Swammerdam (1637-80), Regnier de Graaf (1641-73). He also corresponded with William Croone. He carried on correspondence/collaboration with Ole Borch, Spinoza, Leiniz, Malpighi, Giovanni Riva (a surgeon), and Thomas Bartholin.

Gustav Scherz, Niels Stensen: Denker und Forscher im Barock (1638-1686) [Grosse Naturforscher, 28], (Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1964). Pionier der Wissenschaften: Niels Stensen in seinen Schriften, (Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1963). Nicolaus Steno (1638-1686): A reconsideration by Danish scientists, (Gentofte: Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, 1986). Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. V. Ingerslev, Danmarks Laeger og Laegevaesen, 2, 28-33.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Niccolo Stenone nella Firenze e nell'Europa del suo tempo, catalogue of an exhibition, Stefano De Rosa, ed. (Firenze, 1988). Niccolo Stenone 1638-1686. Due giornate di studio, (Firenze, 1988). Gustav Scherz, Niels Stensen: Eine Biographie, Band 2: 1677-1686. Bearbeitet von Harriet M. Hansen. Hrsg. von Franz Peter Sonntag, (Leipzig: St. Benno-Verlag, 1988). T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 91-100.

Stevin, Simon

1. Dates: Born: Brugge, 1548; Died: probably in The Hague, between 20 February and April 1620; Datecode: Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Artisan. Stevin was illegitimate. Though he was raised by his mother, his father's name was Antheunis Stevin. He was apparently an artisan; nothing beyond is name is really known about him. By all evidence the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: what is now Belgium; Career: Netherlands; Death: Netherlands
4. Education: University of Leiden; In 1581, after having been a bookkeeper in Antwerp and then a clerk in the tax office around Brugge, he moved to Leiden, enrolled in the Latin school, and in 1583 in the university. He remained enrolled until 1590. No evidence of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; Probably originally a Catholic. certainly a Calvinist after the move to the United Provinces. Wholly pragmatic in religion; without serious spiritual feeling.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, engineering, mechanics. Subordinate Disciplines: Navigation, Astronomy, Hydraulics; He published extensively on mathematics, engineering (both military and civil), and mechanics, and some on the subordinate disciplines.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Official; Engineer; In 1584, Stevin was negotiating with Delft about the use of an invention related to drainage, and later he had patents from the States General for several inventions concerned with dredging and drainage, especially a mill to pump water and a device to pull ships over obstacles. He worked together with Johan de Groote (father of Hugo Grotius), the Burgemeester of Delft (to whom he dedicated at least one book) on mills which they contracted to erect. Stevin also studied mills theoretically to improve them; he published the first theoretical treatise on mills. Stevin is the first one in this catalogue I have met (I write this when I am about half done) who supported himself in this sort of activity; I start the category Engineer for him. Near 1590 he became associated with Prince Maurice. He became his tutor in subjects scientific and managerial; his works after that time were all composed for the Prince. His Wisconstighe Ghedachtenissen, published in three languages in 1605-8, was the most important fruit of their working together-really a set of textbooks compiled for Maurice. In 1604 he was officially appointed Quartermaster; however, his official position was never as important as his unofficial one through the personal relation. He also supervised the Prince's finances, and was instrumental in introducing Italian methods of bookkeeping. Recognised as an expert in matters scientific and technical, he was frequently appointed to boards to review such issues -thus in 1598, on a commission to review a proposal to determine longitude. As a result, a book on navigation in 1599. Stevin was instrumental in the establishment of an engineering school in Leiden; there is no evidence that he ever taught in it.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; The relation to Maurice was central. After Stevin's death, Maurice continued to pay an annual stipend for the support of Stevin's children. His dedications cover the waterfront: the Magistrates of Leiden (who paid him L-20 in return), the General of the Artillery, Johan de Groot, the Emperor Rudolf, the States General of the United Netherlands (who is 1617 rewarded him for the dedication of the book on fortification with L-200), Hendrick van Brienen (deputy to the States General from Gelderland), Maximilian de Bethune (Hertog van Scully), the Burgermeister of Nurenberg.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Civil Engineer; Hydraulics; Navigation; Mechanical Devices; Mathematics; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; As early as 1594 he published on military engineering; 1617, New Fortification (which employed pivoted sluice locks), and a book on establishing a camp in the field. His patents included mechanical devices for dredging; also a mechanical spit. He made improvements in the gearing of mills and in the scoop wheel that lifted the water; these improvemented were supported by reference to his hydrostatical theories. Dijkersterhuis makes in clear that Stevin applied his knowledge of mechanics to the complicated mechanism of the mill on a theoretical plane, although he also indicates that most of his innovations were not permanently adopted in the construction of mills. He was of major importance in the development and use of sluices. His work on the general principles of equilibrium in hydrostatics was done to improve the construction of floating platforms used in military assaults. In the Weeghdaet he described instruments for moving loads. His work on mathematics included practical surveying, with descriptions of instruments (not of his invention) for that purpose. About 1600 he constructed two wind driven carriages that Prince Maurice sailed along the beaches of the Netherlands. There are pictures of these devices in Dijksterhuis. They continued to be used (for amusement) until the end of the 18th century. He even proposed a different form of the bit to control a horse; one was constructed for Prince Maurice to try. At some point (probably before his relation with Prince Maurice began) he worked out an elaborate scheme to improve the waterways of Danzig, which other engineers later put into effect. He also developed plans for two other Prussian towns, Elbing and Braunsberg. He developed a triangulation instrument, the triquetium, useful in surveying.
10. Scientific Societies:

E.J. Dijksterhuis, Simon Stevin, ('s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff, 1943). _____, Simon Stevin: Science in the Netherlands around 1600, (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1970)-an abbreviated English version of the original Dutch work. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 224.

Stifel [Styfel], Michael

1. Dates: Born: Esslingen, Germany, 1487; Died: Jena, 19 April 1567 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Unknown; His father was Conrad Stifel, about whom little is known except that he was respected but not particularly well-to-do. No sufficiently solid information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Esslingen, Germany. Career: Holzdorf, Germany. Death: Jena, Germany.
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; M.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. He was a monk at the Augustinian monastery at Esslingen, where he was ordained a priest in 1511. Reacting to the declining morality of the clergy and abuses regarding indulgences, he became an early follower of Luther and a Lutheran pastor.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Church Living. Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; He began his career as a monk at the monastery at Esslingen. After arousing the suspicion of his superiors by granting absolution without receiving indulgence money and composing a song honoring Luther, he felt his life was in danger and he fled. 1522, he sought refuge first in the castle of the knight Hartmut von Kronberg, a friend of the Lutherans, in the Taunus mountains, but was soon forced to flee further. He then travelled to Wittenberg, where Luther lodged him in his own house. In 1523, Luther obtained for him a post as pastor at the court of the Count of Mansfield. For some unknown reason he returned to Wittenberg in 1524. 1525, he became councillor, pastor and tutor at Castle Tollet in Upper Austria in the service of Dorothea Jörger and her son Christoph Jörger, until anti-Lutheran political and military pressure forced him to return to Luther. 1528, Luther procured for him a parish at Lochau (now Annaberg), accompanied him there, and married him to the widow of the incumbent. His parish was not particularly well-endowed, so Stifel tried to get the city council of Essingen, which had gone over to Protestantism in 1531-2 and seized the assets of the monastery, to release the holdings he had relinquished upon joining the order. There is no indication whether this attempt was successful. After falsely forecasting the end of the world, he was arrested and dismissed. Through the intervention of Luther and Melanchton, he received a parish at Holzdorf in 1535. After he spent many peaceful years there, the Schmalkaldic war (1547) forced the townspeople and clergy to flee. Stifel eventually ended up in Prussia (arriving there in 1549), where he found a position as pastor at Haberstroh, near Königsberg, in 1551. He also lectured on mathematics and theology at the University of Königsberg. At odds with some of his colleagues and urged on by his former parishoners, he returned to Saxony in 1554. 1554, his first post upon returning was as pastor at Brück, near Wittenberg. 1559, he went to Jena, where he lectured on arithmetic and geometry at the university. By 1559 he had given up his pastorate.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Martin Luther was clearly his most influential patron. I have not uncovered any more details about his other patrons other than what I have listed above under 'support.'
9. Technological Connections: None known
10. Scientific Societies: None

M. Cantor, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 36, 208-16. Joseph E. Hofmann, Michael Stifel (1487?-1567): Leben, Wirken, und Bedeutung für die Mathematik seiner Zeit [Sudhoffs Archiv, Beiheft 9] (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1968).

Strachey, John

1. Dates: Born: Sutton Court, Somerset, 10 May 1671; Died: Greenwich, 11 June 1743; Datecode: Lifespan:72
2. Father: Gentry; Also John Strachey, he was a member of the gentry; he died when Strachey was three. From the picture of the estate, I think we have to say wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Oxford University, Trinity College, 1686-7. Apparently did not bother with a degree, which held no importance for a member of his class. Studied law at Middle Temple, London, 1687-8.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Stratigraphy, studied through coal mines. Strachey published two geological papers in the Philosophical Transactions. In them he sketched cross-sections of strata, using fossils to identify one stratum. This interest was part of the broader interests of the country gentleman in history, genealogy, heraldry, archaeology, antiquities, and natural history.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; He inherited an estate from his father at Sutton Court, and in his adult life he played out all the roles of the country squire-justice of the peace, tax commissioner, Deputy Lieutenant, musterer of the militia, etc.
8. Patronage: None Known; To defray the cost of publication of the map, Strachey sought subscriptions, not with a great deal of success. The details of this, in Harley, sound straight-forwardly commercial, and lacking entirely in the relations I associate with patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; In 1637 he published a map of Somerset which he had prepared leisurely over a period of twenty-five years. He triangulated the whole country, and he showed among other things the sites of coal and metalliferous mines. The resulting map, though not altogether successful, was was largest, most detailed country map yet prepared.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Royal Society, 1719.

J.G.C.M. Fuller, 'The Industrial Basis of Stratigraphy,' Bulletinof the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 53, no. 11 (1969), 2256-73. (This is mostly about a later geologist, Smith); J.D. Webby, 'Some Early Ideas Attributing Easterly Dipping Strata to the Rotation of the Earth,' Proceedings of the Geologists Association, 80, pt. 1 (1969), 91-7. J. Brian Harley, 'John Strachey of Somerset: an Antiquarian Cartographer of the early 18th Century,' Cartographic Journal, 3 (1966), 2-7. This article has much the most detail about Strachey that I have found. There is not a great deal on Strachey. He is not in DNB. Only Harley, of the three articles above, gives details of his life, though Fuller does publish a picture of the rather magnificent estate at Sutton Court, Somerset.

Streete, Thomas

1. Dates: Born: Cork, Ireland (?), 15 March 1622; Died: London, 27 August 1689; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Irish Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No record.
5. Religion: Anglican, by assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Streete frequently helped other astronomers in their observations. Astronomia carolina, 1661, was one of the most popular expositions of astronomy in the second half of the century; it was an important vehicle in disseminating Keplerian astronomy in England. The Description and Use of the Planetary System, 1674.
7. Means of Support: Government Position; Clerk in the Excise office.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; Ashmole was his patron at the Excise office.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Navigation; He engaged in the resurvey of London. Streete worked intensely on the determination of longitude at sea.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Connections with astronomers in England and abroad. Connection with the professors at Gresham College.

The fact appears to be that there is virtually no information about Streete. This sketch comes solely from the DSB, which lists no other sources. He is not in DNB. I find no articles about him in the Isis bibliographies.

Struss, Jozef

1. Dates: Born: Poznan, 1510; Died: sometime between 27 July 1568 and 26 January 1569. Buried at St. Mary Magdalene in Poznan. Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Merchant; Nicholas Struss, a wealthy brewer. Jozef's mother was the daughter of the mayor of Poznan. His maternal uncle was T. Bederman, the rector of the Lubranski Academy and a lawyer in Poznan.
3. Nationality: Birth: Polish; Career: Polish; Italian; Death: Polish
4. Education: University of Cracow; B.A., M.A. University of Padua; M.D. He completed his elementary education at the parish school of St. Mary Magdalene in Poznan, then went on to Lubranski Academy, the most illustrious institution in the system of higher education in Poland, but more an advanced gymnasium than a university. He next moved to Cracow, where in 1531, after seven years of study, he obtained a diploma in the seven liberal arts. (both B.A. and M.A.); 1532-7, the University of Padua; M.D. in 1535.
5. Religion: Catholic. Catholic assumed from career. However, note that the most formative influence on his intellectual development was Christoph Hegendorfer, who came to Poznan from Leipzig, and was the most distinguished professor at the Lubranski Academy. Hegendorfer was a fervent Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; His main work is Sphygmicae artis, (1555, the work of twenty years) an accurate clinicophysiological study of the pulse and its alterations. It suggested the pulse as a reliable sources of clinical data and of diagnostic and prognostic information.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; He was under the care of his maternal uncle during his years at the Lubranski Academy. Evidently a poem he wrote, dedicated to Cyprian of Lowicz, brought him into the good graces of the very important Laski family (including Jan (1455-1531), Primate of Poland and Chancellor, and Jan [John O'lasco] (1499-1560), his nephew who actively promoted Calvinism in Poland, but necessarily at a later time). J. Chojenski, the rector of Krakow University, also began to support Struss at this juncture. He was professor of theoretical medicine at the University of Padua from 1535 to 1537. 1537, invited to lecture at the University of Cracow at the request of Chojenski. (Struss took a considerable drop in salary in the move.) Chojenski died before Struss was offered a chair. 1537, Sandomierz Canon. About 1538 he entered the court of Andrei Gorka, then the governor of Greater Poland as his personal physician. 1539, personal physician to Princess Isabela, daughter of Sigismond I, the King. Isabela was engaged to the King of Hungary, Jan Zapolya. Struss was appointed administrator of a Hungarian province. With Gorka Struss was sent to the court of Suleiman I. Wen he returned to Poznan in 1541 he remained personal physician to Gorka and advisor in his political caareer. Struss amassed large property in the region of Poznan through his association with Gorka. He established a successful practice and became personal physician to King Sigismund Augustus in 1559.
8. Patronage: Academic; Government Official; Court Patronage; See items above.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies:

Roman Pollack, Bibliografia literatury polskiej. Pismiennictwo staropolskie. (Warsaw: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawn., 1963-5), 3, 229-31. Aledsander Brückner, Dzieje Kultury Polskiej, vol. II Polska u Szczytu Potegi. 2nd ed. (Wydawnictwo J. Przeworskiego: Warszawa, 1939), p. 230.

Not Available and Not Consulted: H. Barycz, 'Rozwoj nauki w Polsce w dobie Odrodzenie,' Odrodzenie w Polsce. Materialy Sesji Nauk. PAN 25-30 Pazdziernika 1953 r. T. 2: Historia Nauki. Cz. 1 w-wa 1956 pp. 61-2; 135-6. Osob. pt. Dzieje nauki w Polsce w epoce Odrodzenia. H.Barycz, Historja Universytetu Jagiellonskiego w epoce humanizmu, (Cracow, 1935), pp. 241-2. W.Bugiel, Un celebre medecin polonais au XVI siecle: Joseph Struthius, (Paris, 1901). G.Sterzi, Josephus Struthius, lettore nello studio di Padova, (Venice, 1910).
M. Lyskanowski, 'Jozef Strudiek (Strus), wybitny lekarz polski epoke Odrodzenia,' Problemy 1960 nr. 1.

Stuart, Alexander

1. Dates: Born: Aberdeen (?), Scotland, 1673; Died: London, 15 September 1742; Datecode: Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Unknown; No information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sc Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Aberdeen; University of Leiden; M.D. Marischal College, Aberdeen; M.A., 1691. The M.A. was the initial degree at the Scottish university; I list it as a B.A. Leiden, 1709; M.D., 1711. These dates are correct. M.D., Cambridge, 1728-by patronage.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Medical Practioner; Disseratio de structura et motu musculari, 1738. Three Lectures on Muscular Motion, 1739. These two related works, elaborating on his doctoral thesis at Leiden, expounded the doctrines of iatromechanism. New Discoveries and Improvements in Anatomy and Surgery . . . with Cases and Cures, 1738.
7. Means of Support: Unknown; Medicine; Patronage; The sparse literature on Stuart says nothing at all about the years between his undergraduate degree and his enrollment at Leiden eighteen years later. Physician to Westminster Hospital, 1719-33. Physician to St. George's Hospital, 1733-6. I suspect that both of these positions carried salaries, but they are not mentioned in the literature about Stuart. Physician to the Queen, 1728.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; The Queen.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society, 1714. First Croonian Lecturer (on muscular physiology), 1738. Copley medal for this work. College of Physicians of London, 1728. Censor, 1732, 1741. Académie Royale des Sciences.

William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, (London, 1878), 2, 109. Robert W. Innes Smith, English-Speaking Students of Medicine at the University of Leyden, (Edinburgh, 1932), p. 226.

Suchten [Zuchta], Alexander

1. Dates: Born: Tczew, Poland, 1520? According to Haberling, born in Gdansk. Hubicki argues, however, that an Alexius Zuchta de Gedana, alias Suchten, who was registered as a lecturer at Krakow University in 1521, was the same man (pp. 103-4). Hubicki admits serious weaknesses in both his and Haberling's dating. Hubicki is willing to accept Eufemia Schultz and Jerzy Zuchta as his parents; the Gdansk marriage register records their date of marriage in 1511. Died: Bavaria, 1590?; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Government Position; His father was George (Jürgen, Jerzy) Suchten, an assessor for the Gdansk town court. The Suchtens were an important family, possessing houses in Gdansk and an estate near Tczew. An uncle, Christopher Suchten, was a secretary to King Sigismund I Jagiello. A grandfather and another uncle had been mayors of Gdansk. Obviously affluent at the least, more likely wealthy.
3. Nationality: Polish; Polish; German; German; Birth: Tczew, Poland. Career: Germany, Poland; Death: Bavaria, Germany.
4. Education: University of Louvan; University of Sapienza (Rome); University of Ferrara; University of Bologna; University of Padua; M.D. 1535-9, studied at Elblag. Since higher clerical positions could only be filled by those who had studied at a foreign university for three years and taken a doctorate (according to the decree of Johannes Dantiscus, Bishop of Warmia), Suchten went to Louvain, where he studied medicine, then to Rome, Ferrara, Bologna, and Padua. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. He obtained his doctorate from the university of Padua around 1545. Hubicki tells a somewhat different story about his early years. He contends that Suchten began his career as a poet, a student of the famous humanist Pawel Proceler of Krosno. Due to finanical problems, he was forced to take up work in the royal chancellery. Then to Louvain, 1540-4, and then Italy as above.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1545. In the 50's he became an Aryan (does this mean Socinian?)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry; He was a distinguished Paracelsian, who dedicated himself to attacking deceit and charlatanism in medicine. He published several works in medicine and in chemistry. He was perhaps the first scholar to write on the history of chemistry.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Hubicki claims that Suchten's maternal uncle, Alexander Schultze was responsible for obtaining a hotly contested canonate in Fromberg (which he himself was resigning) for Suchten in 1539. (Incidentally, Schultze was one of Copernicus's few friends.) At appears that Suchten was dismissed from the canonate in 1540 because of a decree by the Bishop of Warmia that all higher clerical positions be filled only by those with a doctorate and at least three years of study in a foreign university. It was at this point that Suchten began his medical studies abroad. 1545, he was poet and physician at the court of Duke Albrecht of Prussia in Königsberg. He had turned to Albrecht in 1545 for assistance after the Bishop of Warmia confiscated his inheritance in conjunction with his excommunicated (both apparently entangled in the affairs of the uncle Schultze). He succeeded in salvaging his family wealth by contesting the confiscation before the king in 1552. Other sources contest this, and claim that Suchten never got it back. When his brother Bartholomew died in 1567, there was a family struggle over the inheritance. 1549, physician and librarian to the elector of the Palatinate, Ottheinrich. 1554-about 1564, he returned to Poland as physician to Sigismund II Augustus. He returned for a short time to Königsberg, where he resumed his position as physician to Duke Albrecht. He then went to the court of the German magnate Johann von Seebach in Bavaria, where he appears to have ended his life.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Suchten's uncle, Alexander Schultze (Sculteti), a canon of Fromberg, resigned his canonry, with consent from Rome, in favor of his nephew. This uncle, a follower of Heinrich Bullinger, was accused of heresy and his estate was confiscated. Suchten became involved in his uncle's trial and ended up being deprived not only of the canonry but also of his paternal inheritance for a time. Suchten twice worked at the court of Duke Albrecht of Prussia, who appears to have been his firmest patron. He was physician to the Elector of the Palatinate, Ottheinrich. He was physician to Sigismund II Augustus, (King?) of Poland. About 1564, Suchten wrote two treatises that so enraged a number of famous physicians that Sigismund dismissed him. Suchten spent the last years of his life at the court of the German magnate Johann von Seebach in Bavaria.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Almost all of his positions involved practicing medicine, at least nominally.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Hubicki maintains the Suchten probably studied with Paraclesus in Italy. (But I was not aware that Paracelsus was ever in Italy.

Wlodzimierz Hubicki, 'Doktor Aleksander Zuchta. Zapomniany polski chemik, lekarz i poeta XVI wieku,' Studia i materialy z dziejow nauki polskiej, 1 (1953), 102-20. Bogdan Suchodolski, gen. ed. Historia Nauki Polskiej. 3 vols. (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia ossolinskich wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1970). Vol. 1: Sredniowiecze, by Pawel Czartoryski and Odrodzenie by Pawel Rybicki. Vol. 2: Barok, by Henryk Barycz and Oswiecenie by Kazimierz Opalek.

Not Available and Not Yet Consulted: Wlodzimierz Hubicki, 'Alexander von Suchten,' Sudhoffs Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, 44 (1960), 54-63. Wilhelm Haberling, 'Alexander von Suchten...,' Zeitschrift des westpreussischen Geschichtsvereins, 69 (1926), 177-230.

Swammerdam, Jan

1. Dates: Born: Amsterdam, 12 February 1637; Died: Amsterdam, 17 February 1680; Datecode: Lifespan: 43; 
2. Father: Pharmacology; An apothecary. He is described as 'well established.' His famous collection of natural curiosities, together with the financial details of Swammerdam's life, surely confirm that he was at the least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: Leiden, M.D. After a period of wandering in the Netherlands, observing nature, he enrolled (at the relatively advanced age of 24) in Leiden to study medicine. I assume a B.A. or the equivalent. M.D. in 1667.
5. Religion: Clearly Calvinist. His father wanted him to prepare for the ministry. For several years in the late 70's, Swammerdam was a follower of the mystic Antoinette Bourignon. I cannot see that this has any consequence for categories here.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Entomology, Anatomy, Microscopy. Subordinate Disciplines: Physiology, Zoology, Embriology; I had not understood the extent of Swammerdam's commitment to and contribution to anatomy. For example, he discovered the valves in the lymphatic vessels. So, to a lesser extent, for physiology. His work on respiration was partly physiological.
7. Means of Support: Personal means (i.e., his father). Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; There is no evidence whatever that Swammderdam ever practiced medicine. His father supported him through the whole period of his scientific work. However, the father was increasingly frustrated and annoyed with a son who had prepared for a proper career and would not pursue it. There is a fine passage in Boerhaave's sketch of Swammerdam that expresses this feeling, an assertion in effect of the uselessness of scientific research. In 1677, the father, now an old man, closed up his house in Amsterdam and left Swammerdam with an allowance of 200 guilders per annum, which was only about half what Swammerdam was convinced he needed. However, before the situation became acute, father died in 1678, leaving Swammerday easily enough to live on.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Magistrates, Scientist; Aristocracy appears to be the best category for Thévenot about whom I am having trouble finding information. In the strict sense he was not apparently an aristocrat, but he was very wealthy and lived like an aristocract, including a country estate. Sometimes he held governmental positions; but the wealth appears to have been inherited and more the cause of the appointments than the effect of them. At any rate, he met Swammerdam in Paris about 1664, did various things to promote his studies, and never ceased to favor him. Swammerdam dedicated his first book to Thévenot. When Swammerdam's father threatened to cut off his support, Thévenot invited him to France to live, in effect, as Thévenot's client-though Swammerdam did not in the end accept. The anatomist Van Horne in effect subsidized Swammerdam's anatomical dissections in Amsterdam in 1667. In c.1671 Swammerdam published a sheet displaying an anatomical dissection (related to the uterus, I think), dedicated to Dr. Nicolaas Tulp. He included the sheet in his volume, Miraculum naturae, 1672. He dedicated the volume to the Royal Society. About 1670 Conrad van Beuningen, a senator and mayor of Amsterdam obtained permission for Swammerdam to dissect the cadavers of patients who died in the city's hospitals. Swammerdam dedicated his book on insects (1669) to the burgomasters of Amsterdam and received in return 200 guilders. In 1668, Swammerdam rejected an offer from the Grand Duke of Tuscany to purchase Swammerdam's collection of insects if Swammerdam would move with the collection to the Tuscan court. Swammerdam refused because he did not like the life of a courtier.
9. Technological Connections: Instrumentation; In addition to unbelievably fine scissors and other fine dissecting instruments that he developed for his investigations of insects, Swammerdam introduced new methods of preparing and preserving specimens, which are not exactly instruments but are close enough to fit that category.
10. Scientific Societies: Though not a member of any of the formal societies, Swammerdam had informal contacts. As a student, he formed close friendships with Steno and de Graaf, although the latter relation ended in a most bitter priority dispute. In France, about 1664, he participated in the circle that Thévenot gathered. After his return to Amsterdam, Swammerdam was a vigorous member of the Collegium privatim Amstelodamense, the first organization in Amsterdam that devoted itself to anatomical science.

A. Schierbeek, Jan Swammerdam (12 February 1637 - 17 February 1680). His Life and Works, (Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger, 1967). An English version of the 1647 Dutch book. G.C. Gerrits, Grote nederlanders bij de opbouw her natuurwetenschappen, (Leiden, 1948), pp. 149-59).  Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. Leo Beek, Dutch Pioneers of Science, (Assen, 1985), pp. 60-9. G.A. Lindeboom, biographical sketch in The Letters of Jan Swammerdam to Melchisedec Thévenot, (Amsterdam, 1975).

Sydenham, Thomas

1. Dates: Born: Wynford Eagle, near Dorchester, Dorset, early September 1624. He was baptized on 10 September; Died: London, 29 December 1689; Datecode: Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Gentry; William Sydenham, descended from an ancient family of prominence, was a Dorset squire. Clearly prosperous at the least. Thomas Sydenham went to Oxford as a fellow commoner.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1 July 1642. Two months later he left to fight on the Parliamentary side in the Civil War. He returned to Magdalen Hall in 1647, soon transferring to Wadham. M.B. 1648, by command of the Puritan Chancellor of the university. This was clearly by mandate, arranged by his connections with the then ruling party; I do not list it. In all, Sydenham was in Oxford about eight years (until 1655). All the evidence indicates that he put almost no store by academic medical learning. He did not take the M.D. The M.B. was by mandate. He never failed to disparage academic medical learning. It appears to me that I should not list even the equivalent of a B.A. M.D. from Cambridge, 1676. While the details are not known, this degree was clearly also by mandate; I do not list it.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Anglican; A Puritan from a family of Independents, all of whom served in the Parliamentary armies. Two brothers died for the cause. Sydenham conformed at the Restoration, however, and was buried in St. James, Westminster.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Though he was not the dominant voice in English medicine while alive, Sydenham is now seen as the most important English physician of the second half of the century. He was a great advocate of close clinical observations as the foundation of therapeutic reform. He is called the English Hippocrates for his insistence on clinical observation. He was skeptical about the utility an anatomy, postmortem examinations, et al. Methodus curandi febres, 1666. Observationes medicae circa morborum acutorum et curationem, 1676, an expansion and recasting of the Methodus. Observationes is seen as Sydenham's masterpiece. He also produced Epistolae duae, 1680, Disseratio epistolaris circa curationem variolarum, 1682, and a classic description of gout, Tractatus de podagra et de hudrope, 1683. Schedula monitoria, 1685.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Military; Academic; Government Position; Military service in parliamentary forces, 1642-5, and again in 1651. He was definitely paid. For the service in 1651 (and for the service of his brother who was killed at that time) he received ?600 plus the promise of employment (which he finally received in 1659). Fellow of All Souls College, 1648-55. Medical practice in Westminster, 1655-89. He was considered the leading physician in London during the 60s and 70s. Many of the wealthy and powerful used his services. His will indicates that he earned a handsome income, although he did not become fabulously wealthy as some physicians did. Comptroller of the Pipe (a sinecure in the Exchequer), 1659. This paid off the earlier promise, but the sinecure ended with the Restoration.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; One of the Parliamentary Visitors' delegates to Wadham College in 1647. Created M.B. in 1648 by the command of the Earl of Pembroke, the Parliamentary Chancellor of the Oxford. Later that year the Parliamentary Visitors made him a fellow of All Souls College in 1648. He was nominated to Parliament in 1659. Sydenham's older brother was a powerful figure in the inner circle around Cromwell, and patronage through that connection dominated Sydenham's young manhood. When he was seriously ill in 1677, Sydenham convalesced for several months at Hatfield, the seat of the Earl of Salisbury. After some hesitation, I am listing this. With the exception of the brief sinecure noted above, it is the only item of patronage I have found from the period after he began practice. Sydenham dedicated books, but all to scientific and medical peers. Thus Methodus curandi febres to Boyle, who had set him the problem of studying fevers; Observationes to Dr. Mapletoft who is said to have translated it into Latin; Tractatus de podagra to Dr. Thomas Short; Schedula monitoria, 1685, to Dr. Charles Goodall, the historian of the Royal College of Physicians. Incidentally, I think these dedications, because not to patrons and not filled then with artificial language, might yield some insight into the rationale behind the support of learning.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Pharmacology was not Sydenham's passion. He often dispensed with drugs, and prescribed fresh air, exercise, and moderation. He is said to have rid the Pharmacopoeia of several dangerous remedies. Nevertheless he invented a liquid laudanum, made from opium, which continued long in use, and he helped to introduce the use of quinine in England as a remedy for fevers in general.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Intimate friendship with Boyle and Locke. Sydendham dedicated his work of 1666 to Boyle, and Locke wrote a commendary poem to him in his second edition of 1668. He was particularly close to Locke during the period of 1667-71, and correspended with him through the rest of his life. Quite a few of his manuscripts are in Locke's hand. Intimate friendship with Dr. Mapletoft, and Dr.Goodall. Friendship with Henry Paman, Robert Brady, Walter Harris, Walter Needham, David Thomas, Dr. William Gould, William Hale, Robert Hooke, and others. Pupils: Sloane, Thomas Dover, Richard Blackmore. Licentiate of the College of Physicians, 1663; he was never a fellow.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 19, 246-53.  Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 6.1, 3879-81. Kenneth Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689), His Life and Original Writings, (London, 1966). Joseph F. Payne, Thomas Sydenham, (London, 1900).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Thomas Sydenham, Methodus curandi febres, propriis observationibus superstructura: The Latin text of the 1666 and 1668 Editions with English Translation from R.G. Latham (1848), intro. by G.G. Meynell, (Folkestone, 1987). L.M.F. Picard, Thomas Sydenham: sa vie et ses oeuvres, (Dijon, 1889). D.G. Bates, Thomas Sydenham: the Development of His Thought, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1975.

Sylvius, Franciscus dele Bo

1. Dates: Born: Hanau, Germany 15 March 1614. Died: Leiden, 15 November 1672. Datecode: Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Merchant; Isaac dele Bo. Sylvius' grandfather, a descendent of a noble family, was a merchant. He emigrated from Kamerijk (Cambrai) in Flanders to Frankfurt-am-Main for religious reasons; he was a Protestant. The father was also a merchant. King says it was a well-to-do family, and the circumstances of Sylvius' education and early professional life seem to bear this out. I.e., affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch.
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Wittenburg; y Jen; University of Basel; M.D. His initial education was in the Protestant academy in Sedan. 1633-5, studied medicine in Leiden. After visits to Wittenberg and Jena, he took his M.D. in Basel in 1637.
5. Religion: Calvinist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Iatrochemstry. Sylvius was the leading representative of the school of iatrochemistry. His main work: Praxeos medicae idea nova, 1671.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He practiced for one and a half years in Hanau, but became dissatisfied. He returned to Leiden, where he gave private lectures on anatomy. He was one of the first to defend the circulation of the blood in the Netherlands. Because there appeared to be no prospect of an appointment at the university, he moved to Amsterdam (1641), where he established a practice that was immediately lucrative. In 1658, finally appointed Professor of Medicine at Leiden, with the salary of 1800 guilders (said to be exceptional, twice the standard salary). Vice-Chancellor of the university in 1669-70.
8. Patronage: Unknown; Someone of influence had to stand behind the appointment at Leiden.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Amsterdam College of Physicians.

Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. Lester King, The Road to Medical Enlightenment, 1650-1695, (New York, 1970), pp. 93-112. This is primarily about his medical theories, not his life. E. Ashworth Underwood, 'Franciscus Sylvius and his Iatrochemical School,' Endeavour, 31 (1972), 73-6.

Not Available and Not Consulted:
Frank Baker, 'The Two Sylviuses. An Historical Study,' Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, 20 (1909), 329-39.  Evert D. Baumann, Francois dele Bo Sylvius, (Leiden, 1949).

Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall