WESTFALL CATALOGUE - SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
Dr Robert A. Hatch - University of Florida
Search - Name - Word - Category - Concept - Secondary Source - Author
Napier [Neper, etc], John
1. Dates: Born: Edinburgh, 1550; Died: Edinburgh, 4 April 1617; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Gentry; Government Position; Sir Archibald Napier was the 7th Laid of Merchiston. Gridgeman calls the family 'marginal aristocracy,' Jourdain is insistent that the family was not aristocratic. Gentry seem the correct category. The family had made its way up over the space of two centuries by service to the King. Sir Archibald, after a number of other offices, eventually became Master of the Mind. It seems clear that the father was wealthy. Napier inherited from him an estate sufficient to live well on.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scot; Career: Scot; Death: Sc
4. Education: University of St Andrews; St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, 1563. He was apparent-ly there only for a year and then went to the continent to study. Absolutely no evidence exists as to where he studied, but he returned home by 1571 as a scholar competent in Greek. No known B.A. A degree was not relevant to him.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Napier was an ardent Presbyterian who composed an influential interpretation of Revelation to demonstrate that the Catholic Church was the Beast.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Although the interpretation of Revelation was Napier's major intellectual endeavor, he was interested in mathematics from an early age. An early MS, published only in 1835, De arte logistica, would have contributed seriously to algebra had it been published at the time. Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, 1614, and Mirifici logarithmorum canonis constructio, 1619, set forth the concept of logarithms and published the first table of them. In explaining logs, he also systematized spherical trigonometry. Napier made systematic use of decimal notation and was an important agent in its acceptance. Rabdologiae, 1617, includes a number of calculating devices, including 'Napier's bones,' devices to aid multiplication (but not by logarithmic scales). Book II offers a practical treatment of mensuration rules. Napier was apparently reputed to be a magician in his own age, but the only evidence of participation in the occult sciences (and the evidence is highly dubious) is a contract of 1594 with Robert Logan to search (possibly by occult methods) for treasure said to be in Logan's castle. I am not listing occult philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; A royal charter granted to him the land of Edenbellie, Gartness, in Sterlingshire, 1573. He had other lands as well. He inherited the estate of Merchiston from his father, 1608. Napier did fulfill some public offices, such as price controller of boots and shoes in Edinburgh. It is not clear that he received compensation for this.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; A royal charter granted him lands. I would like to know more about the details, but it does have the scent of patronage. This is the sort of patronage I would expect for a well endowed laird. He dedicated his interpretation of the book of Revelation, 1596, to James VI (later James I of England). However, I am uncertain about this. The dedication was an exhortation to James, whom he deemed too favorable to Papists, and it does not sound quite like the prose of a client.. He dedicated the Descriptio, 1614, to Prince Charles (later Charles I). He dedicated the Rabdologiae, 1617, to Chancellor Seton, Earl of Dunfermline. Adam Bothwell, bishop of Orkney, encouraged him to study abroad, and assigned the tithes of Merchiston to his father and him for 19 years. Napier's mother was a Bothwell, and while this balances on the ambiguous boundary, I am not counting it was patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Agriculture; Mathematics; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; The invention of a hydraulic screw and revolving axle to keep the level of water down in coal pits. Napier worked at improving his crops and cattle. He experimented with the use of manures and discovered the value of common salt (sic) for this purpose. Napier invented logarithms, a great aid to calculators, and in connection with logarithms, he invented his bones as a calculating instruments. He also described a calculating machine. Rabdologiae included rules of mensuration, and he was consulted on the proper methods of measuring lands. Napier invented (or better, proposed) a number of military devices-burning mirrors to set enemy (read Spanish, Catholic) ships afire, a special piece of artillery to destroy everything within a radius of four miles, an armored 'chariot' (a sort of early modern tank), and a submarine. I have decided not to list them; they smack of the fantastic rather than of practical military engineering.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Henry Briggs. Connection with John Craig.
Not Available and Not Consulted: Ernest
W. Hobson, John Napier and the Invention of Logarithms, (Cambridge,
1914). John Napier, Rabdology, tr. William Frank Richardson, intro.
Robin E. Rider, (Cambridge, MA, 1990).
1. Dates: Born: Joachimsthal, Bohemia, 3 April 1529; Died: Jena, 23 October 1581 Datecode: - Lifespan: 52
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Czechoslovak; German; German; Birth: Joachimsthal, Bohemia. Career: Jena, Germany. Death: Jena, Germany.
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; M.A. University of Jena; M.D. University of Wittenberg. B.A., 1549. M.A., 1550. University of Jena. M.D., 1558.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1551-8, taught in the hohe Schule in Jena. 1558, when the school became a new Protestant university, he became a professor in the faculty of arts. 1560-81, professor of medicine, University of Jena.
8. Patronage: Unknown; No university appointment was free of patronage.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; There is no evidence that he practiced medicine, though in honesty I find it almost impossible to doubt.
10. Scientific Societies: None
1. Dates: Born: Florence, 29 February 1576; Died: Pisa or Florence, c. 1614; Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 38
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, whose name we do not know (although we do know that the father's father was named Jacopo) was a physician. As always, I assume then that Neri grew up in affluent circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; Belgium Area; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; There is no information. According to older accounts, he learned the art of glassmaking at Murano, but Zecchin very effectively casts doubt on that tradition. At any rate, somewhere he learned to make glass, and he continued his studies of this and other chemical arts in the Low Countries.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was ordained a priest before 1601.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry. (chemical technology), Alchemy; Iatrochemstry. Neri is remembered only for L'arte vetraria (1612), a little book in which many of the closely guarded secrets of glassmaking were printed for the first time. He was known in the 17th century also as an alchemist, and his patron, Don Antonio Medici, is known to have been deeply involved in alchemy. Neri also called himself a cultivator of the Spagyrical art.
7. Means of Support: Unknown; Patronage; Almost nothing is known with certainty about him, except that he was ordained a priest before 1601. It used to be asserted that he led a wandering life, but Zecchin pretty well demolishes that. Zecchin establishes that Neri worked in Florence and Pisa in the early years of the century experimenting with glass, but Zecchin finds no information about how Neri supported himself. From about 1604 to 1611 he was at Antwerp, lodging in the house of a Portuguese noble who was as absorbed in Neri's studies as Neri himself was. Neri published his book and spent the last years of his life in northern Italy.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; In Antwerp Neri lived in the house of Emanuel Zimines, a Portuguese noble excited by Neri's studies. Neri dedicated L'arte vetraria to Don Antonio Medici, whom I am categorizing as an aristocrat, although there is considerable ambiguity about his status.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; Pharmacology; His L'arte vetraria (1612) contains many of the secrets of glassmaking which were printed for the first time. I categorize this, without hesitation, as chemical. Neri himself mentioned his medical researches as a spagyrist.
10. Scientific Societies:
1. Dates: Born: Dartmouth, Devon, February 1664. He was christened 24 February The date universally given earlier, 1663, was a misreading of the old style; it was 1663/4. Died: London, 5 August 1729; Datecode: Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Merchant; Elias Newcomen was a merchant. The family derived from an old aristocratic family in Lincolnshire that lost its property in the reign of Henry VIII. No clear information on financial status. Note, however, that Elias Newcomen was no mere local retailer. The fact that Thomas received no higher education relates to their being Baptists, not to their financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; The extent of his education is wholly unclear; the family were Baptists and thus outside the standard channels. No university education.
5. Religion: Sect; Newcomen's grandfather and father were nonconformists. He himself was a leader of the Baptists of his locality, who frequently preached in their congregations.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Eng; Newcomen was the inventor of the early, pre-Watt, steam engine. He erected the first successful one in 1712.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Eng; Ironmonger (more a blacksmith than a merchant) in partnership with John Calley, 1685-1729. In partnership with Savery, from perhaps 1705 until Savery's death in 1715, erecting steam engines. He continued in this activity until his death.
8. Patronage: None Known; His case is perhaps worthy of note. Connections were of immense importance to his career, but the connections were to the Baptist community of England. As far as patronage was concerned, Newcomen travelled in utterly different channels; I saw nothing whatever that reminded me of patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Mechanical Devices; The steam engine. It seems clear that Newcomen's engine did not derive from any knowledge of contemporary scientific theories, but from familiarity with technical operations and practical needs, and from trial and error. His basic improvement, the injection of cold water to condense the steam directly into the cylinder, was the result of chance. Desagulier states that he and Newcomen together invented a device to allow air to escape from water pipes.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Association with John Calley beginning in 1685. Association with Marten Triewald, a Swedish engineer, 1716-26. Association with Savery .
Not Available and Not Consulted: Rhys Jenkins,
'The Heat Engine Idea in the Seventeenth Century,' Transactions of the
Newcomen Society, 17 (1936-7), 1-11. _____, 'Savery, Newcomen and the
Early History of the Steam Engine,' Transactions of the Newcomen Society,
3 (1922-3), 96-118, and 4 (1923-4), 113-34. Muriel Hine, 'The
Pedigree of Thomas Newcomen,
Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 9
(1928-9), 105-8. There is a rapidly expanding literature on Newcomen. At
the end of the 'Commemorative Symposium' (Transactions, 50) there
is a long list of articles that have appeared in the Transactions of
the Newcomen Society.
1. Dates: Born: Woolsthorp, seven miles south of Grantham, Lincolnshire, 25 December 1642; Died: London, 20 March 1727; Datecode: Lifespan: 85.
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer. Isaac Newton père was a yeoman farmer, who might perhaps be called gentry since he was the lord of a minor manor. The background of the family was yeoman, however, and Isaac the father could not read or write. He died before his only son was born. Newton never lived with his stepfather, the Rev. Barnabas Smith, and he hated Smith. Clearly Newton was reared in properous circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A. Newton matriculated in Cambridge in 1661. B.A. 1665. M.A. 1668.
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; Newton was born into the Anglican church and publicly conformed to it. At about thirty, he convinced himself that Trinitarianism was a fraud and that Arianism was the true form of primitive Christianity. Newton held these views, very privately, until the end of his life. On his death bed he refused to receive the sacrament of the Anglican church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics; Optics. Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Natural Philosophy; Alchemy. There is no need to list anything to justify the three primary disciplines or physics. Newton always considered himself a natural philosopher, and the central strand of his scientific development consisted of his speculations on the nature of physical reality, speculations that led him away from the reigning mechanical philosophy and to a major modification of it that asserted the existence of forces acting at a distance. Newton's long investigation of alchemy is well established from his surviving manuscripts. If the catalogue had room, the discipline of chemistry ought also to be included. In Newton's own career, alchemy clearly overweighed chemistry.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Government Position. Newton was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667 and remained one until he resigned the fellowship in 1701. The fellowship produced about ?50-?60 per annum. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669, with an income of about ?100. He retained the chair until he resigned it in 1701. Although it is difficult wholly to decypher his personal estate, he was the heir to his father's property at Woolsthorpe, and his stepfather added a property as part of the marriage settlement. It appears that Newton had income of about ?150 from the estate. What is not clear is the point at which he received it-was it at the time of his majority (for he was his father's heir), or was it at the time of his mother's death? Note that his stepfather, who died when Newton was eleven, was a very wealthy man, so that his mother had an extensive estate after Smith's death. Newton was appointed Warden of the Mint (salary ?500) in 1696. He moved then from Cambridge to London, where he lived for more than thirty years. In 1699 he became Master, a position he held until his death. The income from this position (which had a base salary of ?400) varied according to the amount of money coined, but averaged about ?2000. Newton died quite a wealthy man.
8. Patronage: Academic; Scientist; Government Official; Court Patronage. It is a basic fact about Newton, which sets him off from most of the scientists of the age, that he stood fairly resolutely aside from the scramble for patronage. His personal estate, which always insured his survival, may be relevant here. Nevertheless, there were points at which he, like everyone else, needed patrons, and he had them. First, in Cambridge. Someone had to have stood behind the election, first to a scholarship and then to a fellowship in Trinity, of an unconnected student who ignored the established curriculum. He was not in fact wholly unconnected. Humphrey Babington, one of the Senior Fellows in Trinity, was the brother of the woman with whom Newton lodged while a student in grammar school in Grantham. Although this is not established beyond doubt, it appears probable that Babington stood behind Newton's appointments in Trinity. Although it is again not established beyond possible doubt, it appears virtually certain that Isaac Barrow arranged for Newton to succeed him as Lucasian Professor. And it is hightly likely that it was Barrow, who was then Master of Trinity, who arranged for the royal dispensation that freed Newton from the necessity of ordination in 1675 and made possible his continuation in Cambridge. Charles Montague, a very prominent member of the Whig junto, arranged Newton's appointment to the Mint in 1696, and later his knighthood. I am listing him as governmental official. In the second and third decades of the 18th century, Newton had a close relation with Princess Caroline, whom he called his 'particular friend,' and (more distantly) her husband, who became George II. There is no evidence of which I am aware of material favors that Newton received, but I am listing this nevertheless as courtly patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; Navigation; Metallurgy. In addition to his reflecting telescope, Newton devised an improved sextant in 1699, and a huge composite burning glass in 1704. In 1670 he offered a series for the area under a circle to help a computer, and later he developed his method of interpolation for the same purpose. Beginning in 1714 he served on the government's Board of Longitude. Newton experimented with different alloys, looking for the best reflecting metal to use in his telescope.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); 1672; President, 1703. Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699, Foreign Associate. There is abundant evidence that Newton was acquainted with clandestine circles of alchemists from whom he received alchemical manuscripts. He corresponded with Boyle, Locke, Fatio, Halley, Gregory, and others. There is a full edition of his correspondence. One should mention here his quarrels with Hooke and Flamsteed, and especially the bruising priority dispute with Leibniz.
1. Dates: Born: Paris, 1613; Died: Aix-en-Provence, 22 September 1646; Datecode: Lifespan: 33
2. Father: Unknown; We are told only that he was the eldest child of Claude Niceron and Renée Barbière.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: Religious Orders; Niceron studied under Mersenne at the Collège de Nevers in Paris. (I have trouble reconciling that institution at that time, not to mention that place, with Mersenne's life. It does appear evident that Niceron was educated within the order.) There is no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. In 1632 he entered the Order of the Minims.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics; In his short life he occupied himself with the study of optics. In 1638 he published his first work on optics, La Perspective curieuse. The latin version was published in 1646 under the title of Thaumaturgus opticus. Though Niceron was aware of the latest theoretical developments, he concentrated primarily on the practical applications of perspective, catoptrics, dioptrics and the illusory effects of optics mostly associated with natural magic. On the two occasions that he was sent to Rome, Niceron conducted experiments with other scientists in Rome suggested by the works of Galileo. He shared the latest developments of French scientists with their counterparts in Italy and returned to France with the scientific news from Italy.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; 1639, appointed professor of mathematics at Trinità dei Monti. 1640, served as an auxiliary visitor with P. Francois de la Noue, vicar general, for the Minim monasteries. He was charged to teach theology as well.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Obviously his order utilized Niceron, but I am not calling this patronage. However, he dedicated his Perspective to the Papal nuncio Bologneti.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Available and Not Consulted: Bonelli,
Maria Luisa, 'Una lettera di Evangelista Torricelli a Jean Francois Niceron,'
in Convegno di studi Torricelliani, (Faenza, 1959), pp. 37-41.
1. Dates: Born: Westgraftdijk (North Holland), 10 August 1654; Died: Purmerend (North Holland), 30 May 1718; Datecode: Lifespan: 64;
2. Father: Church Living; Emmanuel Nieuwentijt, the pastor in Westgraftdijk. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Utrecht; M.D. His father expected him to follow the ministry. It is unclear whether initially he enrolled in Leiden in theology, but he certainly found medicine quickly and switched. Later that year he also enrolled in Utrecht in medicine, and he earned his M.D. already in 1676. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Calvinist; He was an elder in the church at Purmerend.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy. Subordinate Disciplines: Chemistry; As a student Nieuwentijt was converted to Cartesianism; his medical thesis was a Cartesian, mechanistic exposition of the functioning of the body, with eclectic borrowings from other traditions such as iatrochemistry. Not too much later Nieuwentijt became disenchanted with Cartesianism, partly because he saw it as an avenue to atheism, and partly because he rebelled against its rationalism in favor of a strictly empirical, experimental approach to science. Nieuwentijt was one of the early supporters of Newtonian science on the continent. In 1694-1700 he engaged in a dispute with Leibniz on the foundations of the calculus. His views are now beginning to be examined by philosophers with interest. His Analysis infinitorum was the first comprehensive exposition of the calculus. He won early recognition for his microscopic observations. One of his major works, Het recht gebruik, 1714, (in its English translation The Religious Philosopher, or the Right Use of Contemplating the Works of the Creator) was an enormous (1000 pages) demonstration of the existence of God and the correctness of Christianity by teleological arguments. His other major work, The Foundations of Certainty, published posthumously, 1720, was an assault on Spinoza which insisted on the primacy of empiricism over rationalism. This work is now receiving serious attention. In Het recht gebruik Nieuwentijt made it clear that he had a chemical laboratory and that he made frequent use of it.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; City Magistrate; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; After obtaining his medical degree, Nieuwentijt settled in Westgraftdijk to practice medicine. Before long he moved to the more significant neighboring city of Purmerend, where he was from the beginning and for the rest of his life city physician with a salary of 100 guilders. By every indication the medical practice flourished. Not long after he arrived in Purmerend he married the wealthy widow of a patrician. That very year he was elected a member of the city council; he later served as burgomaster and represented the city in the States of Holland. His career was a steady progression upwards into the ruling elite of Holland and thus of the United Provinces.
8. Patronage: None Known; Nieuwentijt's marriage into the town's most prominent family immediately projected him into the ruling elite of one of the principal cities of Holland. After brief hesitation I do not care to call this patronage, although it is obviously a closely related social phenomenon. Beyond that I find nothing. Nieuwentijt appears to have ridden a very successful medical practice, and a very fortunate marriage, into affluence (I really think wealth might be the better word) and position.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: In Purmerend, in the mid 90's, he organized a 'college' (i.e., a society of some sort, evidently informal) of experimentation.
Not Available and Not Consulted: J. Vercruysse,
'Frans onthaal voor een Nederlandse apologeet: Bernard Nieuwentijt - 1654-1718,'
van de Frije Unversiteit te Brussel, 11 (1968-9), 97-120. Rienk H.
Vermij, Secularisering en natuurwetenschap in de zeventiende
en achttiende eeuw: Bernard Nieuwentijt, (Amsterdam, 1991).
1. Dates: Born: Bassigny, Haute-Marne, 29 September 1581. Died: La Fleche, 16 October 1659. Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. No information about his education, but he was a Jesuit who prospered in a learned order. Who can doubt that he was educated in it? As a Jesuit, moreover, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1599 and completed his novitiate in Verdun.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Physics; His published works include Aphorismi physici (1646), Sol flamma (1646), Le plein du vide (1648) and Gravitas comparata (1649). The double perspective that characterizes all of his work is an adherence to Aristotelian physics and receptiveness to new ideas.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; He entered the Society of Jesus in 1599. In 1606, Noel taught grammar at Rouen. He was the prefet des études and rector at d'Eu. At La Fleche, he taught philosophy for eight years and then five years of theology. He was the rector at La Fleche 1637-40. He served as vice-provincial of the Society in 1645-6. He became rector of the Collège de Clermont in Paris in 1646. In 1649, Noel returned to La Fleche where he published several further works of minor importance.
8. Patronage: None Known; It is obvious that Noel advanced within the society, and probably there were those who furthered his career. This utilization of his talents by his order does not, however, seem like what I am calling patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Non
10. Scientific Societies: Connection with Descartes. In 1646 he sent to Descartes his first published works. Correspondence with Pascal. He had several disputes with Pascal on the existence of a vacuum. But later in his Gravitas he honored Pascal for his role in developing an experiment to produce a vacuum within a vacuum.
1. Dates: He was active in the late 16th century. Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan:
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: apparently English; Career: what we know of was in England; Death: apparently English
4. Education: None Known; No record
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption
6. Scientific Disciplines: Navigation; Magnetism; Norman is best known for his book, The Newe Attractive, 1581, a treatise on the loadstone which derives from his observations of the dipping phenomenon in the compasses he made. The Safegarde of Saylers, 1590, was a book of sailing directions translated from the Dutch.
7. Means of Support: Sailor; Instruments; A sailor. Norman was known as the maker of superior navigational instruments, which he sold at Radcliffe. 8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; Dedicated his book to William Borough, Comptroller of the navy, for his encouragement and friendly affection.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Navigation; Navigational instruments, including magnetic compasses with a wax counterbalance to counteract the dip. See also his book on navigation above.
10. Scientific Societies:
1. Dates: Born: Stevenage, Hertforshire, October 1590; Died: Bermuda, 1676. The inventory of his will is dated 25 January 1676; Datecode: Lifespan: 86
2. Father: Unknown; Probably named Edward Norwood; he is called a gentleman who had fallen on hard times. That is too vague to put into any category. I take it as sufficiently clear that they were poor. Norwood was apprenticed to a fishmonger at age fifteen.
3. Nationality: Birth: En Career: English; Death: Bermuda (i.e., English)
4. Education: None Known; Two years of grammar school, Norwood's only formal education. No university education.
5. Religion: Anglican; Calvinist; Norwood underwent a conversion in 1616. I assume that he was a passive, conforming Anglican before that. He became a convinced Puritan who left England in 1638 to escape from Laud. In Bermuda he opposed the more extreme Puritans.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Navigation. Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Cartography; Trigonometrie, or, the Doctrine of Triangles, 1631, based on the logs of Napier and Briggs, was intended as a navigational aid. It explained the application of logs to navigational problems. Norwood emphasized great circle navigation. Seaman's Practice, 1637, remained for a long time one of the basic works on navigation. His work forwarded the practice of mathematical navigation. Seaman's Practice continued to be republished into the 18th century. It also contained a section on surveying and mapping.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Agriculture; Secondary Means of Support: Sailor; Military; Engineer; Apprenticed to a London fishmonger, 1605. Shipped on a coaster plying between London and Newcastle, c.1607, and in 1610-12 on a ship to the Mediterranean. For a brief time about 1609 between the naval interludes he served as a soldier in the Netherlands. Employed by the Bermuda Company, 1613-17, initially to dive for pearls, which did not work out, then to survey the islands, 1614-17. He surveyed Bermuda again in 1662. He also surveyed for the royal government in the 1630s. Taught mathematics in London, 1620s-30s. Patented lands in Virginia, 1623, but did not remain there. Schoolmaster in Bermuda, 1638-75. He became one of the leading planters on the islands.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Aristocratic Patronage; Daniel Tucker, who had been governor of Bermuda for the company during Norwood's survey (and whom I categorize as a Merchant because of his connection with the company), recommended Norwood to the Virginia Company in 1623 for the same job. As a result, Norwood was appointed and went to Virginia, where he patented lands. He did not remain. Norwood dedicated Trigonometrie, 1631, to the Earl of Bedford. Norwood dedicated The Seaman's Practice, 1637, to the Earl of Warwick, who in 1637 or 38 arranged Norwood's appointment as schoolmaster in Bermuda.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Mathematics; Cartography; Scientific Instruments; Military Engineer; Agriculture; At the very beginning of his career, Norwood devised and used a primitive diving bell to retrieve a piece of ordnance that had fallen overboard. This led to his employment by the Bermuda company as an expert diver. Frankly, I do not have a category into which this fits. Norwood signficantly forwarded the art of navigation, especially in his application of logs to navigational problems. In addition to his surveys of Bermuda, he measured (in 1635) the length of the meridian from London to York in order to determine the length of a degree. Although his method was extremely crude, the care with which he applied it led to a good approach to the modern value. Using this value, he reknotted the log line with a knot at every 50 feet, corresponding to 60 nautical miles per degree. After the early years in Bermuda, Norwood was known in the Virginia Company as one expert in fortification, and he published Fortification in 1639. In Bermuda he made olive oil and shipped a sample to London, leading the company to promote the planting of olive trees on the islands.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Correspondence with the Royal Society.
Nuñez Salaciense, Pedro
1. Dates: Born: Alcacer do University of Salamanca; Portugal, 1502; Died: Coimbra, 11 August 1578; Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: Portuguese; Death: Portuguese
4. Education: Salamanca, Lisbon, M.D. The first solid information on him shows him a student at Salamanca in 1521-2. Returned to University of Lisbon. Bachelor of Medicine, 1525.I treat this as equivalent to B.A. Licentiate in Medicine (which I categorize as M.D.), 1532, though already teaching in the university for three years
5. Religion: Catholic. Jew; From a family of converted Jews.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Scientific Instruments; Nav; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics; Astronomy; Nuñez is considered the greatest Portuguese mathematician. He invented the first form of what came to be called the vernier-called the nonius (from the Latinized Nuñez). He was the first to distinguish, in navigation, between the rhumb line of a flat map and a great circle on a globe. Also other contributions to navigation.
7. Means of Support: Academic position, patronage; Professor of moral philosophy, University of Lisbon, 1529; of logic, 1530; of metaphyics, 1532-3-all while continuing medical studies. I think he continued at the university. With move of the university to Coimbra, he became professor of mathematics there, 1544-62. As numerous appointments to commissions indicate, he was an important figure in the university. At the same time, appointed royal cosmographer in 1529 (with a salary of 20,000 reaes); chief royal cosmographer from 1547 to death (50,000 reaes). Tutor to the Infante, D. Luis (with a salary), with lots of indications that this was a close and enduring relation until D. Luis died in 1552. Also tutor to Luis' brother, D. Henrique. He dedicated his Treatise on the Sphere to D. Luis, and his book on algebra to Card. (as he then was) D. Henrique. After Luis' death, there was a similar relation with D. Sebastien. Published an Algebra in Spanish, dedicated to the Spanish Infante, D. Enrique. Called to the court by D. Sebastien (with a salary) to advise on reform of weights and measures. Appointed professor of mathematics for instruction of pilots, navigators, and cartographers.
8. Patronage: Court. Ecclesiastical Official. In addition to all the above, the court appears to have protected Nuñez from efforts to persecute him as Jew. Card. D. Henrique was in charge of the Inquisition in Portugal, which cannot have harmed Nuñez.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation, Instruments; Note that Nuñez's appointment as professor of mathematics at Coimbra effectively established a new discipline in the university. He was not in any of the four established faculties. This provides some indication of the technological demands of navigation (which seem clearly to have stood behind the appointment) at the time.
10. Scientific Societies: None
Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Fontoura
da Costa, Pedro Nuñez, (Lisbon, 1938).
Odierna [Hodierna], Gioanbatista
[Giovan or Giovanni Battista]
1. Dates: Born: Ragusa, Sicily, 13 April 1597; Died: Palma di Montechiaro, Sicily, 6 April 1660; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Artisan; Vita Dierna was a mason. Earlier accounts used to say a shoemaker, but Pavone convinces me that he was a mason. Note that Odierna himself added the first syllable to his name. He is usually listed under 'O' as Odierna, though Pavone establishes that he himself always used Hodierna. Pavone argues that Odierna took this name to identify himself with the mythical man 'hoggidiano,' which I gather we could translate as 'modern man,' in deliberate comparison to ancient man. I confess to not seeing how 'hoggidiano' leads to 'Hodierna.'; All accounts indicate that the status of the family was humble. I take this definitely to mean poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. Odierna was self-taught, at least in science. He does appear to have studied theology, initially, leading to his ordination, at a seminary in Syracuse. There does not appear to have been anything like a university education or a B.A. degree. Apparently in 1644 he earned a doctorate in theology, probably at a monastic school in Palermo.
5. Religion: Catholic. Odierna was a priest, ordained in 1622.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics; Astronomy; Astrology. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Meteorology; Mcr; He observed the three comets of 1618-1619, which spurred the famous polemic that culminated in Galileo's Saggiatore. Many years later Odierna published De systemate orbis cometici, 1654. His studies on the satellites of Jupiter were published in Medicaeorum ephemerides (1656), and he wrote a pamphlet on Saturn. His astronomy seems always to have verged toward astology, and titles on astrology bulk large in his corpus of work. After studying the passage of light through prisms he offered a vague explanation of the rainbow and of the spectrum. His Thaumantia junonis nuntia praeconium pulchritudinis (1647), was followed by Traumantiae miraculum (1652). In natural history his explanation of the structure and function of the retractile poison fangs of vipers anticipated the work of Redi. Odierna developed an early microscope and studied the eyes of flies and other insects with it. He pursued meteorological studies-cyclones, thunder, and springs. In fact Odierna was something of a polymath, and if the file had room I could list as well Physics, Botany, Anatomy, Entomology, and Natural Philosophy. I think that I have listed the six disciplines that most occupied him (understanding the Botany, Anatomy, and Entomology to be included in Natural History and Microscopy). Doubt might attach to Natural Philosophy. His first published work Physiotheorica, 1629, was on natural philosophy in general (of an astrological sort, if I have understood). He also published Empedocles redivivus, 1655, and he seems to have dabbled a bit in corpuscular philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; From 1625 to 36, Odierna apparently functioned as a priest in Ragusa. And during this period he also taught mathematics and astronomy there. Beginning in 1637, he served the barons of Montechiaro (who were also the Dukes of Palma) as chaplain and parish priest of the town of Palma di Montechiaro (well to the west of Ragusa near the southern shore of Sicily. They gave him an apartment on the high floor of their palace for his astronomical observations and later (1645), after endowing the benefice, named him archpriest and, in 1655, court mathematician.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The barons of Montechiaro, see above. The Tomasi (the barons of Montechiaro) gave Odierna a good piece of land also and a house in which he lived. They financed the publication of most of his work, much of which was of course dedicated to them. He also dedicated his first published work, Physiotheorica, to Don Vincenzo Arizzi, barone delle Serre, to whom Odierna had taught mathematics. He dedicated Archimede redivivo, 1644, to Domino Palmeri, Barone del Solazzo, a relative of his primary patrons, the Tomasi. He dedicated Thaumantiae miraculum, 1652, to Carlo Maria Ventimiglia, an intellectual and an aristrocrat. He dedicated his Ephemerides medicaeorum, 1656, to the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. Near the end of his life he dedicated works to the ecclesiastical authorities of Sicily.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Nav; He devised some sort of microscope-called a camera obscura in one source-that magnified 2000 times (it says), and with it Odierna studied the structure of the eyes of insects and the poisonous glands of vipers. He composed a manuscript on the longitudes and latitudes of a number of places in Italy. His work on the satellites of Jupiter were directed toward the use of them to determine longitude at sea.
10. Scientific Societies: He wrote an enthusiastic appraisal of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. Apparently through Castelli Odierna got a manuscript copy of Galileo's Bilancetta, which Odierna published for the first time in his Archimede redivivo, 1644. In Palermo he was acquainted with Carlo Varia Ventimiglia, and perhaps he participated in the Accademia dei Riaccesi in Palermo. He knew Schott who taught then in the Jesuit college in Palermo. Correspondence with Huygens about 1656. Correspondence also with Caramuel, when he was in Italy at the end of his life, and with Severino in Naples.
Not Available and/or Not Consulted: G.
Abetti, 'Don Giovanni Battista Odierna' in
(Urbino, 1939), pp.3-28. Mario Pavone, Introduzione al pensiero di Giovanni
Battista Hodierna . . ., 2 vols. (Modica, Italy, 1981). A. Licitra,
su la vita e su le opere di Giovanni Battista Odierna, astronomo-matematico
e naturalist ragusana, (Ragusa, 1899). F. Garafolo, Discorsi sopra
l'antica e moderna Ragusa, con una biografia di Giovan Battista Odierna,
1. Dates: Born: Linköping, Sweden, October 1490; Died: Rome, Italy, 1557; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Unknown; The sources say only that Olaus came from a middle class family and that hie father Magnus Peterson was a burger of Linköping. Note that family names apparently did not exist yet in Sweden. Olaus' brother was Johannes Magnus, that is, Johannes son of Magnus. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sweden; Career: Sweden, Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Cologne; University of Rostock; M.A. He attended school in Linköping. He studied and travelled with his bother almost seven years on continent, among other places probably at the University of Cologne (although there is no record of his registration there). He also studied at the University of Rostock, where, probably in 1513, he received his baccalaureate. Although details of Olaus' education are unclear, it appears that he did receive a Master of Arts degree, though it is not known from where. He studied geography and the history of civilization, as well as the nature and 'peculiarities' of fish.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was ordained a priest in 1519.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geography; Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; His Carta marina (Venice, 1539), the monumental map of the Scandinavian countries, and the Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (1555), his great description of the Scandinavian people, give him a pioneering position in the geographical research of Scandinavia. Although the description was wholly subjective, the book remains one of the most important sources of knowledge about Sweden's geography and civilization during the early 16th century. The Historia, based largely on two years of travel, 1518-20, with Arcimboldi, the vendor of indulgences, has a lot of natural history of Scandanavia and northern Europe as well.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; He obtained a canonry about 1510. In 1518 he became a deputy to Arcimboldi, the papal vendor of indulgences. Later he was a vicar in Stockholm (1520) and cathedral Dean in Strengnäs (1522). In 1523 the King, Gustav Vasa, sent him to Rome on a diplomatic mission, and later sent him to Lubeck to negotiate with the Netherlands and then to Bremen and the Netherlands around 1527. In 1528 he went to Poland to visit Sigismund, grandson of Gustav Vasa and King of Poland and Sweden. About this point the Reformation intervened, and Olaus remained a loyal Catholic. He was expelled from Poland because of his Catholicism. In 1530 he broke with the King and all of his property in Sweden was confiscated. Before 1534 he spent several years as a refugee in Danzig. In 1534 he settled in Italy. He and his brother (Archbishop of Sweden) stayed with Hieronimo Quirino, Patriarch of Venice, for three years. When his brother died in 1544, the Pope appointed Olaus archbishop of Sweden in his place. In 1546 he received a grant from a fund for poor prelates. He was still writing to the Swedish King as late as 1554 about returning as Archbishop-without result, of course. He participated in the Council of Trent in the first (1545-7) and second (1551-2) periods. While in Rome he was the manager for the House of St. Birgitta. Here he started a printing operation and printed a number of books-along with other books concerned with Scandanavia, his Historia.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; The ecclesiastical patronage appears somewhat ambiguous because it is obvious that Olaus did not prosper after the Reformation. Nevertheless, all of the arrangements that sustained his life came through the Church. Moreover, Quirino, the Patriarch, supported him and financed the publication of the map. At Trent the nephew of the Pope, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, was referred to as his protector. He dedicated Historia to the Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, Adolf von Schauenburg, whom he had met in Trent, where the Cardinal showed great interest in Olaus' work. He was also close to Cardinal Viovanni Pietro Caraffa, later to be Pope Paul IV, with whom he worked toward the restoration of Catholicism in Sweden.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Hydraulics; When he was young he developed a way to pump water out of mines.
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Available and Not Consulted: Herman
Richter, Olaus Magnus Carta marina 1539,
2, (Stockholm, 1967). Karl Ahlenius, Olaus Magnus och hans framstallning
af Nordens geografi, (Uppsala, 1895). O. Brenner, 'Olaus Magnus und
seines Karte des Nordens,' Histor. Tidsskr. 2. R, 5, 401-5.
H. Hildebrand, 'Minne of Olaus Magnus,'
Svenska Akad. Handl. 12
1. Dates: Born: Bremen, Germay, c.1618. Oldenburg's birth used to be given as c.1615. In the Oldenburg Correspondence the Halls set it between 1617 and 1620. Elsewhere they point out that in 1668 he described himself as 'about fifty' years old. The only established date is his entry into the Gymnasium of Bremen in 1633. Died: Charlton, near Greenwich, 5 September 1677; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Schoolmaster; Heinrich Oldenburg taught in the Paedogogium of Bremen. Later he became a professor in the newly established University of Dorpat, in what is now Estonia. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Germany; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Bremen; D.D. University of Utrecht; Oxford University; Gymnasium Illustre of Bremen (which appears to have been the equivalent of a university, 1633; I assume a B.A. Master of Theology (listed as D.D.), 1639. University of Utrecht, 1641. He matriculated in Oxford in 1657-8.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Anglican; Bremen, which initially accepted the Lutheran reformation, turned to Calvinism about 1600. Oldenburg is universally desribed as devout, and I assume that he conformed to the established religion of his city. There is almost no evidence about his religion in England, except that in 1677 (the year of his death), in seeking naturalization, he attached a certificate affirming that he had taken the Anglican sacrament.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization; Com; Oldenburg made a profession of scientific administration. He founded a system of records in the Royal Society that is still followed, created an international correspondence of scientists, and founded the first scientific journal.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Scientific Organization; Pub; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Mis; He inherited some property (which does not appear to have been of much value) from his grandfather. It is known that Oldenburg matriculated in the University of Utrecht in 1641. Nothing is known with assurance about what he did during the following twelve years, but there is presumptive evidence that he was a tutor during these years. It was probably during his travels as a tutor that he acquired his command of most of the Western European tongues. In 1656 he became tutor to Boyle's nephew, Richard Jones, later the third Viscount Ranelagh and first Earl of Ranelagh. Member of a diplomatic mission from Bremen to England, 1653-6. He became a permanent resident of England, but never a citizen. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1663-77. Though initially unremunerated, the position came to carry a salary of ?40. Oldenburg collected intelligence (not as a spy) from Europe, which he supplied to the Office of the Secretary of State. One letter implies that he also supplied the intelligence to subscribers. Bluhm calls this writing newsletters. He also translated intercepted letters for the State Paper Office. I list this activity as Miscellaneous. Oldenburg published the Philosophical Transactions, beginning in 1665, which were his personal enterprise, to make money, although he never made as much as he hoped to. He also translated printed papers for the London Gazette, apparently with regular remuneration. He also translated and published works from abroad. He translated at least two of Boyle's works into Latin, and he appears to have functioned effectively as the publisher for a number of Boyle's works. He received some dowry with each of his two wives. With his second wife, the daughter of John Dury, whom Oldenburg married when he was about fifty and she fourteen, he received an estate in Kent worth about ?60 per annum. Given his long relationship with Boyle and also his service as a tutor to aristocratic families, I also list patronage as a means of support. Oldenburg made his living from a miscellaneous variety of activities, as the list above suggests. He never felt financially secure; he never got the position with a sufficient salary that he wanted.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Scientist; Government Official; Court Patronage; The government of Bremen sent him on a diplomatic mission to Oliver Cromwell. Employed by the Earl of Thomond in 1656 as tutor of his son. Employed by Cavendish family as a tutor. Tutor to Richard Jones, Boyle's nephew. He owed his position in the Royal Society to Boyle. He functioned as Boyle's agent in London while Boyle was in Oxford, seeing several of Boyle's works through the press, and translating at least two of them. When Oldenburg's wife died just a few days after he did, Boyle looked after the two small children at least for a time, and he paid for the two funerals. Nevertheless Boyle does not seem to have sponsored him for any other position that Oldenburg sought. Through most of the restoration, up until Oldenburg's death, he supplied Sir Joseph Williamson with foreign intelligence. The Halls call Williamson Oldenburg's patron. In 1676 Williamson procured for him a warrant to be a licenser of books, but in fact the warrant produced more trouble than income so that he eventually returned it. Prince Rupert was the godfather of Oldenburg's son Rupert. Oldenburg dedicated volume 4 of the Philosophical Transactions to Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury. He dedicated vol. 5 to Boyle, and one volume (I don't know which) to Lord Arlington. Most of the volumes were not dedicated. Hall suggests that Oldenburg, a foreigner like Papin and DeMoivre (and like a French mathematician, Girard I think, in the Netherlands), though he was always pursuing preferment and hoping, never received any. Note that in 1677 his name was removed from a naturalization bill.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London). Informal Connections: Connection with John Dury, Samuel Hartlib, John Milton, and Thomas Hobbes, beginning in 1653. Friendship with Boyle, John Wilkins, and Oxford philosophical club, beginning in 1656. Correspondence with Huygens, Spinoza and many others. Royal Society, 1661; Secretary, 1662-77. Oldenburg was not at the meeting in November 1660 at which it was decided to organize a society. His name was mentioned there, however, as one likely to be interested. He became a member in January 1661.
Not Available and Not Consulted: Dr. Althaus,
a collection of materials about Oldenburg,
Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung
(Munich), Nos. 229-33 (1888) and Nos. 212-14 (1889).
Orta, Garcia d' [da Orta]
1. Dates: Born: Castelo de Vide, Portugal, c. 1500; Died: Goa, India, c. 1568; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 68
2. Father: merchant; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portugal; Career: Portuguese colonial society; Death: Portuguese colonial society
4. Education: University of Salamanca; Alchemy; M.D. Studied at Salamanca and Alcala. I assume the equivalent of a B.A. He was licensed as soon as he returned to Portugal; thus I assume some advanced medical degree.
5. Religion: Jew, Catholic. Parents were Jews who fled Spain in 1492, then converted in Portugal in order not to be forced to flee a second time. He conformed externally to Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany, Pharmacology. Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine (Tropical medicine).
7. Means of Support: Medical practice, patronage. Secondary Means of Support: Academic position; Licensed in 1526, he began to practice and moved at once to Lisbon. There he became (this is a title, not a position) a physican to the King. 1530, appointed to lecture on natural philosophy in University of Lisbon. 1534, sailed to Goa as personal physician to M.A. de Sousa, Viceroy of India. Ficalho is definite that Orta was in Sousa's service and thinks he had been under his protection for some time, that perhaps the Sousa family financed his university education and arranged for the chair in Lisbon. If I comprehended, Orta dedicated his Coloquias to Sousa. 1534-8. Travelled extensively along the coast of India, attending to Sousa during his campaigns of conquest. 1538, settled in Goa, where he continued to serve as physician to the Viceroys and in general practice-clearly very prosperous. When Sousa returned to Portugal, Orta stayed on in Goa for the rest of his life. It is clear that Goa was his escape from persecution as a Jew. He brought much of his family there. After his death at least one sister was burned in an auto-da-fe and Orta's remains were burned. 1563, published in Goa Coloquias dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais da India, a pioneering work on the medicinal materials of southeast Asia and on its plants. Also pioneering on Indian diseases unknown to European medicine.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy; See above
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice, pharmacology
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Available and Not Consulted: A. de
Silva Carvalho, Garcia d'Orta, 1934. Whether a separate publication
or not, he also published this in Revista da Universidad de Coimbra,
12 (1934). The journal
Garcia de Orta (sic) devoted an issue,
vol. 10, #4, (1963) to him. Luis de Pina, Os portugueses e a exploracao
cientifica do ultramar in Alta cultura colonial, (Lisbon,
Ortega, Juan de
1. Dates: Born: Madrid, before 1512; Died: probably Spain, after 1542 Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 0
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Madrid, Spain; Career: Italy and Spain; Death: probably Spain
4. Education: None Known; One source says he was educated in Paris, but his pattern of life makes this seem dubious to me.
5. Religion: Catholic. A Dominican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Tractado subtilisimo d'aritmetica y de geometria, (Barcelona, 1516), a work largely of practical mathematics, of interest because it gives values for square roots that seem to indicate some method. The work was translated into French and Italian, and edition in Spanish in 34, 37, and 42. Cursus quattuor mathematicarum artium liberalium, (Paris, 1516).
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He is reported to have taught arithmetic and geometry, privately and publicly in Spain and Italy. Clearly it was commercial arithmetic and geometry, not a university subject.
8. Patronage: None Known;
9. Technological Connections: Applied math
10. Scientific Societies:
Not Available and Not Consulted: J. Ray
Pastor, 'Los matematicos expañoles del siglo XVI,' Biblioteca
scientia, #2 (1926), 67. I gather that Rey Pastor has been a major
figure in insisting on the significance of Ortega's method of square roots.
G. Enestrom, Biblioteca Mathematica, s. III,
14 (1914), 175-6.
The fact is, there is precious little information about Ortega.
Ortelius [Ortels], Abraham
1. Dates: Born: Antwerp, 14 April 1527 (Bagrow says 4 April); Died: Anterp, 4 July 1598. (Bagrow and Denucé say 28 June, if it matters.); Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Merchant; Ortelius' grandfather was a very prosperous merchant who came to Antwerp from Augsburg as an agent of the Fuggers. Ortelius' father was also a merchant, who died when Ortelius was ten. Ortelius himself said that he grew up on slender means. Nevertheless, his grandfather, still alive in 1559, was clearly wealthy, and Ortelius himself was obviously in good circumstances by the age of forty. I put the circumstances down as affluent at least.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian Area; Career: Belgium Area; Death: Belgian Area;
4. Education: None Known; At the age of twenty, Ortelius entered into the guild of St. Luke in his native city as an illuminator of maps. Whether he had any schooling by a master artisan is unknown.
5. Religion: Catholic. When Ortelius was appointed royal cosmographer, Arias Montanus vouched for his orthodox faith which had been under suspicion.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography; Gog Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Ortelius was the principal cartographer of the sixteenth century with the exception of Mercator. The colonization and expanding commerce increased the demand for maps in the sixteenth century. His first product of mapmaking was an eight sheet map of the world printed in 1564. In the following six years he published maps of Egypt, Asia, and Spain. At the suggestion of Hooftman and his friend Rodermacher, Ortelius undertook the project of compiling a comprehensive atlas of the world, Theatrum orbis terrarum (1570). The unusual feature of this work was a list of 87 mapmakers forming a history of all the geographical research undertaken up to that point. The work was so popular that new editions and translations in Dutch, German, French, Spanish, Italian, and English were published from 1570-1624. Ortelius continued to re-edit and revise his work. The success of Theatrum won Ortelius the title of Cosmographer to the King, Philip II of Spain. In 1577 he travelled to England and Ireland making the acquaintance of Dee, Camden, Hakluyt, and other British geographers. Ortelius never devised new projections like Mercator; he was more an editor of maps. He obtained the rights to the existing maps, reduced them, and brought the contents up to date. He travelled widely in his profession, to Italy, France, and regularly to the Frankfurt fair. Later in life he spent time on classical studies and collected ancient coins and other antiquities. He also collected insects, plants, etc. in his museum.
7. Means of Support: Publishing; Artisan; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Merchant; At the age of twenty, Ortelius was an illluminator of maps; he was received as a merchant into the Guild of St. Luke. Bagrow speaks of him selling maps in a business that included his sister as a helper. He also did a business in antiquities. He worked for Plantijn as an engraver. In 1570 he became the Royal Cosmosgrapher of Philip II.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Between 1559-60 he travelled through Lorraine and Poitou with Mercator who encouraged him to become a cartographer and make his own maps. Mercator, and others like him, do not seem patrons to me. Ortelius was clearly a prosperous merchant, and his relations with peers such as Mercator do not have the flavor of patronage. At the suggestion of Gillis Hooftman (a merchant and collector of maps, and a patron of learning) and of his friend Rademacher, Ortelius undertook the compilation of a comprehensive atlas of the world. The relation with Hooftman does appear like patronage to me; he dwelt on a higher level. He was the Royal Cosmographer to the court of Philip II, from whom he received a substantial income allowing him to continue his collecting and travels. He dedicated his first world map (1564) to the 'noble and erudite' Marcus Lavrinus of Watervliet, and his second one to a physician, Scipio Fabius. Apparently he dedicated every map he published, and with so much other patronage I am not counting these dedications to peers. On the other hand, he dedicated a map of 1571 to Francesco Usodimaro, a patrician of Genoa. Through the assistance of Marcus Welser he came into possession of the famous Peutinger map, which was finally published in the year of Ortelius death dedicated to Welser. I do consider these dedications and relations as patronage. Ortelius owed his position as Royal Cosmographer to Arias Montanus, an official at the court, to whom he remained obliged and to whom he dedicated a map of Spain. Arias sent him expersive gifts. He dedicated the Theatrum to Philip II.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography;
10. Scientific Societies: From an early age Ortelius was in correspondence with many learned men, including Mercator and Lipsius. The correspondence survives and much of it has been published.
Not Available and Not Consulted: J.H. Hessels,
1. Dates: Born: Gunzenhausen, Bavaria, 19 December 1498; Died: Königsberg, 17 October 1552; Datecode: Lifespan: 54;
2. Father: Artisan; Andreas (sic) Osiander was a smith. It is stated that the father achieved the status of a member of the town council. On the other hand, Osiander attended school in Leipzig and Altenburg as a poor scholar who begged his bread from door to door. Although the evidence is ambiguous, I conclude that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German;
4. University: University of Ingolstadt; Osiander was admitted to the University of Ingolstadt, as an instructor of aristocratic youth, on 9 July 1515. He left without a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. Osiander was ordained a priest in 1520 and was appointed as priest of a church in Nürnberg in 1522. He enthusiastically accepted Lutheranism and became one of its leading spokesmen, not only in Nürnberg, but in Germany as a whole.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Astrology; Mathematics; Though a minister, Osiander took mathematical sciences as his hobby. He opposed the Copernican system if were taken, not merely as a better mathematical hypothesis, but as a true description of the universe. Nevertheless, as is well known, Rheticus, knowing his expertise, left Osiander in charge of the publication of De revolutionibus, and he inserted the famous preface denying that the book intended to propose more than a mathematical hypothesis. He corresponded with Cardano on astrology, to which he was sympathetic, and he oversaw the publication of one of Cardano's astrological works. He also edited Cardano's Ars magna for publication, and Cardano dedicated it to him. I just learned, by oral report, that in the late 16th century an oral tradition claimed him also as an alchemist. I will record the information, but I don't find it solid enough to put into the file. For all that, Osiander was primarily and overwhelmingly a theologian, though I find enough real science here-just enough, I might add-not to purge him from the list.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; Osiander was ordained in Nürnberg in 1520. For a time he supported himself by teaching Hebrew, which he had learned. In 1522 he was appointed pastor of a church in Nürnberg and quickly demonstrated his capacity. He became a leading voice in the Lutheran reformation in the city. In 1548 he was outraged by the Interim, the compromise temporary settlement of the religious wars which he considered too Catholic, and he left. He went to Königsberg where, in January 1549, the Duke of Prussia appointed him both to a position as pastor of one of the city's churches and as professor of theology at the newly founded university. In 1552 he was put in charge of the Prussian church.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; City Magistrate; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; It is hard to assess Osiander's position in regard to the magistrates of Nürnberg. However, they did control the positions in the city churches and must then have appointed him in the first place. In 1534, when he threatened to leave the city, the magistrates increased his salary significantly in order to retain him. He frequently represented the city's clergy at gatherings of Lutherans, such as meetings of the League of Schmalkald. However, about the mid 30's Osiander, who was a rigid man given to strong opinions which he did not express with moderation, began to offend the powers in the city and to drive them away. And with the Interim he broke with them entirely. In 1637 he dedicated a work to Archbishop Cranmer, whom he had met in Germany. In 1542-3 he- was sent, at the request of the Pfalzgraf, to Pfalz-Neuberg where he was the principal agent in introducing Lutheranism. Osiander's principal patron was Duke Albrecht of Prussia, who had spent a period in Nürnberg in 1523-4 and always thereafter regarded Osiander as his spiritual father. Osiander dedicated a book to him in 1544. When Osiander left Nürnberg, Duke Albrecht received him and appointed him both to a church in Königsberg and to a chair in the university. Osiander's style immediately fomented terrible theological divisions in Königsberg, but he retained the support of the Duke through the ferocious struggles until his sudden death in 1552, and after his death Duke Albrecht looked after Osiander's family.
9. Technological Connections: None Known.
10. Scientific Societies: Osiander corresponded with Cardano on astrology. He was acquainted with Rheticus and oversaw the publication of Copernicus' De revolutionibus.
Not Available and Not Consulted: H. Wilken,
Osianders Leben, Lehre und Schriften, (Stralsund, 1844).
Oughtred [Owtred], William
1. Dates: Born: Eton, Buckinghamshire, 5 March 1575; Died: Albury, near Guildford, Surrey, 30 June 1660; Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Church Living; Schoolmaster; The Rev. Benjamin Oughtred is said to have been a scribe\amanuensis who taught writing. In the accounts the teaching of writing seems to dominate, rather than employment as a scribe. That is, clear handwriting figures in Oughtred's life, and is traced back to his father's influence; I don't think the accounts were trying to describe the father's source of income. No one even talks about the fact he was 'the Rev.' Mr. Oughtred; I am assuming that this had meaning. His son did follow that calling. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A. King's Scholar at Eton. Cambridge University, King's College, 1592-1600; B.A., 1596; M.A., 1600.
5. Religion: Anglican; Oughtred was ordained in 1603 and spent his life as an Anglican clergyman. During the Civil War he was thoroughly royalist in outlook, and would have been sequestered except for influence brought to bear on his behalf.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Alchemy; Clavis mathematicae, 1631, on arithmetic and algebra, composed for instruction of his pupil, the son of the Earl of Arundel. Circles of Proportion and the Horizontal Instrument, 1632, describing the first slide rules and also sundials. Easy Way of Delineating Dials by Geometry, composed c. 1598, published only in the English Clavis in 1647. Trigonometrie, 1657; Josten is explicit in naming Oughtred an alchemist.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, 1595-1603. Vicar of Shalford, Surrey, 1604. Rector of Albury, Surrey, 1610-60. Income of ?100. Oughtred was a very active tutor of mathematics: 1620s-60. He himself asserts, and considerable other testimony confirms, that he refused to accept any money in return. Oughtred was a clergyman who was adequately supported in his own view. He does not appear to have aspired for more. Resided in the London house of the Earl of Arundel for some years in 1620s as tutor to the Earl's son.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; The Earl of Arundel strongly supported his study, and encouraged him to publish his work. Oughtred dedicated Clavis, composed for the Earl's son, to the Earl. Charles Cavendish is said to have requested the publication urgently; just what his relationship to Oughtred was otherwise is not mentioned. In 1646 Oughtred, a royalist, was about to be sequestered by the Puritan government. Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke and others exerted influence that allowed him to be spared. The Grand Duke of Florence invited him to Florence and offered him ?500 per annum in 1640s. I will not list this offer, which Oughtred declined; it is probably a myth in any case.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; He is generally regarded as the inventor of both the circular and the rectilinear slide rule. He invented a method of calculating logs, and he wrote a short tract on the solution of spherical triangles by the planisphere without the tedious labor of trigonometric calculations. Composed An Easy Way of Delineating Dials by Geometry about 1598. Shortly thereafter he composed a tract on drawing a dial on any plane surface however inclined (published with Circles of Proportion, 1632); in the tract he described an instrument, which he later called the horizontal instrument, a time-showing device and a limited model (on a plane) of the heavens, which allowed the position of the sun to be determined graphically and also made possible the delineation of a dial on any plane surface. He also wrote a small piece on watchmaking. Oughtred is said also to have practiced as a surveyor.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Pupils: Seth Ward, Jonas More, Charles Scarborough, John Wallis, Christopher Wren, Mr. Smethwyck, Mr. Austin, Thomas Henshawe, William Forster, Arthur Haughton, Robert Wood, William Gascoigne, and many others. Correspondence with Henry Briggs, Edmund Gunter, Robert Keylway, Dr. Lloyd, and some his (Oughtred's) pupils.
1. Dates: Born: Henllys, Pembrokeshire, Wales, c.1552; Died: Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, 26 August 1613; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Lawyer; Gentry; William Owen was a lawyer. He was from an old Welsh family, but it was William who pushed his way up into the ranks of the gentry. Adequately clear that he was prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; Owen studied law at the Inns of Court in London. He did not attend a university.
5. Religion: Anglican; Owen was strongly anti-Catholic. He was also non-Puritan, and his son was a royalist during the Civil War.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Gog; Owen was first of all an antiquarian, who collected information on genealogy, heraldry, historic governmental structures, and the like of Wales. With this went an interest in the topography of Pembrokeshire and of Wales, and associated with his study of topography were very insightful observations of geological structures, in effect strata, though he did not use that word, of limestone and coal. These observations have earned him a reputation as the ancestor of British geology, though the observations were not part of a conscious theory of geology. His manuscript 'Description of Pembrokeshire' was ultimately published in 1892. He also composed a 'Description of Wales' (as later ages have entitled it) and a 'Description of Milford Haven.'
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; His father set him up with a considerable estate when George Owen married. Later he inherited more, including the lordship of Cemais [Kemes], and he added to his estate fairly constantly. Vice admiral of the maritime counties of Pembroke and Cardigan, 1573. Commission of the Peace in Pembrokeshire. Deputy Lieutenant of Pembrokeshire, 1587-90, 1595-1601. Sheriff of Pembrokeshire, 1587 & 1602. I am not certain that Owen received compensation for these positions, but apparently there was some income from fees, fines, etc.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Owen must be seen as the client of the Earl of Pembroke, under whom he held the lordship of Cemais, and whose support he needed in constant struggles for position within the squirarchy of the county. In 1595 he produced a map of Milford Haven at the Earl's request, and at some point, probably later, a genealogical catalogue of the Earls of Pembroke.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Agriculture; Scientific Instruments; Military Engineer; His map of Pembrokeshire is considered a landmark in Welsh cartography. He also produced a map of Milford Haven, based on his own survey, and apparently a map of Wales (which does not survive). He was an improving landlord, much intent on improving agricultural practice. He wrote a treatise (not published) on marl as a fertilizer. He invented a new tool for cutting marl that (according to his account) increased efficiency fourfold. As Deputy Lieutenant, Owen was responsible for matters of defense, especially for the defenses of Milford Haven, on which he made a number of recommendations. He trained the county militia. These duties extended over some fifteen years. They are a very attenuated form of military engineering, but after some thought I have decided to list them.
10. Scientific Societies: He maintained relations and correspondence with other antiquarians.
1. Dates: Born: Bouligneux (principaltiy of Dombes), 1640; Died: Paris, c. 1717 (Nouvelle biographie générale says 3 April 1717; Index biographique says 1-6 April 1718.); Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 77.
2. Father: Gentry; His father was a rich landowner. The family was illustrious, having held many positions in the Parlements of the provinces. (This certainly sounds like what I call gentry.) Jacques was the youngest son; the law required that all the inheritance go to the eldest. Thus he was educated for the church.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French;
4. Education: None Known; He was educated for the clergy (no university is mentioned), but chemistry and mathematics interested him more than theology. Except for a tutor who may have helped him slightly, he taught himself mathematics. After the death of his father, he abandoned preparation for the clergy.
5. Religion: Catholic. Jew. He came from a Jewish family the had converted to Catholicism long before.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Cartography; Ozanam's contribution consisted of popular treatises and reference works on useful and practical mathematics, and an extremely popular work on Mathematical recreations, Recreations. In addition to many purely mathematical works, Ozanam wrote Méthod de lever les plans et les cartes de terre et de mer, Traité de la fortification régulière et irrégulière (1691), Méthod facile pour arpenter et mesurer toutes sortes de superficies (1699), La perspective théorique et practique (1711), La géographie et cosmographie qui traite de la sphere 1711).
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Position; He taught mathematics at Lyon, without charge until the state of his finances led him to take fees. (Nouvelle biographie générale puts it otherwise; it says that he was destitute when he started teaching in Lyon.); Later he taught mathematics in Paris, where the teaching brought him a substantial income. From 1701, when the War of the Spanish Succession forced many of his students to leave Paris, his income became small and uncertain, and he turned to the Académie, which he was able to enter. I don't get the impression that he was every very rich from teaching mathematics. Hutton says that teaching brought him 'a considerable income,' but Ozanam spent it prudently, which may have been the crucial factor. He married a woman of no means, who died in 1701.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; The sovereign princess of Dombes once called him 'l'honneur de sa Dombes.' Mere words don't count as patronage, however. According to Nouvelle biographie générale, Ozanam once loaned two strangers fifty pistoles, without a note of any kind, to enable them to get back to Paris. Their report of his kindness so impressed M. Daguesseau, the father of the chancellor, that he urged them to invite Ozanam to Paris with the promise of favor from him. Although it is not stated, perhaps this relation could explain his appointment to the Académie. He did one horoscope for a Count of the Empire.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Military Engineer; See above under disciplines
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); He was admitted as an élève in 1701, élève géometre in 1707, and associé mécanicien in 1711.
Not Consulted: Heinrich Zeitlinger, ed.,
chemico-mathematica, (London, 1921), 1, 171;
Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall