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Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
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La Brosse, Guy de

1. Dates: Born: Probably Paris, c. 1586; Died: Apparently Paris, 30 or 31 August 1641; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Physician; His father, Isaie de la Brosse, was a physician and a medical botanist. Indeed he was a royal physician. As always, I assume affluent. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. He studied chemistry, botany and medicine. Probably received his M.D. at Montpellier. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; (Cth,) Heterodox; Various evidence makes it clear that La Brosse's parents were Huguenots. Although formally Catholic, La Brosse was very close to libertine circles in Paris during the first half of the 17th century.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Medicine; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Iatrochemstry. His major book, De la nature, vertu et utilité des plantes (Paris, 1628), was a theoretical book about plants in general. In it he raised questions about the generation, growth, and nutrition of plants. He also published a monograph on the causes of the plague, Traicté de la peste (Paris, 1623), and several other works on medicine, on plants, and on the collection of plants in the Jardin du Roi. His titles make it clear that he regarded the Jardin du Roi as a collection of medicinally useful plants. The edict establishing it referred to it as a 'Jardin des Plantes Medicinales' for the instruction of students of medicine. From the beginning, La Brosse's idea of the Jardin included instruction in chemistry as a handmaiden to medicine, and he devoted part of his works to chemistry-Paracelsian chemistry.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; In his youth, he may have been a soldier. By 1614 he had settled in Paris and was botanizing on Mont Valerien. By 1619 he was physician to Henry II of Bourbon, Prince of Condé. In 1626 he had become one of the physicians in ordinary to Louis XIII. In 1626 he also appointed as intendant of the royal garden (the Jardin du Roi) upon its formation. (The Jardin did not in fact open until 1640.) In fact, La Brosse's involvement in the Jardin was far more than that. The Jardin was largely his creation. He lobbied for its establishment and then harassed Richelieu until he supplied enough funds to maintain it. In a word, La Brosse created the Jardin du Roi. La Brosse also practiced medicine, for the wealthy I gather.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; He was appointed physician in ordinary to the king in 1626. See above. In 1619 he was physician to the prince of Condé, Henry II de Bourbon. Hamy refers to Card. Richelieu as his great protector, and even implies that La Brosse converted to Catholicism to please Richelieu.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: As a Paracelsian, he was highly critical of the Paris medical faculty. He was familiar with Mersenne, Gassendi, and the members of the 'cabinet' of the brothers Dupuy. He was closely connected with libertine circles.

Nouvelle biographie générale, 7, 505-6. August Hirsch, Biographisches Lexicon der hervorragenden Arzte, (1929-1934), 1, 715. Antoine de Jussieu, Mémoires de l'Académie, 1727, pt. 2, 189-200.  Not in Dictionnaire de biographie française. Antoine L.J. Bayle and _____ Thillaye, Biographie médicale, (Glasgow, 1906), 1, 464-5. E.-T. Hamy, 'Famille de Guy de la Brosse,' Bulletin du Museum d'histoire naturelle, 6 (1900), 13-16. ----, 'Quelques notes sur la moet et la succession de Guy de la Brosse,' ibid., 3 (1897), 152-4. Jean-Paul Contant, L'enseignement de la chimie au Jardin Royale des Plantes de Paris, (Cahors, 1952).

Not Available and Not Consulted: N.F.J.Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la medecine, 4 vols., (Mons, 1778), 1, 456-7.

La Faille, Jean Charles de

1. Dates: Born: Antwerp, 1 March 1597; Died: Barcelona, 4 November 1652; Datecode: Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Aristocrat; His father was seigneur de Leverghem. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgium; Career: Belgium, Spain; Death: Spain.
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. He received his early schooling at the Jesuit College of Antwerp. In 1613 he became a novitiate of the Jesuit order at Malines for two years. Afterword he was sent to Antwerp where he was one of the disciples of Gregory of Saint Vincent. In 1620 he was sent to France to follow a course of theology at Dole. I assume the equivalent of a B.A. As an ordained Jesuit who had taken the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuit order in 1613.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; He owed his fame as a scholar to his tract, Theoremata de centro gravitatis partium circuli et ellipsis, published at Antwerp in 1632. In it the center of gravity of a sector of a circle was determined for the first time. Theses mechanicae, 1625.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; In 1613 he became a novitiate of the Jesuit order at Malines for two years. Afterward he was sent to Antwerp, and in 1620 to France to study and to teach mathematics at Dole. After his return to Belgium in 1626, he taught mathematics at the Jesuit College of Louvain for the next two years. In 1629 he was appointed (by the General of the Jesuits!) professor at the Imperial College in Madrid. In addition to the university he gave lessons in mathematics and in fortification to members of the nobility. In 1644 Philp IV appointed him preceptor to his bastard son, Don Juan of Austria. La Faille accompanied Don Juan on military expeditions to Catalonia, Sicily, and Naples. In 1638, Philip IV gave La Faille the title of Cosmographe du Conseil des Indes.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Philip IV appointed him preceptor to his son Don Juan of Austria, whom he accompanied on his expeditions to Naples, Sicily, and Catalonia. La Faille and Don Juan became quite close. La Faille dedicated his work on centers of gravity to Philip IV.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Philip IV consulted La Faille on questions of defense and of military engineering and later charged him with teaching military arts and engineering to pages in the court. He served as technical adviser to the Duke of Alba along the Portuguese frontier in 1641-4. He also accompanied Don Juan on military expeditions.
10. Scientific Societies: He corresponded with Michel van Langren.

H.P. van der Speeten, 'Le R.P. Jean Charles della Faille, de la Compagnie de Jesus, Precepteur de Don Juan d'Austriche,' Collection de Precis Historiques, 3 (1874), pp.77-83, 111-17, 132-42, 191-201, 213-19, and 241-6. Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891), 3, 529-30. Biographie nationale (Belgian), 6, 852-6. José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). 

Lagny, Thomas Fantet de

1. Dates: Born: Lyon, 7 November 1660; Died: France, 11 April 1734; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Government Position; Pierre Fantet was a royal official in Grenoble. Lagny's mother was the daughter of a physician. The 'de Lagny' in his name comes from a property he (the scientist) acquired. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Tou; He studied initially under a paternal uncle, then with the Jesuits in Lyon, and ultimately at the Faculty of Law in Toulouse for three years. There is no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; He is remembered for his contribution to computational mathematics. From 1687 to 1733 he published seven works. 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; In 1686 he was a tutor in the Noailles family at Paris. In 1695 he was named an associate of the Académie Royale des Sciences. In 1697 he was appointed professor of hydrography at Rochefort. (There are several Rocheforts in France. One is a port at the mouth of the Charente, a bit south of La Rochelle. Colbert created a shipyard there. Elsewhere I found a reference to an institute of hydrography there in the 18th century.) I surmise that this was a form of governmental employment. From 1716 to 1718 he was the deputy director of the Banque Générale. He became a pensionnaire of the Academy in 1719, and retired in 1733. He was librarian of the Bibliothéque du Roi, but I don't know the years.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; He was a tutor in the Noailles family. In 1716 his former pupil, the Marechal Duc de Noailles, president of the Conseil des Finances of the regency, called upon him to assume the deputy directorship of the Banque Générale. In addition to the Duc de Noailles, Fontenelle also mentions as Lagny's particular friends the Chancellor (whoever he was then) and the Duc d'Orleans. In one account the Abbé Bignon named him to the hydrography position. In NBG (apparently following Fontenelle) it was the Duc d'Orleans who named him. The two are not necessarily at odds; the abbé might have moved the duc to action. Lagny's nomination to the Académie in the late 90's certainly implies that he had the Abbé Bignon's favor. (I list Bignon as a governmental official.)
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; He is known for his contributions to computational mathematics. I am not sure about that position in hydrography, but we found no references to active involvement in this field (cartography).
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1695-1734, Royal Society (London); The Index biographique de l'académie lists the steps of his membership. 1696, académicien géomètre, académicien externe. 1699, associé géomètre, premier titulaire. 1699, associé mécanicien (replacing Sauveur); 1719, pensionnaire surnuméraire; 1723, pensionnaire géomètre (replacing Varignon); 1724, sous-directeur; 1725, directeur; 1733, pensionnaire vétéran

B. de Fontenelle, 'Éloge de M. de Lagny,' in Histoire de l'Académie...pour 1734, (Amsterdam, 1738), pp. 146-55. Index biographique de l'Académie des sciences, p. 320. Nouvelle biographie générale, 28, 825-6.

Not Consulted: Jean-Baptiste Duhamel, Regiae scientiarum academiae historia, (Paris, 1698), pp. 430-2. Microprint Q111.L2 no. D202 There is something wrong with this reference; there is no page 430 in this work.

La Hire, Gabriel-Philippe de [Philippe II]

1. Dates: Born: Paris, 25 July 1677; Died: Paris, 4 June 1719; Datecode: Lifespan: 42 
2. Father: Scientist; Government Position; He was the son of the astronomer Philippe de La Hire and his first wife Catherine Lesage. His grandfather was Laurent de La Hire, 'peintre ordinaire du roi' and professor of painting and sculpture at the Académie Royale. His half brother studied medicine and became a member of the Académie as a botanist in 1709. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France; 
4. Education: None Known; Gabriel-Philippe was educated at the Paris observatory where he lived after 1682. He was initiated from childhood into astronomy and the techniques of meteorological and astronomical observations. At first he was destined to become a doctor and studied medicine under Duverney. His great interest in mathematics took him down the same path as his father. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Eng; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Mtr; He assisted his father in his regular observations at the Paris Observatory. His first solo work was the establishment of the Ephemerides for 1701, 1702, and 1703. This work involved de La Hire in a painful dispute with Jean Le Fevre, 'astronome pensionnaire' and editor of Connaissance des temps. Le Fevre accused both father and son of plagiarism and incompetence. The result of the controversy left Le Fevre with the loss of his editorship, severely censured, and expelled from the Académie. In 1702 La Hire published a new edition of Mathurin Jousse's Le theatre de l'art de charpentrie. The following year he presented several short memoires to the Académie on subjects ranging from observational and physical astronomy to applied science and medicine. After his nomination to the second class of architects of the Académie of Architecture (1706), de La Hire began to consider several technical and architectural problems. In 1707 he wrote a memoire on the organ of sight in which he established that the aqueous humor filled the same function as the vitreous humor. In 1718 he participated in the geodesic operations carried out under the direction of Jacques Cassini to extend the meridian of Paris from Amiens to Dunkerque. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; From the year 1694 La Hire was appointed to various positions within the Académie. Note that there were two different Académies involved: the Académie des Sciences, and the Académie of Architecture.
8. Patronage: Unknown; With his father already there, La Hire had an in. Nevertheless someone had to appoint him to the Académie. 
9. Technological Connections: Architecture; Cartography; Scientific Instruments; Mechanical Devices; He invented a device to detach a carriage from the horses when they got out of hand.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1694-1719; 1694, appointed élève astronome; 1699, appointed associé; 1706, appointed to second class in the Royal Academy of Architects. 1718, succeeded his father as pensionnaire in the Académie des sciences. 1718, succeeded his father as professor of architecture (Académie of Architecture). 

Michaud, Biographie générale, 23. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, 28. A. Jal, Dictionnaire critique de biographie et d'histoire, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1872), pp. 730-1. I am unable to find any éloge in the histories of the Académie. In all there is an extreme lack of information about La Hire. I can hardly believe that there is so little on the two LaHires.

La Hire, Philippe de [Philippe I]

1. Dates: Born: Paris, 18 March 1640; Died: Paris, 21 April 1718; Datecode: Lifespan: 78 
2. Family Financial Circumstance: Government Position; He was the eldest son of Laurent de La Hire, peintre ordinaire du roi, and founder and professor at the Académie Royale de Peinture and Sculpture. La Hire's father was also one of the first disciples of Desargues. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France; 
4. Education: None Known; He was educated among artists and technicians. At an early age he became interested in perspective, practical mechanics, drawing and painting. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Mechanics. Subordinate Disciplines: Zoology; Physiology; Mtr; After his father's death he spent four years in Venice where he developed his artistic talent and studied classical geometry. Upon his return to France he was active primarily as an artist. He formed a friendship with Abraham Bosse, Desargues last disciple, who asked La Hire to solve a problem in stonecutting. In 1673 La Hire published Nouvelle methode en géometriepour les sections des superficies coniques et cylindriques from his research in constructing conic sections. Twelve years later he published a much more extensive work, Sectiones conicae, through which Desargues' projective geometry became known. La Hire published three works in one volume which, though not original, provided an exposition of the properties of conic sections and the progress of analytic geometry during the half century. After his nomination to the Académie La Hire became active as an astronomer. He produced tables of the movements of the sun, moon, and the planets. He studied the instrumental techniques and particular problems of observation. From 1679-1682 he made several observations and measurements (occasionally with Picard) of different points along the French coastline. He continued his involvment in the mapping project of France (1683) by extending the meridian of Paris to the north. In 1683 he participated in the experiment of falling bodies with Mariotte. The following two years he directed the surveying operations to provide water to Versailles. He devoted several works to the methods and instruments of surveying, land measuring, and gnomics. La Hire's work also extended to descriptive zoology, the study of respiration, and physiological optics. During his many travels he made observations in natural science, meteorology, and physics. At the Paris observatory he conducted experiments in terrestrial magnetism, pluviometry, thermometry, and barometry. In 1695 he published Traité de mécanique, an important work in the development of modern manuals of manuals. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Academic; In 1683 La Hire received the chair of mathematics at the Collège Royale. He gave courses in astronomy, mechanics, hydrostatics, dioptrics, and navigation. He became professor of architecture at the Académie Royale (of Architecture) in 1687. For the next thirty years he gave lectures on the theory of architecture. Throughout his tenure at the Académie des sciences he made several trips for the mapping project of France in addition to his work at the Paris observatory. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; He enjoyed the patronage of Colbert and Louvois in his position at the Académie. Through his position at the Académie he enjoyed the patronage of the court. He made two planispheres which the king had placed in the pavillons de Marly. 
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Cartography; Scientific Instruments; Hydraulics; Navigation; Architecture; Mechanical Devices; He developed a leveling instrument for use in surveying. At the Collège La Hire lectured on navigation, inter alia. He suggested the epicycloidal profile for gear teeth.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1678-1718; He was nominated astronome pensionnaire in 1678. He participated in several projects of the Académie. He even edited various writings of his colleagues, Picard, Mariotte, Roberval, and Frenicle.

Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, 28. Michaud, Biographie générale, 23. Fontenelle, Oeuvres Complètes de Fontenelle, (Paris, 1818), 1, 257-266. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 132. A. Jal, Dictionnaire critique de biographie et d'histoire, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1872), pp. 730-1. L.A. Sédillot, 'Les professeurs de mathématiques et de physique générale au Collège de France,' Bollettino de bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 2 (1869), 343-510, especially 498. René Taton, 'La première oeuvre géométrique de Philippe de la Hire,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 6 (1953), 93-111. H. Wieleitner, Über die 'Plani-Coniques' von de la Hire,' Archiv für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 5 (1913), 49-55. Nothing biographical in this article. Christian Sandler, Die Reformation der Kartographie un 1700, (München and Berlin, 1905). M. Daumas, ed. Histoire générale des techniques, 2 (Paris, 1964), 285-6, 540-1.
This extensive bibliography is misleading. It records my effort to find something about him beyond the small budget of information in Fontenelle's éloge, which is apparently the source of every biographical treatment of La Hire. There is an extraordinary dearth of material on this important man.

Lalouvere [Lalouère, La Loubère, Lalovera], Antoine de

1. Dates: Born: Rieux (Languedoc), 24 August 1600; Died: Toulouse, 2 September 1664; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Aristocrat; The family was presumably noble with a chateaux near Rieux in what is now Haute Garonne. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. As an ordained Jesuit who had taken the fourth vow, he would have had a full education within the order, including a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuit order in 1620.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His chief book is the Quadrature circuli, published in 1651. In 1658 he was drawn into the dispute with Pascal on cycloids for which his name is best known.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; He was professor of humanities, rhetoric, Hebrew, theology, and mathematics in the Jesuit college at Toulouse.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He dedicated his book on the quadrature of the circle to Louis XIV.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and correspondence with Fermat. Close relationship with Pardies and Willis. The dispute with Pascal on cycloids in 1658.

Henry Bosmans' article in Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 3 (1950), 619-56. Pierre Costabel's article in Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leurs applications, 15 (1962), 321-50, 367-9. Nouvelle biographie générale, 29, 30-2. P. Tannery, 'Pascal et Lalouvere,' in Mémoires scientifiques, 6, 79-114, 269-79.

Lamy, Bernard

1. Dates: Born: Le Mans, June 1640; Died: Rouen, 29 January 1715; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Gentry; Alain Lamy is described by one source as of the 'bourgeoisie.' However, Alain was 'Sieur de La Fontaine.' Girbal says they had a modest revenue. I take all this to mean minor nobility, or what I call gentry. The modest revenue sounds like affluence to me. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Saumur; He studied at the Oratorian college in Le Mans. He entered the Maison d'Institution in Paris in 1658, and studied philosophy at the college of Saumur for two years (1659-61). This is most peculiar since the only institution I know about in Saumur was Huguenot. I do not see any mention of a degree. 1662, officially admitted into the congregation of the Oratory. 1669-71, he studied theology at Notre Dame des Ardilliers in Saumur. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuit order in 1658, and was ordained a priest in 1667. (I do not see how to reconcile this with his admission into the Oratoire. Lamy was not a Jesuit according to Harris. However, he was in a Catholic order in any case.)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics. His principal scientific works are Traité de méchanique (Paris, 1679), Traité de la grandeur en general (Paris, 1680), Les élémens de géometrie (Paris, 1685), and Traité de perspective (1701).
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1661-1663, professor of classics at Vendome. 1663-1668, professor of classics at Juilly. Both of these were Jesuit colleges. (Again this information causes me problems.); 1668-69, pensionary prefect at the college of Saint-Ouen, which I believe was also a Jesuit college. 1671-1673, professor of philosophy at the College of Saumur. 1673-1676, professor of philosophy at th College of Angers (the faculty of arts at the University of Angers). In 1676, he was censured for teaching Cartesian philosophy despite an interdict, and he was exiled by the order of the king. At first he lived in 'solitude' at Saint-Martin de Misere, but when an order of the council ended the exile, he moved into the seminary in Grenoble, where he taught again (1680-84). In 1686 he was part of a mission to the new converts around Grnoble. In 1686 he obtained permission to live in Paris; he was in Saint-Magloire, mostly writing. But later (1689) he was sent away again. Beginning in 1690 he lived in Rouen, where he remained until his death, occupied with studies. No explicit means of support is mentioned for this period. However, he wrote a large number of books at this time; perhaps he had income from them.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; After he was exiled in 1676, he soon obtained Bishop Le Camus' support, and moved into the seminary in Grenoble. In 1677, Guillaume Quesnel, brother of Pasquier Quesnel, a correspondent of Lamy, became superior of the seminary at Grenoble. Pasquier Quesnel probably worked for Lamy's rehabilitation.
9. Technological Connections: None 
10. Scientific Societies: He was a friend of Malebranche, probably from the time when they were students together. 

Francois Girbal, Bernard Lamy. Etude biographique et bibliographique, (Paris, 1964).
Nouvelle biographie générale, 29, 294-8. There is no entry for him in Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891); Pierre Costabel, 'Varignon, Lamy et le parallelogramme des forces,' Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, no.74-75 (January-June, 1966), pp.103-124. 

Lamy, Guillaume

1. Dates: Born: Coutance, Normany. He may possibly have been born about 1634, but the date is not well supported. He published his last work in 1682 Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A., M.D. He studied madicine at Paris, and received his M.D. in 1672 from the Faculty of Medicine at Paris. He probably had studied philosophy at the University of Paris and had defended a theses in philosophy before 1668. He had the title of Master of Arts.
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed), Heterodox; Bayle, who was not picky, considered him an extreme epciurean. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Embryology; His philosophical works include De principiis rerum (1669) and Expication mécanique et physique des fonctions de l'ame sensitive ( 1677). In 1667 he published two letters in which he denounced the blood transfusion. Between 1675 and 1682 he published three important works, of which the best known is Discours anatomiques (Paris, 1675 and 1685, Brussels, 1679). He was a passionate mechanist, more a Gassendist than a Cartesian. His views on generation in terms of two seminal fluids, expressions of early mechanical philosophy and opposed to the discoveries of eggs and ovaries in his own age, were influential later when problems with ovism developed in the 18th century.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; His signature 'Maistre aux Arts' in a work published in 1668 indicates that he had the right to teach the humanities. His name is included in the list of the honorandorum magistrorum nostrorum signed by the dean of the Faculty of Medine of Paris in 1676. Revelle-Parise says that he was a distinguished professor. Both Revelle-Parise and NBG assert that he practiced medicine-Revelle-Parise says that he did so with distinction.
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies:

Joseph Henri Revelle-Parise, 'Etude biographique: Guillaume Lamy,' Gazette medicale de Paris, 3rd ser., 6 (1851), pp.497-502. Jacques Roger, Les sciences de la vie dans la pensée francaise du XVIII siècle, (Paris, 1963), passim. Nouvelle biographie générale, 29, 293-4.

Not Available and Not Consulted: H. Busson, La religion des classiques, (Paris, 1948), pp. 147-64. As will appear from the sketch above, not much is known about Lamy the man, other than the books that he published.

Lancisi, Giovanni Maria

1. Dates: Born: Rome, 26 October 1654; Died: Rome, 20 January 1720; Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Unknown; Of Bartolomeo Lancisi DSB says only that G.M. Lancisi was from a wealthy bourgeois family, without specifying more. The mother died in the childbirth, and Lancisi was reared initially in Orvieto by an aunt who was a nun. When the nun died, Lancisi returned to the father's home in Rome. In contrast to DSB, Capparoni speaks of a modest fortune, and Bacchini implies that it was very modest. However, Bacchini writes an heroic life and wants to show Lancisi overcoming great obstacles, and he does mention that Lancisi inherited two houses from his mother. I will compromise and say the circumstances were affluent. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Col; University of Sapienza (Rome); M.D. Following preparatory studies, he took courses in philosophy at the Collegio Romano, but soon he abandoned theology and entered the Sapienza to study medicine. He obtained his M.D. in 1672 when he was still a month shy of 18. He continued to study medicine independently. I assume the equivalent of a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Physiology; Anatomy; Having examined the causes of sudden deaths, in 1706 he published De motu cordis mortibus, in which he dealt with the problems of cardiac pathology. He extended his study of the subject in his second book, De motu cordis et aneuysmatibus, published in 1728. He also did important epidemiology studies on malaria, influenza and cattle plague. And he carried out extensive anatomical and physiological studies. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; He practiced medicine from 1672-6. In 1676 he was appointed doctor at the Hospital of Santo Spirito. In 1678 he was nominated to membership in the College del Salvatore (which Bacchini calls the Collegio Piceno), where Lancisi spent five years in quiet study. In 1684 he was appointed professor of anatomy at the Sapienza, where he taught for 13 years. In 1688 he was made pontifical doctor to Innocent XI. He kept the post, not always officially, under succeeding popes, and he was appointed a canon of the church of St. Lorenzo. Clement XI appointed Lancisi Protomedico of the Papal state. It is clear from Lancisi's will that he really prospered.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Lancisi himself considered that his master, Giovanni Tiracorda, was the man who had most promoted his career. In 1688 Pope Innocent XI made him pontifical doctor. He filled the post under succeeding popes. He was successful in persuading Pope Clement XI to acquire Eustachi's anatomical tables and Mercati's Metallotheca. In return for curing the Pope of a renal calculus, Lancisi was named canon of the church of St. Lorenzo. Clement conferred Roman nobility on Lancisi. About 1689 Cardinal Altieri named Lancisi his vice-regent in conferring degrees at the Sapienza, and upon the death of Altieri Card. Spinola confirmed the appointment. This is described as a highly coveted position. Lancisi was consulted by the highest families in Rome and by the ambassador of the Emperor.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); In 1678 Lancisi was inscribed in the Congresso medico-romano that met with Brasavola. He was admitted to the Medical College of Rome in 1689. In 1691 inscribed in the Arcadia. In 1715 Lancisi organized an academy, which included professor and physicians from all of the medical institutions in Rome, devoted to pathological anatomy. (See Olagüe de University of Rostock; p. 292.); Lancisi left an extensive correspondence, some of which has been published (see Bacchini).

A.Bacchini, La vita e le opere di Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), (Rome, 1920. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 67-9. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 94, and 27 (1901), 61. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnaire historique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 385-8. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. L.Stroppiana, 'Giovanni Maria Lancisi,' Scientia medica italica, 8 (1959), 5-13. Guillermo Olagüe de University of Rostock; 'La Relazione de' Male di Petto de Domenico Gagliardi (Ca.1660 - Ca.1735) en el ambiente anatomoclinico romano,' Dynamis, 3 (1983), 288-302. Enrico Benassi, 'Carteggi inediti fra il Lancisi, il Pacchioni ed il Morgagni,' Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 23 (1932), 145-169.

Not Available and Not Consulted: 'G.M.Lancisi e lo studio degli organi di senso,' Giornale di medicina militare, 68, no.9 (1920). A. Corradi, Lettere di Lancisi a Morgagni e parecchie altre dello stesso Morgagni, ora per la prima volta pubblicate, (Pavia, 1876). 

Lang, Karl Nikolaus

1. Dates: Born: Lucerne, 18 February 1670; Died: Lucerne, 2 May 1741 Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Unknown; Church Living; His father was Johann Jacob Lang (b. 1643; occupation unknown), but he was reared for the first few years of his life by his uncle, the theologian Nikolaus Lang (1640-93), minister at Ettiswil and then at Willislau. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Italy; France; Swiss; Swiss; Birth: Lucerne, Switzerland. Career: Italy, France, Lucerne, Switzerland. Death: Lucerne, Switzerland.
4. Education: University of Friburg; Luc, University of Bologna; University of Sapienza (Rome); M.D. 1680-86, Jesuit gymnasium in Lucerne. 1686-7, University of Freibourg (Friburg?). B.A. 1687. 1688, listed at the University of Lucerne under students of metaphysics. He then studied medicine in Bologna and Rome, where he received an M.D. in 1692. 1692, studied speculative theology (and probably practical medicine) at the University at Fribourg en Brisgau.
5. Religion: I assume Catholic from his education.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Paleontology; Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; 1692, after receiving his medical degree, he practiced in Roman hospitals while continuing to study anatomy, surgery, botany, and chemistry. After 1694, but before 1698, he practiced medicine similarly in Paris for a time. In 1698, he returned to Lucerne, where he was chosen as physician to the Buerklinsche Regiment of the Vier-Waldstaette (1698). In 1699, he was named physikus ordinarius for Waldshut. And in 1701, he was appointed by the Abbot Augustin as the physician for the cloister of St. Blasius (in the Black Forest). He received honoraria for all of these positions, and it appears that he occupied them simultaneously. 1709, he he was elected physikus ordeinarius for Lucerne. It is not clear that he received support for this position.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Medicine; Magistrate; His primary patron was Franziskus Honorius, Count of Trautmannsdorf and extraordinary ambassador in Baden. Lang treated him early in his career, and Trautmannsdorf sent him specimens for his collection from Baden, among other favors. Other patient/patrons include Count Arconatus, who called Lang to Milan to attend to his illenss, and Margrave Viscontius. Franz Bossinger, the Emperor's personal physician, and Puis Nicolaus Garellus, personal physician to Archduke Karl, arranged Lang's appointment as personal physician to Archduchess Marie Anna, later Queen of Portugal. The city council of Lucerne (I assume this means the Canons) appointed him Grossrat (great councillor), and named him prefect of Knutwil. The Tractatus de origine lapidum figuratorum in quo diffuse dissenteur . . . (1709) is dedicated to the Prussian Academy, though I do not know whether this was before or after his membership.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; In addition to practicing medicine for his entire career, he was called upon by certain organizations to prepare reports on water quality. In 1720, with Mauriz Kappeler, he was appointed to investigate the springs at Schachenwald, Hackenrain, and Doggeli-Loecher. This report still exists. In addition, he was commissioned by the government of Uri to investigate Gades Unterschaechen and the privately owned spring at Suessberg.
10. Scientific Societies: Lp, Berlin Academy; Instit. Bologna; John Woodward sucessfully opposed his membership in the Royal Society. 1703, member of the Academia Physico-Criticorum, Siena. 1705, member of the Academia Caesareo-Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum. Member of the Prussian Academy. Member of the Academia Scientiarum, Bologna. Connections: He was a good friend of the French botanist Joseph Pitton.

Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 29, 381-2. Hans Bachmann, 'Karl Nikolaus Lang, Dr. Phil. et Med. 1670-1741,' Geschichtsfreund, 51 (1896), 167-280. Note: Patsy A. Gerstner's article in the D.S.B. contains almost no biographical details at all. 

Langren, Michael Florent van

1. Dates: Born: Probably Amsterdam but possibly Mechlin or Antwerp, ca. 1600; Died: Brussels, May 1675; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 75; 
2. Father: Eng; Arnold van Langren, the Archducal 'spherographer.' Whatever that word means, he was something of an astronomer, cartographer, and geographer-in a word, a scientist, or (as I find) better, engineer. The father received a good income from his position-affluent appears to be the proper word.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Belgium Area; Death: Belgium Area; 
4. Education: None Known; He did not attend a university; probably he did not even attend a Latin school.
5. Religion: Catholic. The family moved south from the United Provinces because of religion.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Hydraulics; Engineering. Subordinate Disciplines: Cartography; Navigation; His principal endeavor in astronomy was his effort to determine longitude via the moon. This led him to prepare the first lunar map, and ultimately maps of the full moon and of thirty phases. He also observed the comet of 1652, and published his observations. He was an active cartographer, preparing maps of various areas in the Spanish Netherlands. He was most active as an engineer. He prepared plans for a port near Dunkirk and for improvement of the port of Ostend. He developed a plan to clean the canals of Antwerp, and he devoted extensive effort to means of protecting Brussels from flooding. He also planned canals linking Brussels with other parts of the Spanish Netherlands. He was also a military engineer, who worked on the fortifications of Brussels, and who devised a three barrel cannon. I need to add that nearly all of the plans met opposition and almost none were put into effect.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Langren was the Royal Cosmographer and Mathematician (to the King of Spain). He received a pension of 1,200 écus, which was apparently a considerable sum. He received continuous separate payments for individual projects. Since his whole career was one prolonged frustration as plan after plan was blocked by opposition, it appears to me that one should treat these payments more as patronage than as reimbursement for services.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Beyond the fundamental relationship with the court, note that first the Archduchess Isabelle and then King Charles IV of Spain encouraged and supported his work on the moon. His; lunar map was dedicated to the Archduke Leopold. His plan for the Fossa Eugeniana, specifically named for the Infanta Isabelle Claire Eurgenie, netted a reward of 150 livres. Langren's lunar map was an explicit exhibit of the mores of patronage, with the names of prominent figures attached to lunar features. The Infanta Isabelle Claire Eugenie appeared in it three times-a mountain Eugeniae (in a Mare Belgicum), a Mare Eugenianum, and a mountain Isabellae (in the Mare Eugenianum). Innocent X and Louis XIV are there also, along with many others. There was a major mountain name Philippi. See Bosman's article and Moreau's volume of letters. Langren was very close to the humanist Eryicius Puteanus, who was also a political figure in the court. Puteanus was about a generation his senior, and I see no way to avoid the conclusion that the relation was one of patronage. Note that Putenus also had features of the moon named for him and his family. He dedicated one of his maps to the Archbishop of Malines.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Hydraulics; Civil Engineer; Military Engineer; Cartography; As an astronomer, Langren's primary goal was to develop of method to determine longitude at sea. His method intended to use the illumination and eclipse (i.e., darkening) of lunar mountains, frequent phenomena like the moons of Jupiter, that could be observed from all points of the earth. Langren was primarily an engineer, as the activities above indicate. I am interested in the large number of engineers mentioned in the literature about him; society by that time was crawling with engineers apparently qualified to deal with hydraulic problems and fortifications. And note that he was tahe grandson, son, and brother of engineers.
10. Scientific Societies: Apparently he carried on a considerable correspondence with Boulliau. In the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in Brussels (#19237-8) there is a collection of 233 folios of letters to Langren (though not his replies)-more than half of them the letters of Puteanus published by Moreau.

Biographie nationale, 11, 275-91. Nationaal biografisch woordenboek, 12. G. des Marez, 'Notice sur les documents relatifs à Michel-Florent van Langren . . .' Revue des bibliotheques et archives de Belgique, 1 (1903), 371-8 and 2 (1904), 23-31. Erycius Puteanus, Hondred viertien nederlandse briefen aan . . . Langren, with intro. by J. J. Moreau, (Aantwerp, 1957). H. Bosmans, 'Le carte lunaire de van Langren,' Revue des questions scientifiques, 54 (1903), 108-39.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: J. Keuning, 'The Van Langren Family,' Imago mundi, 13 (1956), 101-9. D. Bierens de Haan, 'Constantijn Huygens . . . Michael Florent van Langren . . .' Verhandlingen der K. akademie van Wetenschappen, ser. 1, 2. no. 1 (1893).

Lansberge, Philip van [Lansbergen, Philips]

1. Dates: Born: Ghent, 25 August 1561; Died: Middleburg, 8 December 1632; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Aristocrat; Daniel van Lansberge, lord of Meulebeke-that is, an aristocrat. He died when Lansberge was quite young. I saw no direct reference to the family's financial status. However, the father did have enough money to uproot the family, for religious reasons, and to take them first to France and then to England. On the other hand, at a rather young age and without a degree, Lansberge was accepting employment as a minister back in Flanders.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgium Area; Career: Belgian Area; Dutch; Death: Dutch; His family left the Spanish Netherlands in 1566 for religious reasons, going first to France and then to England where Lansberge was educated. Lansberge returned to Flanders in 1579 to be a minister to a Protestant congregation. In 1580 he accepted a church in Antwerp. When Spain conquered Antwerp in 1585, Lansberge moved to the Netherlands for good.
4. Education: University of Leiden; Without mention of an institution, the sources say that Lansberge studied mathematics and theology in England. He left England at the age of 17. After the move to the Netherlands, he enrolled in Leiden in theology in 1585, but already in 1586 he accepted a church in Goes. There is no mention of a degree. 
5. Religion: Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; He published on the geometry of triangles, including spherical triangles in 1583-i.e, on trigonometry-apparently an important work. Another work offered a new method to calculate the value of pi, which he computed to 28 places. Lansberge was a Copernican who published defenses of Copernicanism already in 1619, and again in 1629. He did not accept Kepler's ellipses, and he published astronomical tables intended to rival the Rudolphine Tables.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Medical Practioner; Lansberge was a minister to the Protestant church in Antwerp, 1580-85, and to another in Goes, 1586-1613, a call he left because of political difficulties with a faction in the city. He lived in Middleburg from 1613 until his death in 1632, partly on a pension from the States of Zeeland, granted at the time of the difficulties in Goes. He also practiced medicine. Bosmans and Biographie nationale state that he practiced especially in Middleburg.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Patronage of Government Official; Lansberge dedicated his 1629 book on the Copernican system to the printer Blaeu. He dedicated another book (I think of about 1630) to the States of Zeeland, a response to the pension he received. And I find that earlier he had dedicated a collection of sermons to the States of Zeeland.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. H. Bosmans, 'Philippe van Lansberge, de Gand, 1561-1632,' Mathésis: recueil mathématique, 42 (1928), 5-10. Biographisch woodenboek der nederlanden (A.J. Van der Aa), 8, 48-9. Biographie nationale, 11, 333-42.

La Roche, Estienne de [Villefranche]

1. Dates: Born: Lyon, c. 1480; Died: fl. Lyon, c. 1520; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: Unknown; It is known only that his family owned a house in Lyon on Rue Neuve and some property situated above Villefranche. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; He may have been a pupil of Nicolas Chuquet. There is no evidence that he attended a university or that Chuquet taught at any university. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His fame rests solely on his Larismetique published in 1520. This work introduced into France the Italian knowledge of arithmetic and useful notions of powers and roots. In 1880 Aristide Marre published Chuquet's Triparty which only existed in manuscript form and suddenly La Roche was a plagiarist. Recent scholarship, though agreeing that parts of the Triparty were blatantly copied and other parts suppressed or curtailed in La Roche's Larismetique, has emphasized the audience that La Roche was trying to reach with his work. At worst La Roche can be accused of patching together the works of three authors, Luca Pacioli, Philippe Frescobaldi (a banker in Lyon), and Nicolas Chuquet, whose works were inaccessible to the average French merchant. La Roche simply made their information available to a previously neglected audience. 
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He taught arithmetic for twenty-five years in the commercial center of Lyon. He was called the 'master of ciphers.' 
8. Patronage: None Known; He apparently possessed the manuscripts of both Chuquet and Frescobaldi, but I see no reason, without more information, to chalk this up as patronage. 
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics. 
10. Scientific Societies:

Graham Flegg, Cynthia Hay, and Barbara Moss, (eds.), Nicolas Chuquet, Renaissance Mathematician, (Dordrecht, 1985). QA32 .F57 1985; Cynthia Hay, (ed.), Mathematics from Manuscript to Print 1300-1600, (Oxford, 1988). There is not a great deal of information about La Roche.

Laurens (Laurentius), André Du

1. Dates: Born: Tarascon, 9 December 1558; Died: Probably Paris, 16 August 1609; Datecode: Lifespan: 51
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Louis Du Laurens, was a physician who died (1574) when André was young. His maternal uncle was an important royal physician. It appears to me that the family had to have been affluent at the very least. The widow was left with eleven children in 1574. She was able to educate all of the boys, so that five of them became very prominent. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Avi, University of Montpellier; M.D. After taking the M.D. at Avignon in 1578, he went to Paris to study under Louis Duret. (DBF questions the study in Paris, and since no one is very positive about it, I am not going to list it.) In 1583 he took another M.D. at Montpellier in order to qualify for a chair there. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Unknown; I have not seen it mentioned. Considering the time when he became the physician to Henri IV and the part of France he was from, it is far from evident that Laurens was a Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medical Practioner; Much of his work was incorporated into the Historia anatomica (1600), one of the most widely used antomical textbboks of the first half of the 17th century. He also published other medical works, of which the most popular one, Discours de la conservation de la vue, (which was not confined to problems of sight and the eyes) went through more than 20 editions in several languages. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Medical Practioner; He occuppied the chair of medicine at Montpellier in 1686, after receiving a degree there to make him eligible. After lecturing about ten years, he left without relinquishing his chair to serve as personal physician to the Duchess of Uzes. The Duchess introduced him at the French court, where he was soon named one of the physicians of Henry IV. In 1596 (or perhaps 1600) he became a royal physician in ordinary and in 1600 (or perhaps 1603) was designated first physician to Henry's new queen, Marie de' Medici. In 1603 he became chancellor of the University of Montpellier (he continued to reside at court). In 1606 he became first physician to the king.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; He became personal physician to the Duchess of Uzes about 1593. She introduced him at the French court. Laurens' book on the preservation of sight was written at her command (she had severe problems with her eyes, as well as the other ailments, including old age, discussed in it) and was dedicated to her. From 1690s until his death he was successively royal physician in ordinary, first physician to the queen, and first physician to the king. The king bestowed the abbey of Sénanque on Laurens, He passed it on to his brother, Honore Du Laurens, Archbishop of Embrun.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies

Dictionnaire de biographie française, 12, 67. P. Dunn, 'A Sixteenth-Century Oculist,' Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 9 pt. II (1915-16), Section of the History of Medicine, pp. 120-42.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Edouard Turner, 'Bibliographie d'André Du Laurens...,' Gazette hebdomadaire de médecine et chirurgie, 2nd ser., 17 (1880), 329-41, 381-90, 413-35. Edouard Turner, Etudies historiques, (Paris, 1876-1885), pp. 209-243. (This reference needs a volume number to be useful.) 

Lavanha, Joao Baptista

1. Dates: Born: Lisbon, c. 1550. Some give 1555, but the only base for that date is the death of his father then. Died: Madrid, 31 March 1624; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Unknown; No information, though it is said that the family was of elevated position. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portugues; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish; Note that the family were converted Jews.
4. Education: None Known; It is reported that the King of Portugal sent him to Rome to complete his education, though there is no good evidence for the story. No mention of a university or a degree
5. Religion: Catholic, Jew
6. Scientific Disciplines: Navigation; Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Geography; Mathematics. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; 1582: Soon after Spain absorbed Portugal, Philip II, concerned that navigation was not sufficiently cultivated in Spain, established the Academy of Mathematics, and appointed Lavanha as the first professor, with a salary of 400 ducats. Lavanha was mathematical tutor to the prince. Lavanha dedicated a translation of Euclid to Philip in 1584. Later he presented the King with the manuscript of his Regimiento nautico, which he later dedicated to Philip in its published form. 1587: appointed principal engineer of Portugal, with a salary of 200 cruzados. 1587: From this date served as chief engineer to Philip. This may be identical with the previous item from another source. As engineer he was concerned to do a topographical map of Aragon (1615-18), for which he received a large reward. 1591: Principal cosmographer to the king; entered the office only in 1596 when the incumbent died. Apparently a salary of 40,000 reales. At the same time he assumed the chair of mathematics in Lisbon at 20,000 reales. This chair was to teach mathematics to sailors and pilots and was thus not at a university. Lavanha was to inspect maps and instruments used in navigation, supervise the construction of astrolabes, quadrants, and compasses, and to examine aspiring pilots, cartographers, and instrument makers. He devised a new instrument for navigation himself. 1618: pricipal chronicler of the realm, at 100,000 reales. He also left behind a manuscript compensium of geography.
8. Patronage: court; See above. When Lavanha's sons entered orders, they were accompanied in the ceremony by the King (Philip IV) and Queen.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; Int 
10. Scientific Societies:

José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). M. Fernandez de Navarrete, Disertacion sobre la historia de la nautica y de las mathematicas, (Madrid, 1846). Sousa Viterbo, Trabalhos nauticos dos Portugueses nos sécolos XVI e XVII, (Lisbon, 1898), pp. 171-83. This work prints all of the official documents of his appointments. Felipe Picatoste y Rodriguez, Apuntes para una biblioteca cientifica española del siglo XVI, (Madrid, 1891).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Armando Cortesao, Cartografia e cartografos portugueses dos sécolos XVI e XVII, 2, (Lisbon, 1935), 294-361. Note that this work is available in the Lilly.
Jose Augusto Saqnchez Perez, Monografia sobre Juan Bautista Lavaña, (Madrid, Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, 1934).

Lax, Gaspar

1. Dates: Born: Sariñen, Aragon, 1487; Died: Zaragoza, 23 February 1560; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: French and Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: Zar, M.A. University of Paris; D.D. Began higher education at University of Zaragoza. Most sources say that he did both B.A. and M.A. there. Went on to Paris. One source says he did his B.A. and M.A. there. All agree that he proceeded in Paris to D.D. Villoslada seems to place the degrees in Paris; D.D. from the Sorbonne.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic Philosophy, Mathematics; Lax was engrossed in nominalist logical subtleties; he was known as the Prince of Sophists. In his own age he was better known as a mathematician, a field in which he published. He also published a Quaestiones phisicales, 1527.
7. Means of Support: Academic position; Lax stayed on in Paris, teaching at the College de Calvi and the College de Montaigu until 1523. He returned to Spain in 1524, became a professor at Zaragoza, where he was later both Vice Chancellor and Rector. There until his death.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Government Official; Aristocrat; Lax dedicated his work on Speculative Arithmetic to Franciso de Mello (scion of a wealthy Portuguese family). He dedicated his Quaestiaones phisicales to Miguel Donlope. Elie says that he addressed the prefaces of his works mostly to Spanish and Portuguese lords and protectors who paid for his stay in Paris-particularly to Anoine Augustin (Chancellor of the Archbishop of Zaragoza), to Christobule Sanchez (Archbishop of Zaragoza), to Francisco de Mello, to Jerome de Cabanyelles (Knight of the Golden Fleece and representative of Ferdinand of Aragon at the French court, who dispensed funds to Spanish students in Paris). I find another dedicated to Diego Alcaraz, Archdeacon of Valladolid, and another to Jeronimo Cavanilles, Spanish Ambassador to France.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies:

Ricardo G. Villoslada, La Universidad de Paris durante los estudios de Francisco de Vitoria, vol. 14 of Analecta Gregoriana, Series Fac. Hist. Ecc. Sectio B, num. 2 (Roma, 1938), pp. 404-7. Enciclopedia universal ilustrada. José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). Felipe Picatoste y Rodriguez, Apuntes para una biblioteca cientifica española del siglo XVI, (Madrid, 1891). Hubert Elie, 'Quelques maitres de l'université de Paris vers l'an 1500,' Archives d'historie doctrinale de littéraire du moyen age, 25-6 (1950-51), 214-16.

l'Écluse, Charles de [Carolus Clusius]

1. Dates: Born: Arras (Artois), 19 February 1526; Died: Leyden, 4 April 1609; Datecode: Lifespan: 83
2. Father: Aristocrat; Michel de l'Écluse was lord of Watènes and councillor at the provincial court of Artois. Charles was the oldest child and thus bore the titel seigneur de Watènes. The family was forced to flee their home in the 1550's because of the war. The family is explicitly described as rich. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: Belgian Area; Germany; Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: University of Louvan; LD; University of Wittenburg; University of Montpellier; He received a substantial education. He was trained as a lawyer under Gabriel Mudaeus and received his licence in law from the University of Louvain. I am listing all degrees in law. 1546, entered the college of three languages at Leyden. I am not sure what this means, but the University of Leyden had not been founded in that year. 1548, University of Marburg, ostensibly to study law, though he was attracted by religious issues. 1549, he passed the year with Philippe Melanchthon in Wittenberg. 1551-4. His interest in botany was awakened in 1551, when he studied with Guillaume Rondelet, a professor at the University of Montpellier. It is sometimes said that l'Écluse received a licenciate in medicine, but there is no evidence for this. Moreover, he never practiced medicine. I take a B.A. or its equivalent to be obvious.
5. Religion: Catholic. Protestant; BNB says that his protestant convictions stemmed from his time with Melanchthon in Wittenberg. He suffered along with his family (some of whom were martyred) the effects of anti-Protestant persecutions. The ultimate appointment in Leyden suggests Calvinism or at least a willingness to conform publicly to it.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Pharmacology; His Rariorum plantarum historia (1601) records approximately 100 new species; Exoticorum libri decem (1605) is an important work on exotic flora and includes everything that he published on the subject. Those two works contain all of his original contributions in botany and natural history and are still often consulted. He also published other works and translated several works of his contemporaries in natural science. He edited De piscibus marinis libri xviii, (1554). He published Antidotarium, sive de exacta componendorum miscendorumque medicamentorum ratione libri tres (1561) and another similar work in 1567.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; 1561-3, he was governor to two young Silesians, Thomas and Abraham Rediger. In 1562 he fled to the Low Countries. I don't find anything about the years 1554-61. I assume that he was living on the family wealth, but the religious turmoil would have overtaken them about this time. The need to tutor would testify to this. 1563-5, he accompanied two young Fuggers on an instructional voyage. 1566-7, he lived in Bruges with Gui and Marc Lauweryn, patrons of science. 1567-71, he lived in Malines. Around 1566 he had received (from what source is not said) a modest estate which was sufficient to support him. In 1571 he gave his share of the estate to his father, who had just been stripped of his fortune. 1571-2, a trip to Paris and London; 1573, upon the death of his father, he received the title seigneur de Watènes, but passed it on to his younger brother. After this, according the BNB, he managed without family, resources, or employment, all of which points clearly to patronage. 1574-6, he was summoned to Vienna by the Emperor. Here he was attached in some way to the imperial garden. Some refer to him as its director. After religious problems arose, he lived with Jean Aichholtz, a professor at the university. 1578, dead broke, he left Vienna for Frankfurt, where he worked doing further editions of his own work and publishing translations of the works of others for several years. Eventually he received a pension from Wilhelm IV of Hesse. He was appointed professor of botany at the University of Leiden in 1593, and he held the chair until his death in 1609.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Medicine; Court Patronage; First, the Rediger family of Breslau and then Antoine Fugger, Count of Kirchperg and Weissenhorn, whose two sons he tutored. Gui and Marc Lauweryn, seigneurs of Watervliet, supported him in 1566-7. The physician to Maximiliar II, Nicolas Biese, an old teacher of l'Écluse, was probably the person who engineered his call to Vienna in 1573. Maximilian II gave him a position and occasional honoraria. Rudolf II may have continued the support briefly, but religious issues quickly ended this phase of his life. He corresponded with Elector Frederick III of the Palatinate. Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hesse gave him a pension and enjoyed his company. I don't find reference to who arranged the appointment in Leyden, but it had to have passed through the court of the princes of Orange.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Cartography; Beyond his interest (like that of every other natural historian of the age) in the medicinal properties of plants, l'Écluse did not practice medicine. He prepared two major maps for Ortelius, one of Gallia Narbonensis (or southern France) and the other of Spain.
10. Scientific Societies: He carried on an extended correspondence with learned men, including Ortelius and Mercator. Some of this has been published.

Biographie nationale . . . de Belgique, 5, 383-404. J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres, 30, 38. Leo Bagrow, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum, 2 vols. Ergänzungsheften Nr. 199 & 210 zu 'Petermanns Mitteilungen,' (Gotha, 1928-30), 1 (Nr. 199), 62-3.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C.J.E. Morren, Chales de l'Escluse, sa vie et ses oeuvres, (Liege, 1875).  C.F.A. Morren, in Belgique horticole, 3 (1853), v-xix. Bulletin. Société royale de botanique de Belgique, 1 (1862), 14-15. E. Roze, Charles de l'Ecluse d'Arras, le propagateur de la pomme de terre au XVIe siècle. Sa biographie et sa correspondance, (Paris, 1899).  F.W.T. Hunger, Charles de l'Ecluse, (Den Haag, 1927). 

Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van

1. Dates: Born: Delft, 24 October 1632; Died: Delft, 26 August 1723 Datecode: Lifespan: 91; 
2. Father: Artisan; Philips Thomiszoon Leeuwenhoek, a basketmaker, that is, an artisan. One source says that the father belonged to the prosperous middle class of artisans, brewers, and public officials. I don't find this enough to venture any estimate of his economic condition. The father died when Antoni was five or six.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: None Known; No university education. He was apprenticed to a cloth merchant at sixteen, and himself became a shopkeeper in Delft in 1653-54, before he was twenty-two.
5. Religion: Calvinist. He was baptized and buried in Calvinist churches, and his second wife was the daughter of the Calvinist minister.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Microscopy, entomology, embryology. Subordinate Disciplines: Botany, zoology, anatomy; He began grinding lenses and observing about 1668.
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Government Official; Personal Means; He set up as a draper in Delft before he was twenty-two, and apparently he maintained his shop most of the rest of his life. Rooseboom (in Schierbeek) thinks that he may have inherited money from his mother's family and closed up the business. In 1660 he was appointed Usher to the Aldermen of Delft; he continued to draw this salary (originally 314 guilders) until his death. In 1669 he became further surveyor to the court of Holland. He continued in the service of Delft in various capacities (many utilizing his ability in mathematics) all his life, and in his old age he received a pension from the city. Most of the authorities agree in treating these positions as sinecures bestowed on Leeuwenhoek by the city magistrates; however, Rooseboom does not treat them as sinecures, but as real positions offering real (though modest) remuneration-c.800 guilders per year when all are added up. She does agree that some of the positions were sinecures, possibly deriving from the relation of Leeuwenhoek's first wife to the inner circles of Delft. Rooseboom also offers evidence that Leeuwenhoek had an estate that offered further modest income-perhaps 500 guilders per year. And she finds evidence that the estate (probably through careful management) grew. Leeuwenhoek certainly lived in comfort.
8. Patronage: Magistrates. In addition to the sinecures above, the city, which recognized his scientific achievements, frequently rewarded him upon the publication of books, which he dedicated to the city administration.
9. Technological Connections: Instrumentation; There is no question that he developed the capacity to grind powerful lenses (or magnifying glasses), and he also designed ingenious appartus to display specimens before the lenses. Note, however, that he kept his methods secret, so that he did not leave any tradition at all behind him. He also devised a 'counter: which allowed him to count the number of creatures in a very small sample and then to extrapolate by ratios to a larger volume.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Because of his language limitations (he knew only Dutch), Leeuwenhoek worked in virtual isolation, often ignorant of what other scientists were doing. Nevertheless he did maintain an extensive correspondence, especially with the Royal Society in London. His letters were translated from the Phil Trans into French and Latin. After 1685 Leeuwenhoek himself published Latin translations (obviously not his own work) of his letters. He was elected FRS in 1680. The fellowship was clearly his greatest pride. He mentioned it on his title pages and had it mentioned on his tomb stone.

G.C. Gerrits, Grote nederlanders bij de opbouw der natuurwetenschapen, (Leiden, 1948), 130-5. C. Dobell, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek and his 'Little Animals,' (London: Staples Press, 1932). Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. A. Schierbeek, Measuring the Invisible World. The Life and Works of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek FRS, (London, 1959). An English version, shortened, of the original Dutch. Maria Rooseboom wrote the biographical chapter in this book.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Schierbeek, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. Zijn leven en zijn werken, 2 vols. (Lochem, 1950-51).

Le Febvre, Nicaise

1. Dates: Born: Sedan, c. 1610; Died: London, 1669; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Pharmacology; Claude Le Febvre was an apothecary, a Protestant refugee from a Catholic part of France who moved to Sedan. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; English; Death: English 
4. Education: None Known; Following preliminary schooling in the Pedagogium of the Calvinist academy of Sedan, he became an apprentice in his father's shop in 1625. Before he completed his training his father died, and the direction of his education was taken over by Abraham Duhan, a doctor of medicine and professor of philosophy at the academy. That is, no university study. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Pharmacology; Iatrochemstry. His principal contribution to science is his textbook, the Traité de la chymie (Paris, 1660). His other published work was a description of a polypharmaceutical preparation. In the tradition of iatrochemistry, the Traité was directed to medicinal preparations.
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; After qualifying as a master apothecary he continued in his father's business until 1646-1647. Then he moved to Paris, where he initially enjoyed the patronage of the physician Samuel du Clos. He soon began to offer private courses in pharmaceutical chemistry. In 1652 he was appointed demonstrator in chemistry at the Jardin du Roi and in 1654 he obtained the privilege of a royal apothecary and distiller. He also continued to run his apothecary shop. He was apothecary also to Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Verneuil and Bishop of Metz. Charles II had attended Le Febvre's course in chemistry, and in 1660 he invited Le Febvre to England as royal professor of chemistry and apothecary to the king's household with two stipends (one for each appointment) that amounted to L300. He was established in a laboratory in St. James' Palace. However, he had great difficulty in collecting his stipend.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Samuel Du Clos and Antoine Vallot aided Le Febvre when he came to Paris. Vallot, an influential court physician in charge of the Jardin, was responsible for LeFebvre's appointments at the Jardin du roi and as apothecary to the king. Le Febvre dedicated his Traité to Vallot. I list the arrangement with Henri de Bourbon as aristocracy. He obtained the privilege of a royal apothecary and distiller in 1652 in France. He became royal professor of chemistry and apothecary to the king's household in England in 1660.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); 1663-1669; He was admitted to the Royal Society (London); in 1663 on the nomination of Sir Robert Moray.

Nicaise Le Febvre, Traicté de la chymie, (Paris, 1660). (Contains autobiographical reminiscences which are the principal sources for his early life. These are reproduced in the Dorveaux article.) P. Dorveaux, 'L'apothicaire LeFebvre Nicaise, dit Nicolas,' in Proceedings of the Third International Congress of the History of Medicine, London 1922, (Antwerp, 1923), pp. 207-12. J.P. Contant, L'enseignement de la chimie au jardin royal des plants de Paris, Paris, 1952. Dictionary of National Biography, 11, 840.

LeFevre [LeFebvre], Jean

1. Dates: Born: Lisieux, 9 April 1652; Paris, 1706 Datecode: Lifespan: 54
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: France; France; French; Birth: Lisieux, France; Career: Paris, France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: None Known; That is, unknown.
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Artisan; Calvinist; Before 1682, LeFevre was a weaver in Lisieu. c. 1682, doing calculations for Picard. After Picard's death, he continued pedestrian aspects of Picard's work, calculating astronomical tables, publishing the Connaissances des Temps, making a few observations and assisting R. de la Hire in surveying. In 1682, all of this got him elected to the Académie.
8. Patronage: Scientist, Court; LeFevre first appeared in the Parisian scientific community as a friend of a certain Father Pierre, a professor of rhetoric at the College de Lisieux in Paris, who recommened him to Picard, especially in respect to the editing of the Connaissances... Picard hired him, and probably through his influence, probably along with La Hire, got him into the Académie. LeFevre dedicated the successive editions of the Connaissances to Louis XIV. In 1687, LeFevre accused La Hire of stealing and publishing his tables. In 1701, probably resentful at not having been named official publisher of ephemerides to the Académie, he similarly accused La Hire's son, Gabriel-Philippe. Pontchartrain, La Hire's protector, was probably behind the government's transfer of the right to publish the Connaissances... to the Académie and the eventually successful campaign to have LeFevre thrown out of the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; He did some surveying work for La Hire. (Note: LeFevre is occasionally mistaken for an instrument maker of the same name who lived at the same time).
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); A member of the Académie (c.1682-1701).

Michaud, Biographie Universelle, 23 (Paris, 1819), 546. [CT153.B6]; M.J. Delacourtie, 'L'astronome Jean Le Fevre,' Bulletin de la Société historique de Lisieux, (1951-1952), 43-8.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Amedée Tissot, Etude biographique sur Jean Le Fevre... (Paris, 1872). I find this listed in the catalogue of the Bibliotheque nationale, but no copy appears to exist in the U.S.

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm

1. Dates: Born: Leipzig, 1 July 1646; Died: Hannover, 14 November 1716 Datecode: - Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Lawyer, Academic; His father was Friedrich Leibnuetz (1597-1652), notary, jurist, and professor of moral philosophy at the University of Leipzig. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Leipzig, Germany. Career: France; Hannover, Germany. Death: Hannover, Germany.
4. Education: University of Leipzig; M.A. Jen;University of Altdorf; L.D. 1653-1661, Nicolai school, Leipzig. After the death of his father in 1652, he had had free access to his father's library where he read voraciously and taught himself Latin. 1661-1666, University of Leipzig. Recieved a B.A. (1663), M.A. (1664), and J.B. (1665). Summer 1663, University of Jena. 1666/7, University of Altdorf. Received his J.D. (1667)
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; Mechanics. Subordinate Disciplines: Alchemy; Geology; 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Law; 1667, he was offered a chair at Aldorf, but declined it. 1667, he became secretary to the Rosicrucian society in Nuremberg, receiving a modest salary. 1667-1673, he entered the service of elector Johann Philipp von Schoenborn, working on general legal problems, developing a program for legal reform in the Holy Roman Empire, and writing (anonymously) a number of position papers. He was sucessively secretary, librarian, legal counselor in the College of Appeals at Mainz, and diplomat at large. 1672, he accompanied J.C. von Boyneburg on a diplomatic mission to France, where he stayed, except for a short diplomatic trip to England, until 1676. Von Schoenborn died in 1673, ending Leibniz's salary except for a small pension. Leibniz stayed in Paris, hoping to establish a sufficient reputation to obtain a paid position at the Académie, supporting himself by tutoring Boyneburg's son for a short time and then establishing a Parisian law practice which prospered. 1676, he entered the service of Johann Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lueneburg, in Hannover. He was initially a member of the Duke's personal staff, acting as adviser and librarian, as well as consulting on various engineering projects. He was soon formally appointed councillor (1677), judge (1678), and he superintended the mint (1679). When Johann Friedrich died in 1679, his brother Ernst August kept him on, and in 1685 comissioned him to write a genealogy of the house of Brunswick, Annales imperii occidentes Brunsvicenses, to support the imperial and dynastic claims of the family. In the same year he was appointed councillor for life. He labored on this project for the rest of his life. Initially, his research took him to Munich (1687), Vienna (1688), Rome, Florence, Bologna, and Modena (1690-1). (While there he arranged a marriage between Rinaldo d'Este of Modena and Princess Charlotte Felicitas of Brunswick-Lueneburg. Leibniz's efforts were influential in the elevation of Hannover to electoral status (1692). In recognition of this achievement, Ernst August appointed him Privy Councillor (1692), and the Wolffenbuettel branch of the Hannoverians appointed him Director of the Augusta Library (1691). When Ernst August died in 1698, his successor Georg Ludwig, while urging Leibniz to complete the family history, declined his other services. He was now supported by the patronage of Sophia Charlotte, daughter of Ernst August and Sophia (who had been Leibniz's philosophical confidante), Electress of Brandenburg. Elector Frederick of Brandenburg appointed him privy councillor (1700). In the same year, he travelled to Berlin to oversee the founding of the Brandenburg Society of Science (later the Berlin Academy), which had been established on his recommendation. He frequently visited Berlin between 1700 and 1711. 1713-1714, he served as the imperial privy councillor in Vienna (he was appointed 1713 effective retroactively to 1712). When Sophie Charlotte died (1714), Georg Ludwig suspended his salary until he returned to court. Leibniz returned to Hannover only days after Georg had left for England as King George I. Leibniz petitioned for a position in London as court historian, but was refused until he had completed the history of the house of Brunswick. He died, still working on the project, in 1716.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; It was through the former chancellor J.C. von Boyneburg, who dabbled in alchemy, that Leibniz met Johann Philipp von Schoenberg. Leibniz accompanied Boyneburg on his trip to France and collaborated on the diplomatic plans there. Elector Johann Philipp of Schoenberg was Leibniz's first major patron. Leibniz came to his attention by dedicating his Nova methodus discenda docendaeque iurisprudentiae (1668) to him. Johann Friedrich of Brunswick-Lueneburg was Leibniz's most enthusiastic patron in the Hannoverian house. As early as 1673 he had offered Leibniz a position as a councillor at the small salary of 400 taler. In 1676, he offered him the position of librarian at a salary of 1200 taler, which Leibniz accepted. This patronage was passed on to his brother Ernst August of Hesse-Rheinfels. Ernst's successor, Georg Ludwig, supported Leibniz after a fashion, but was clearly his least enthusiastic patron. Sophie Charlotte, Electress of Brandenburg, whom Leibniz tutored, was an important patron. Leibniz fished for a position with the Emperor from as early as 1680, when he applied for the post of imperial librarian and historian. His public call for support for the Emperor when Vienna was under seige by the Turks in 1683 strengthened his position, and he was warmly received by Leopold I, but was not offered a position. Charles VI became Emperor in 1711. On the recommendation of Anton Ulrich, Duke of Wolffenbeuttel, he raised Leibniz to the rank of Baron of the Empire and named him imperial court councillor (the highest honor accorded to a Protestant). Principles of Nature and Grace (1714) was written for Prince Eugene of Saxony, a supporter of Leibniz's plans for a scientific society in Vienna. Peter the Great of Russia, met Leibniz in 1697. He summoned Leibniz to Torgau, Saxony, in 1711 and again to Carlsbad, Bohemia, in 1712. There, Peter appointed him Privy Councilor of Justice with a small pension.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Hydraulics; He designed a calculating machine, a model of which was built in 1672. 1679-1685, among the engineering projects he undertook for Johann Friedrich of Brunswick-Lueneburg was a scheme to increase the yield of the Harz silver mines by employing windmill-powered pumps and pipes filled with compressed air to drain it. He considered this a great demonstration of the practical utility of science, though the project was ultimately a failure. Leibniz also planned the water displays of the great Herrenhausen gardens in the 1680s.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Berlin Academy; Royal Society (London); 1667, secretary to the Rosicrucian Society, Nuremberg. 1673, member of the Royal Society. 1674, he declined membership in the Académie when it required religious conversion. He became a corresponding member of the Académie in 1699. Around 1688, member of the Accademia Fisicomatematica. 1700, founded the Brandenburg Society of Sciences (later the Berlin Academy), and became its president for life before any other members were chosen. He similarly founded the academies at Dresden (1704) and Vienna (1713).

Heinrich Schepers, Neue deutsche Biographie, ?, 121b-31a. Ronald Calinger, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Troy, New York: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1976). 

Not Consulted: E.J. Aiton, Leibniz: A Biography (Bristol: Hilger, 1985).

Lémery, Louis

1. Dates: Born: Paris, 25 January 1677; Died: Paris, 7 June 1743; Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Sci; Nicolas Lemery, the chemist. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.D. First taught by his father, then educated at the College d'Harcourt, he proceeded to the Faculty of Medicine of Paris where he graduated M.D. in 1698. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy; Pharmacology; The bulk of his scientific writings, which deal mainly with problems of chemical analysis, were published in the Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences. His most important observations on organic analysis are contained in four papers published in 1719-1721. His anatomical papers deal with the circulation of the blood in the fetal heart and with the origin of monaters. In addition to his Academy memoirs, he published two monographs, Traité des alimens (1702) and Dissertation sur la nourriture des os (1704).
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; In 1700 he was admitted to the Academy of sciences of Paris, as an élève first of the botanist Tournefort and then (from 1702) of his father. In 1712 he was elevated to the rank of associé. 1705, professor of pharmacy at the Faculty of Medicine. 1710-1743, physician at the Hotel Dieu. 1722-1743, royal physician, and personal physician to Louis XV's cousin, the princess of Conti. Lémery purchased the position of royal physician; however, he did function as a medical consultant to the king. As physician to the king he was delegated to accompany the Infante, Marie-Anne-Victoire d'Espagne (this is late enough that she was a Bourbon) when she returned to Spain from France. 1715- became chemiste pensionnaire. 1707 -1710, occasionally deputized for Guy-Crescent Fagon (or perhaps Fagon named him to deputize for Berger) in the chemistry courses at the Jardin du Roi. 1731-1743, professor of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi. 1731, named 'démonstrateur royale.'; Hazon is explicit that Lémery practiced medicine.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was a médecin du roi from 1722, and was personal physician to Louis XV's cousin, the princess of Conti. In the princess' salon (where he was apparently more familiar than a mere physician should have been) he composed many of his scientific works. He purchased the position of royal physician; I hardly know how to handle this within the context of patronage. However, he did function as medical consultant to the king, and as royal physician he was delegated to accompany the Spanish Infante. In Madrid the Queen of Spain honored him with a 'Brevet de Médecin. Consultant de Sa Majesté.'; His most important 'patron' (although I do not use the word within the nuclear family) was his father, whose position at the Academy undoubtedly made Louis Lémery's rise easier. He was an élève of his father, and eventually succeeded him as pensionnaire in 1715. However, his father's influence could only have helped without the acquiescence and support of the court. He spent a great deal of time with the Duchess of Brunswick at the Palais du Luxembourg (often from 9:00 at night until 9:00 in the morning). If this be patronage, make the most of it!
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1712-1743; He was sous-directeur in 1716 and 1717.

Dortous de Marain, Éloge, Histoire de l'Academie royale des sciences pour l'annee, 1743-1746, pp.195-208. Nouvelle biographie générale, 30, 603-4. J.P.Contant, L'enseignement de la chimie au jardin royal des plants de Paris, Paris, 1952, pp.57-60. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus célèbres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 195-8.

Lemery, Nicolas

1. Dates: Born: Rouen, 17 November 1645; Died: Paris, 19 June 1715; Datecode: Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Law; His father, Julien Lemery, was an attorney in the Parlement of Normandy. He died when Lemery was eleven years old. The family had a tradition of magistrates in Rouen. Everything about the family sounds affluent, at least until the death of the father. Nevertheless, there is no explicit evidence about their financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; Caen, M.D. From 1660 (after the death of his father) to 1666 Lemery was an apprentice apothecary to his uncle Pierre Duchemin in Rouen. He then embarked on a six-year period of travel and study. He spent a considerable part of the time between 1668 and 1771 in Montpellier, and in the summer of 1670 he was registered as a student of pharmacy in Montpellier. In 1683 he took an M.D. at Caen, apparently one of the typical Caen M.D.'s, which implied only that he showed up on the appointed day. In Lémery's case (the only one that I have wanted to treat this way so far), there does not seem to me to have been the equivalent of a B.A. I suspect that he had been practising medicine, as apothecaries did, and he took the medical degree only when the tightenting religious situation in Paris closed down the apothecary business of a Protestant.
5. Religion: Calvinist; (1645-1686), Catholic. (1686-1715); Because of the growing religious intolerance in France, he was required in 1681 to close his office as privileged apothecary to the king, and in 1683 to close his laboratory and shop. Having lost all his professional and legal rights, in 1686 he abjured his religion and was received into the Roman Catholic church. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Pharmacology; His chief contributions to pharmacy were his two complementary works, the Pharmacopée universelle (1697) and the Traité des drogues simples (1698). They represent a comprehensive dictionary of pharmaceuticals. His last major work, Traité de l'antimoine (1707), contains the results of his investigation into the properties and preparations of mineral antimony. His textbook on chemistry, the Cours de chymie (Paris, 1675), went through more than thirty editions.
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; Schoolmaster; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; It is extremely difficult to weigh the relative roles of Lemery's five sources of support. All of them were present in his life. Already in Montpellier, where he was a student of pharmacy, he was practising medicine. In 1672 he returned to Paris, where he associated with members of the household of Louis, Prince of Condé. He attended the conferences of the Abbé Bourdelot, the prince's physician, and worked in the laboratory of the prince's apothecary. In 1674 he purchased the office of apothecary to the King and grand prévot of France. During the following years he was in a highly successful pharmaceutical business until he was forced to dispose of his office as privileged apothecary to the king in 1681 and to close his laboratory and shop in 1683. He offered private courses on chemistry early 1670s with great success, and continued his teaching until 1685 when he lost all of his professional rights. These courses attracted important people. In connection with this instruction Lémery kept pensioners in his home. When practices that led finally to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes closed down his apothecary business, Lémery got the medical degree at Caen and practiced, again with success, until the revocation closed that down as well. In 1686, having converted, he reestablished his laboratory and shop on condition (imposed by the company of apothecaries, who clearly feared Lémery's competition, though ostensibly it was because Lémery was by then a physician) that he take no apprentices. Lémery resumed his courses in chemistry. The rationale for the condition imposed by the company of apothecaries implies that he also resumed his medical practice. From 1699 until his death in 1715 he was the chemiste pensionnaire of the Academy of Sciences.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Lemery started out, in Paris, in the household of Condé, whose esteem he won by his instruction in chemistry. I do not take the office of apothecary to the king, which he purchased, to mean patronage. As the religious situation deteriorated in the early 80's, the Elector of Brandenburg invited Lémery there, offering to create a chair in chemistry for him. In 1685, when the revocation of the Edict had driven him from both the apothecary business and medicine, he gave two courses in chemistry under powerful protection-to two brothers of the Marquis de Seignelay, the Secretary of State, and to Lord Salisbury, who could not find similar instruction in England. After Lémery converted, Louis XIV restored his rights to function as an apothecary, and when the company of apothecaries at first refused to agree, the court insisted. 
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; He established a pharmaceutical business, and he published Pharmacopée universelle (1697) and other works.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1715; In 1699 he was admitted to the reorganized Académie royale des sciences (Paris); as associate chemist, and November of the same year he became chemiste pensionnaire. Note that two sons both followed him into the Academy as chemists: Louis (who is in this catalogue) and Jacques.

Fontenelle's éloge, Histoire de l'Academie royale des sciences for 1715, (Paris, 1717), pp. 96-108.
P. Dorveaux, 'Apothicaires membres de l'Académie royale des sciences, VI. Nicolas Lemery,' Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie, 19 (1931), pp.208-219. P.-A. Cap, Études biographiques pour servir a l'histoire de sciences. Première serie, chimistes-naturalistes, (Paris, 1857), pp.180-226.

Le Poivre, Jacques-François

1. Dates: fl. early eighteenth century Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; He is known by his Traité, a short treatise. According to the review of this work in the Journal des sciences, he lived in Mons and worked on the treatise for three years; nothing more is known about him. 
5. Religion: Catholic (by assumption)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; He is known by his short treatise, Traité des sections du cylindre et du cone considerées dans le solide et dans le plan, avec les demonstrations simples & nouvelles (Paris, 1704).
7. Means of Support: Unknown; 
8. Patronage: None 
9. Technological Connections: None 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES: The entry for Le Poivre in the Nouvelle biographie générale, 30, (Paris, 1862), 852.
There is just not any information about Le Poivre.

Le Tenneur, Jacques-Alexandre

1. Dates: Born: unknown; Died: after 1652; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: Aristocrat; A patrician family of Paris. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; 
5. Religion: Unknown; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Physics; His importance to the history of science depends on his De motu naturaliter accelerato (1640), in which he showed himself to be the only mathematical physicist of the time who understood precisely Galileo's reasoning in rejecting the proportionality of speeds in free fall to the distance traversed. Another book, Traité des quantitez incommensurables, which concerns the foundations of algebra, stood as a final attempt to preserve the classical Greek separation of arithmetic from geometry. 
7. Means of Support: Government Position; Little is known of his life. Probably a resident of Paris until the mid-1640's, he was at Clermont-Ferrand (near Puy-de-Dome) late in 1646, and in 1651 he was counselor to a provincial senate (Guyenne).
8. Patronage: None
9. Technological Connections: None 
10. Scientific Societies: He was a friend of Mersenne and a correspondent of Gassendi. 

P. Tannery and C. De Waard, eds., Correspondence du P. Marin Mersenne, 9-11. (Most of the letters between the two men have not yet been published.) H. Brown, Scientific Organization in 17th century France, (New York, 1967), pp.54-56. A. Koyré, Galileo Studies, 235-6. Not in Nouvelle biographie générale. There is just not a lot of information about Le Tenneur.

L'Hospital, Guillaume-François-Antoine de

1. Dates: Born: France, 1661; Died: France, 2 February 1704; Datecode: Lifespan: 43 
2. Father: Aristocratic Patronage; Military; Anne de l'Hospital, lieutenant general of the armies of the king and squire of Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Guillaume's mother, Elisabeth, was the daughter of Claude Gobelin, administrator (intendant) of the armies of the king and a counsellor of state. The l'Hospitals were an old aristocratic family with distinguished service to the king since 1488. Although I do not have a definite statement, I do not see how one can avoid the conclusion the l'Hospital grew up in wealthy circumstances. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; As soon as he was old enough to bear arms, he obtained a commission of captain in the cavalry, but he had already, by that time, acquired a passion for mathematics from his tutor. In 1692, Jean Bernoulli visited Paris. It is not clear that he taught l'Hospital, but after Bernoulli had been there a few months, l'Hospital returned to Ourques, Touraine, embued with the new mathematics. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His fame was based on his book Analyse des infiniment petits pour l'intelligence des lignes courbes (1696), the first textbook of the differential calculus. At his death he left the completed manuscript of a second book, Traité analytique, which was published in 1720.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; He served for a time as a cavalry officer but resigned from the army. From that time onwards he devoted himself entirely to mathematics. He had an estate that must have supported him. He had the titles of Marquis de Sainte-Mesme and Comte d'Entremont. Fontenelle also calls him Seigneur d'Ourques, la Chaise, le Bréau, et autres lieux.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; L'Hospital was named premier titulaire honorary member of the Académie by Louis XIV. 
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1693, académicien géomètre; 1699, honorary member of the Académie; 1702 & 04, vice president of the Académie; Correspondence with Leibniz, with Jean Bernoulli, and with Huygens. According to Fontenelle it was he who introduced Huygens to the new calculus.

Fontenelle, Eloge, in the Histoire de l'Académie des Sciences for 1704, p. 154-68. J.E.Montucla, Histoire des mathématiques, 2, (Paris, 1758), 396-8. Index biographique de l'Académie des Sciences, pp. 318-19. Nouvelle biographie générale, 31, 101-2. 

Lhwyd [Llhwyd, Lhuyd, Llwyd, Lloyd, Floyd, Luidius], Edward

1. Dates: Born: probably Glan Ffraid, Cardiganshire, Wales, 1660; Died: Oxford, 30 June 1709; Datecode: Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Unknown; The natural son of Edward Llwyd, on whom there is no information. Ellis describes the father as dissolute and impractical, and thus poor. It is clear that Lhwyd had very limited means while he was a student at Oxford, to the extent that he took rather miserable employment before completing a degree. I conclude that he was reared in financially poor circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: English (Welsh); Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Oxford University, Jesus College, 1682-7; no bachelor's degree. Created M.A. by Convocation, 1701 (don't treat this as an earned advanced degree).
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Paleontology; Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Geology; Lhwyd collected plants around the hill mass of Snowdon in Wales and established the existence of a distinct alpine flora and fauna there. Ray published Lhwyd's list of plants around Snowdon in his Synopsis, 1690. He assisted Lister in cataloguing mollusks and fossils in Oxfordshire. This topic became his primary scientific interest and resulted ultimately in Lithophylacii botannici ichnographia, 1699. Fossils involved him in geology. Ichnographia included six letters on geological subjects. The fossil content of stones led him to question the deluge account. Lhwyd undertook a general natural history of all the celtic parts of Britain (including also Ireland and Brittany). Achaeologia britannica, 1707, was to have been the first volume of this work, but Lhwyd did not live to publish the rest. That volume is more linguistic than scientific; it inaugurated the study of comparative celtic philology.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Publishing; Patronage; Assistant to Robert Plot, keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 1683-91. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 1691-1709. (I list the Ashmolean positions as Academic.) Apparently the keepership carried no salary; Lhwyd derived his income from fees paid by visitors. Ellis says that his income from the museum never exceeded ?50 per annum. Lhwyd undertook to collect material on Wales for a new edition of Camden's Britannia, published in 1695. For this he received a modest single payment from the publisher. (I list this as Publishing.); He was partially supported by subscribers to his natural history of the celtic parts of Britain, 1696-1700. In the first of these years he received more than ?100; by 1700 the amount had fallen off to about ?11. (I list this as Patronage.); Elected Esquire Beadle of Divinity at Oxford, 1709. This carried a salary of ?100, but Lhwyd died after only a few months.
8. Patronage: Academic; Scientist; Gentry; Robert Plot, Chemical professor and the first keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, offered him an assistantship. The cost of publication of Lithophylacii britannici ichnographia, which Oxford University declined to finance, was subscribed by patrons and friends, including Newton, Hans Sloane, and Martin Lister. This was one of the early subscription publications. Lhwyd undertook his contributions to Camden's Britannia explicitly to encourage Welsh gentry to support a bigger project, and immediately after Britannia appeared he did begin to garner support. In 1695 he published a proposal (see Ellis) solliciting support for a pension to finance his projected Archaeologia britannica, and he received enough to proceed, though not everything promised actually came in. Lhwyd himself called his supporters gentry. He dedicated the volume of Archaeologia that did appear to Sir Thomas Mansell.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; I toyed with listing Cartography because Lhwyd did assemble bearings and distances of Welsh places, the raw materials of a map. However, in his search for assistants, capacity to survey was important (presumably because Lhwyd himself lacked the skill), and the plans (or maps) he drew of burial sites that he visited are fairly crude.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship with Hans Sloane, Martin Lister, John Ray, John Morton, John Aubrey, Thomas Molyneux, Tancred Robinson, and most of the naturalists of his day in Britain. Intimate frienship with Thomas Hearne. His correspondence with his friends is published in Gunther. Assisted Martin Lister with lists of Oxfordshire species of mollusks and fossils. Quarrelled with Dr. Woodword about the origin of marine fossils. Royal Society, 1708.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 11, 1096-8.
Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 2929-31. Richard Ellis, 'Some Incidents in the Life of Edward Lhuyd,' in R.T. Gunther, ed., Life and Letters of Edward Lhwyd (Early Science in Oxford, 14), (Oxford, 1945), pp. 1-51. This is the best account I have found. J.L. Campbell & D. Thomson, Edward Lhuyd in the Scottish Highlands, 1694-1700, (Oxford, 1963). M.E. Jahn, 'Notes on Edward Lhwyd,' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 4 (1966), 244-8; 6 (1971), 61-2, 7 (1972), 86-97. Frank V. Emery, Edward Lhuyd, F.R.S. 1660-1709, (Cardiff, 1971). Chalmers's General Biographical Dictionary, 1815 ed. 20, 232-6. Gwyn Walter and Frank Emery, 'Edward Lhwyd, Edmund Gibson, and the Printing of Camden's Britannia, 1695,' The Library 32 (1977), 109-37.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Brynley F. Roberts, 'In Search of Edward Lhuyd,' Archives of Natural History, 16 (1989), 49-57. Nicholas Owen, British Remains, (London, 1777).

Libavius [Libau], Andreas

1. Dates: Born: Halle, ca. 1560; Died: Coburg, 25 July 1616 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 56
2. Father: Artisan; He was the son of a poor weaver, Johann Libau, who travelled from Harz to Halle in search of work.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Halle, Saxony, Germany. Career: Rothenburg and Coburg, Germany. Death: Coburg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; University of Jena; Ph.D. University of Basel; M.D. He attended the Gymnasium in Halle. 1576, entered the University of Wittenberg. 1577, entered the University of Jena. In 1581, he received his Ph.D. and the title of poet laureate. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 1588, enrolled at the University of Basel, where he received his M.D.
5. Religion: Lutheran. He was an orthodox Lutheran and strongly opposed Catholics and Calvinists.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy. Subordinate Disciplines: Iatrochemistry; Medicine; 
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster, Govt position; Secondary Means of Support: Academic, Medical practice; 1581, he became a teacher at Illmenau. 1586, he was appointed 'Stadt- und Raths-Schulen Rector' (rector of the schools) in Coburg. 1588-1591, professor of history and poetry at the University of Jena. 1591-1607, moved to Rothenburg, where he became muncipal physician. In 1592, he was also appointed inspector of shools and received a teaching position. Endless quarrels with the rector of the town schools led to his departure. 1607-1616, he returned to Coburg, where he was named rector of the newly-founded Gymnasium Casimirianum Academicum.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Unknown; He corresponded with Landgrave Maurice of Hesse, and dedicated Commentationum metallicorum libri to him, obviously hoping for a position at court, or the chair at the University of Marburg that Johannes Hartmann received. The positions in Rothenburg and Coburg were not obtained without patronage from some source.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Though a municipal physician, he paid little attention to medical practice.
10. Scientific Societies: None

Friedmann Rex, Neue deutsche Biographie, 14, 441a-2a. Ladenburg, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 18, 530-2. E. Darmstaedter & G. Brugge, Das Buch der grossen Chemiker, 1 (Weinheim, 1955), 107-124. [Chem. QD21.B9]; R.D. Multhauf, 'Libavius and Beguin,' in E. Farber, ed., Great Chemists, (New York-London, 1961). 

Lister, Martin

1. Dates: Born: Buckinghamshire, early April 1639. He was christened at Radclive, Buckinghamshire, on 11 April. Died: Epsom, 2 February 1712; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Gentry; Sir Martin Lister. The mother also was from a family of gentry. The family had estates (in the plural) in the North and the Midlands. Lister attended Cambridge as a Pensioner. In all, bearing in mind Lister's resources to study medicine on the continent for a number of years and not forgetting the mother's status, I do not see how to avoid the conclusion that the family was, at the least, prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. University of Montpellier; Cambridge University; St. John's College, B.A., 1658; M.A., 1662. Studied medicine at Montpellier, 1663-6. M.D., 1684 by Oxford-note the date: not an earned degree; awarded because of his donations to the Ashmolean Museum.
5. Religion: Anglican; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Zoology; Entomology; Paleontology. Subordinate Disciplines: Geology; Botany; Medical Practioner; Lister worked initially on mollusks and later returned to the subject. Historia . . . conchyliorum, 1685-92, was his most important publication. His classification of spiders was a major achievement in its time. He also worked on other insects. Historiae animalium Angliae tres tractatus, 1678. He translated Goedaert's book on insects into English, 1682. Lister's concern with mollusks brought him into the debate on fossils; he was convinced that the deluge theory of fossils was impossible, and hence he rejected their animal origin. Fossils in turn took him into geology, and he developed what is nearly a stratigraphical utilization of fossils. Lister was the first to sugest geological (stratigraphical) maps. As a natural historian he was concerned with plants. He contributed to Ray's Cambridge Catalogue of Plants and to his Catalogus anglicae, 1680. He also published on medicine, as field in which he was quite conservative. Dissertatio de humoribus was old- fashioned humoralism. Before this he published De fontibus medicatis Angliae, 1682. Also Sex exercitationes medicinales, 1694, and other medical publications. Lister published a considerable number of articles (51 in one counting) in the Philosophical Transactions. It would be possible to list Lister as well under Natural History and Anatomy.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Fellow of John's College, 1660-9. Medical practice in York, 1669 (possibly 1670)-83. In London, 1683-98. Accompanied Lord Portland as personal physician on his embassy to Paris, 1698.
One of the Queen Anne's physicians, 1702-9. Second physician in ordinary to Anne, 1709-12.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Charles II mandated his fellowship in 1660; the family had been ardent royalists and got their reward. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1687 by mandate of James II. Appointed physician by Queen Anne. Lister became the Queen's physician through the influence of Sarah Churchill, who was his cousin or niece. I am not listing family relations as patronage, although the line of demarcation is vague. Personal physician to Lord Portland. Most of Lister's publications did not carry dedications, an indication of his independent position. However, he did dedicate De cochleis . . . exoticis, 1685 (the first part of Historia . . . conchyliorum) to William Courten. Courten was the grandson of the very wealthy Sir William Courten. The wealth had been dissipated by the intervening generation, though Courten appears to have been prosperous. He was also a naturalist, however, and the title page of Lister's book states explicitly that it was published at the author's expense. I think there was no patronage involved here. Nor do I think it was in the dedication of Letters and Divers Other Mixt Discourses in Natural Philosophy to Boyle. However, Lister dedicated his Journey to Paris, 1699, to Lord Somers, the Lord Chancellor, and his Hippocratis aphorismi, 1703, to Sidney Godolphin, who either was or would soon be Lord Treasurer. Note that Lister became personal physician to the Queen in 1702. These dedications do look like patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Lister's Exercitationes medicinales concern themselves partly with medicines. I am tempted to list him also under Cartography for his suggestion of stratographical maps. However, it appears to have been merely an idea with him; he did not produce such a map.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: During his stay in Montpellier, Lister became familiar with a considerable number of the leading French and English naturalists, including Ray. Close friendship (and correspondence) with John Ray, 1667-76; with Edward Lhwyd in 1690s. Correspondence with Oldernburg. He had also a fairly broad international correspondence. At least some of Lister's correspondence has been published (Gunther and Lankester); other letters are in the Bodleian, the British Museum, and the Royal Society. Royal Society, 1671; Council, 1684-6; Vice-president, 1685-7. Royal College of Physicians, 1687; Censor, 1694.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 11, 1229-30. 
Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 2974-5. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 442-5. S. Wood, 'Martin Lister, Zoologist and Physician,' Annals of Medical History, n.s. 1 (1929), 87-104. (Most of this consists of extracts from Lister's Journey to Paris.); Geoffrey Keynes, Dr. Martin Lister: A Bibliography, (Goldaming, Surrey, 1981). R.P. Stearns, 'Introduction' to Lister, A Journey to Paris in the Year 1698, (Urbana, 1967), pp. ix-lvi.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J. Carr, The Biological Work of Martin Lister (1638-1712), Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leeds, 1974.

L'Obel, Mathias de 

[He signed himself L'Obel; Biographienationale calls him De l'Obel]
1. Dates: Born: Lille, 1538; Died: London, 3 March 1616; Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Law; The family was Belgian. The father, Jean De l'Obel, was a lawyer, who apparently served the aristocrats in the army. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian Area; (Lille was then in the Low Countries); Career: Belgian Area; Dutch; English; Death: English 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. At the age of sixteen he was already attracted to botany and medicine. On 22 Mary 1565 he matriculated in the school of medicine in Montpellier (that is, at the age of twenty-seven, something that is not explained in the literature). He became the favorite student of Guillaume Rondelet. After his teacher died in 1566, he spent three more years in Montpellier, where he received an M.D. (Biographie nationale says that there is no record of him in the incomplete records of the university, but BN is nevertheless convinced that he received the degree.) 
5. Religion: Catholic. l'Obel explicitly resisted Protestantism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Pharmacology; His Stirpium adversaria nova (1571, written with Pierre Pena) is one of the milestones of modern botany. Later, Stirpium observationes, a sort of complement to the Adversaria, was joined to it under the title Plantarum seu stirpium historia (1576). Also other books on botany. His botanical work was directed toward the pharmacological use of plants. L'Obel published an essay on the pharmacology of Rondelet as part of a reissue of his Adversia in 1605. He referred to Lord Zouch's garden as the garden of medicine.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; He practiced medicine in Antwerp from 1571 to 1581 and in Delft from 1571 to 1584 where he was physician to the Prince to Orange. This is passing strange, given l'Obel's religious views, but the sources are definite. Upon the assassination of William the Silent in 1584, he left the Netherlands and very shortly moved to England. (Legré says that after William's death he stayed on for a time in the service of the States General.); He went to England in 1584, and remained there for the rest of his life. He was superintendent of the botanical garden founded by Lord Zouch in Hackney. In 1592 he accompanied Lord Zouch in his ambassadorial staff to the court of Denmark. He was Royal Botanist to James I.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; The Adversaria (1570) was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. L'Obel had fled the civil war in the Netherlands and appears to have been fishing for support. However, he returned to the Netherlands at that time. With the favor of Plantin he obtained a ten year warrant for the printing of his Plantarum historia. He dedicated the Kruydboek (the Dutch translation of his Historia) to the Prince of Orange. He dedicated the Stirpium historia to the governors, magistrates, and generals of Belgian Gaul. I take this to mean the rulers of the provinces that had remained loyal to the Hapsburgs, and this sounds more like a declaration of principle than a piece of patronage. He became the client of Lord Zouch and later royal botanist to James I.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: Like other botanists of the age, he carried on correspondence with other men concerned with plants-e.g, Mouton.

C.F.A.Morren, 'Prologue à la mémoire de L'Obel,' Belgique horticole, 2 (1852), v-xviii. Nouvelle biographie générale, 31, 419. Biographie nationale (Belgian). L. Legré, La botanique en provence au XVIe siecle, II, Pierre Pena et Mathias de Lobel, (Marseilles, 1899).

Locke, John

1. Dates: Born: Wrington, Somersetshire, 29 August 1632; Died: Oates, Essex, 28 October 1704; Datecode: Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Lawyer; Government Position; Also John Locke, the father was a lawyer and a clerk to the local Justices of the Peace. It is my impression that the position of clerk was not a governmental one but rather private employment by the JP's. However, toward the end of his life the father was county clerk for sewers. It seems clear that he was affluent. He had inherited a good fortune from his own father, although he left his own son less than he had received.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; M.A., M.D. Westminister School, 1646-52. Oxford University, Christ Church, 1652-8. B.A., 1656; M.A., 1658; M.B., 1674. Locke never received the M.D., but I am listing all medical degrees as though they were M.D.'s.
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; Locke's parents were stern Puritans, but he himself began to shuck off the received faith while he was at Westminster, and was never a Puritan after school days. At the Restoration, he conformed without hesitation and went on to be a Latitudinarian. Cranston asserts that after 1688 Locke went beyond Latitudinarianism to Socinianism. See especially The Reasonableness of Christianity, 1695. Locke insisted, apparently even to himself, that he was still Anglican; however, he did publish Reasonableness anonymously.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mtr; Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689, was, inter alia, centrally concerned with the foundations of the new scientific knowledge. Beginning rather early, Locke kept records (some, perhaps most, of them published, some in the Philosophical Transactions) of the weather-temperature (such as the thermometer was), barometric reading, hygrometer reading (again such as it was). Locke studied medicine but did not contribute to the science of medicine. Perhaps a case could be made for listing chemistry, because he did experiment in it as a young man. However, I am unable to see that much of anything came out of the experimentation.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Official; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Pub; After his M.A. Locke remained at Oxford as a Student (i.e., Fellow) of Christ Church. In 1660 he was Lecturer in Greek in the College; in 1663, Reader in Rhetoric; in 1664, Censor of Moral Philosophy. He held the Studentship, collecting the stipend though not often resident after 1667, until 1684 when he was expelled by order of the King. He inherited a modest estate from his father, 1661. Earlier sources computed that he received about ?73 per annum from it; Cranston (whom I accept) figures it rather at ?240. He received income from the estate (presumably not always that identical sum) for the rest of his life. Secretary to Sir Walter Vane, 1665-6, on his diplomatic mission to Cleves. Resided in Anthony Ashley's house as physician and adviser 1667-83, when Ashley (now Shaftesbury) died. It is unclear what remuneration beyond living accommodations he received early, though Shaftesbury secured Locke's appointment to governmental offices. Locke later referred to ?800 as what he had received for serving Shaftesbury for ten or twelve years. After the early governmental employment ceased in 1675, Shaftesbury bestowed an annuity of ?100 per annum on him. Locke himself paid ?800 (the same ?800 mentioned above) into the annuity, so that only about half of it was Shaftesbury's gift. At Shaftesbury's request he was tutor to the son of Sir John Banks in France, 1677-9. Secretary of Presentation (of benefices), 1672-3; salary of ?300 per annum. Secretary to the Council of Trade and Plantations, 1673-5; salary of ?500 per annum, later raised to ?800. Cranston says that Locke never succeeded in collecting any of it, however. Locke fled abroad in 1683 and lived in the Netherlands, apparently on his own resources, until 1689. Commission of Appeals, 1689-1704; salary of ?200 with virtually no duties. Member of the new Board of Trade, 1696-1700; salary of ?1000 per annum. We have the contract for the first edition of the Essay; Locke received 10s per sheet, for a total of ?29. Although other contracts are not described, Locke, now a famous man, undoubtedly received at least as much for other books and for subsequent editions of the Essay.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Merchant Patronage; Alexander Popham, one of the magistrates of Somerset for whom Locke's father worked, was Locke's first patron. Popham secured his admission to Westminster School in 1646 and was apparently instrumental in his later election to a Studentship in Christ Church in 1652. In 1665 Locke went to Brandenburg (Cleves) as secretary to the diplomatic mission of Sir Walter Vane. It appears that this appointment came from the government rather than from Vane, for Locke was offered two similar diplomatic posts soon after he returned. In 1667 Locke went to reside in the London house of Anthony Ashley, (later Earl of Shaftesbury and Lord Chancellor), as Ashley's personal physician, and he stayed in Ashley-Shaftesbury's service until Ashley's death in 1683. He came to be regarded as a valued and confidential friend by the whole family. Thus he negotiated the marriage of Shaftesbury's son. Already in 1666 Ashley had arranged the dispensation that allowed Locke to remain in Christ Church without taking orders. There is no clear record of Locke's remuneration, but Shaftesbury rewarded him with governmental positions-Secretary of Presentation in 1672 and the Secretory to the Council of Trade and Plantations in 1673. He accompanied the son of the great merchant Sir John Banks in France as a tutor, 1677-9. He hid in Dr. Veen's house in Amsterdam, 1685-7. (While this is interesting information, I won't count it as patronage.); 1687-9, he lived in a home of a Quaker merchant, Benjamin Furly, in Rotterdam. (And I won't list this.); He became one of the William's advisers indirectly through Lord Mordaunt in 1687, and in 1689 he accompanied Queen Mary to England. In 1689 William offered to send him on a misssion to the Elector of Brandenburg, but he declined the offer. It appears that William named Locke to the Board of Trade in 1696. Lord Mordaunt, later Duke of Monmouth and then Earl of Peterborough, stood behind Locke's appointment to the Commisssion of Appeals in 1689. Locke dedicated the Essay to the Earl of Pembroke. He dedicated his Consideration of Interest, 1692, to Sir John Somers, an important figure in the government. In his final years Locke settled at Oates in Essex, home of Sir Francis Masham and his wife Damaris Cudworth Marsham, an old and dear friend. I do not want to consider this as patronage. Locke was insistent that he would pay for his room and board.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Locke did in fact practice medicine; his practice was not confined to Shaftesbury. I cannot see that it was ever a commercial practice, however.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship with Boyle, after 1654. He helped Boyle in experiments at Oxford, and after leaving Oxford he sent scientific information to Boyle. Cooperation with Sydenham during 1660s-1670s. Friendship with Guenellon, Nicolas Thoynard, and Justel, after 1675-9 when Locke was in France. Connection with Newton, 1690s. Note that Locke's correspondence is published. Royal Society, 1668.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 12, 27-37. Biographia britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 2992-3009. A.I. Aaron, John Locke, (Oxford, 1937). John W. Yolton, John Locke: Problems and Perspectives, (Cambridge, 1969). Maurice Cranston, John Locke: A Biography, (London, 1952).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: H.R. Fox Bourne, The Life of John Locke, 2 vols. (London, 1876). John W. Yolton, John Locke and the Way of Ideas, (Oxford, 1956). Kenneth Dewhurst, John Locke (1632-1704): Physicians and Philosopher. A Medical Biography. (London, 1963). John D. Mabbott, John Locke, (London, 1973). John Dunn, Locke, (Oxford, 1984). The literature on Locke is enormous; there is no pretense that I have tried the impossible task of exhausting it.

Logan, James

1. Dates: Born: Lurgan, County Armagh, Ireland, 20 October 1674; Died: Germantown, Pennsylvania, 31 October 1751; Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Church Living; Schoolmaster; Patrick Logan was a Scottish Anglican clergyman who became a Quaker and supported himself henceforth as a schoolmaster. It is clear that the family was very poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Irish (in the sense that he was born in Ireland. The family was part of the Scotch Irish community.); Career: English. (I treat Pennsylvania as English.); Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No university education.
5. Religion: Sect; Friends-classify as Sect.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics; Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Logan was one of the first men of science in the colonies. His isolation there, and his absorption in the governance of Pennsylvania, greatly limited his contributions to science. He was mathematically gifted and wholly self-educated in mathematics. Although he devoted considerable attention to the subject and attained some competence, he does not figure in the history of mathematics. So also he got his own telescope, observed the heavens, and composed a commentary on Halley's lunar tables. In two areas he did enter the international discourse of science. He experimented on the generation of corn, a pioneer step toward hybridization. The work was published in the Philosophical Transactions and later separately in the Netherlands as Experimenta et meletemata de plantarum generatione, 1739. It was known to and cited by students of botany. He also simplied Huygens' method of finding the refraction of a lens (published in the Netherlands with the Experimenta as Canonum pro inveniendis refractionum, 1739), and he composed a paper on spherican aberration (Demonstrationes de radiorum lucis in superficies sphaericas, 1741).
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Adm, Merchant; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Apprenticed to a linen draper in Dublin, 1687. Assistant schoolmaster under his father in Bristol, 1690-3. Schoolmaster in Bristol, 1693-7. He set himself up in the linen trade, without much success, 1697-9. Secretary, administrator, land agent, merchant of William Penn in Pennsylvania, 1699-1751. He received a rather poor salary of ?100. (This could equally be called patronage.); Most of his life in Pennsylvania he was a member of the provincial Council. He was Mayor of Philadelphia in 1722-3; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 1731-9; Acting Governor, 1736-7. It is not clear in what I have read what remuneration these positions carried. As Clerk of the Council he received a small stipend, and I assume the other positions also paid. Logan functioned as a merchant in his own right in Pennsylvania, and when he got down to it seriously, he made himself wealthy.
8. Patronage: Gentry; William Penn.
9. Technological Connections: Mechanical Devices; Cartography; Invented Conestoga Wagon. As Penn's agent Logan was charged with laying out tracts of land and running property lines, functions for which his mathematical skills eminently qualified him.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Close friendship with Thomas Godfrey: introduced higher mathematics to Godfrey, and defended his claim to invention of an improved mariner's quadrant in 1732. Intimate friendship with John Bartram, botanist, like Godfrey, a Pennsylvanian. Extensive correspondence with Robert Hunter, William Burnet, Cadwallader Colden, Josiah Martin, Johann Albrecht Fabricius, William Jones, Peter Collinson, some of them other colonials, some of them scientists/intellectuals in Europe. Friendship with Flamsteed.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 12, 81-3. Frederick B. Tolles, James Logan and the Culture of Provincial America, (Boston, 1957). This is the definitive account of Logan. Frederick B. Tolles, 'Philadelphia's first Scientist, James Logan', Isis, 47 (1956), 20-30. Frederick E. Brasch, 'James Logan, a Colonial Mathematical Scholar,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (1943), 3-12.

Lonicerus [Lonitzer], Adam

1. Dates: Born: Marburg, 10 October 1528; Died: Frankfurt, 29 May 1586 Datecode: - Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Academic; His father, Johann Lonitzer (1497-1569), was a philologist and professor at the University of Marburg (he has his own entry in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 19, 158-63). No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Marburg, Germany. Career: Frankfurt, Germany. Death: Frankfurt, Germany.
4. Education: University of Marburg; M.A., M.D. University of Mainz; 1536, University of Marburg, received a B.A. (1540), and M.A. (1545). He studied medicine at Marburg and at Mainz. He received his M.D. in 1554 from Marburg.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Natural History; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics. 
7. Means of Support: Publishing; Government Official; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; 1545-1546, began teaching at the Gymnasium in Frankfurt, but returned to Marburg because of disturbances caused by war. While a student in Mainz, he was a private tutor in the home of Dr. Wilhelm Osterod, professor of medicine at Mainz. 1553, professor of mathematics, University of Marburg. 1554-1586, appointed municipal physician in Frankfurt, at a salary of 40 gulden. He also worked as a proofreader in the printing shop owned by his father-in-law, who specialized in reviving old herbals. After the death of Egenolf, Lonicerus inherited a share of the business, one of the most prosperous in Germany, and ran it with his brothers-in-law.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; He supposedly received a call to the University of Mainz, which was presumably the work of his patrons, the medical professors Osterrod (see above) and Waehinger. Since nothing came of this, I am not listing it. 1554, he married the daughter of Frankfurt printer Christian Egenolph (d. 1533). He then inherited a share of this substantial business. Upon marrying Magdalena Egenolf, he became a citizen of Frankfurt. He dedicated the second part of his natural history (1555) to the city, and received a 10 taler honorarium. He also dedicated a 1573 book to the city. Count Philipp of Nassua was the godfather of Lonicerus's first son. Lonicerus later dedicated his Kraeuterbuch (1557) to the count.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; As well as acting as municipal physician, he wrote books on public health, such as regulations for controlling the plague (with Johann Palmerius, 1572) and regulations for midwives (1573).
10. Scientific Societies: None

Karl Maegdefrau, Neue deutsche Biographie, 15, 147b-8b. W. Sticker, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 19, 155-6. F.W.E. Roth, 'Botaniker Eucharius Roesslin, Theod. Dorsten, u. Adam Lonicer (1526-1586),' Zentralblatt fuer Bibliothekswesen, 19 (1902), 277-86. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: F.A. Andersen, An Illustrated History of Herbals (1977), 156-62.

Lower, Richard

1. Dates: Born: Tremeer, Cornwall, late 1631. He was baptized on 29 January 1632; Fulton, undoubtedly for that reason, places his birth in January 1632. Died: London, 17 January 1691; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 60
2. Father: Gentry; Humfrey Lower came from an old affluent family. The family of Lower's mother was also prominent. Richard was the second son. Clearly prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; M.A., M.D. Westminster School, 1643-9. Oxford University, Christ Church, 1649-65; B.A., 1653; M.A., 1655; B.M. & M.D., 1665.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Anatomy; Lower was the leading physiologist in England after Harvey; he was especially concerned with the circulatory system and respiratory physiology. Tractatus de corde, 1669. He was one of the earliest to experiment with transfusion, from one animal to another. He saw transfusion as a potential therapeutic procedure. De corde contributed also to the anatomy of the heart. Earlier Willis assigned to Lower primary credit for his work on the anatomy of the brain. The tubercle of Lower (in the brain) preserved his name.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Personal Means. Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Lower stayed on in Oxford until 1666, though he resigned his Studentship in Christ Church in 1663. He was a second son; I saw no reference to any inheritance. However, in 1666 he married a widow possessed of a manor, and at his death he passed it on to a daughter. Medical practice, 1661-91, initially in Oxford, then in London, where he followed his mentor Willis in 1666. Lower's practice was very successful.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Court Patronage; Thomas Willis gave impetus to his early career. Lower was his assistant for at least ten years, and his first publication was a defense of Willis against an attack on him. Lower practised with him in Oxford, followed him to London, and eventually virtually inherited Willis' practice. After Willis' death, Lower succeeded him as court physician. I'm not quite sure what this meant. Wood said he was much in favor at the court. Gotch and Fulton are explicit in asserting that he was one of the physicians who attended Charles on his death bed; a passage in Evelyn's diary appears to confirm this. As a staunch Whig, Lower began to fade at court after the Rye House plot, and he lost the position upon the accession of James. After the Revolution he advised the crown on the organization of naval medical services. Lower dedicated his first work, Diatribae de febribus, 1665, to Boyle, who also introduced him to the Royal Society in 1667. He dedicated De corde to Thomas Millington. Boyle and Millington were both members of the informal scientific circle in which Lower functioned in Oxford. To be sure, Boyle was vastly more wealthy. Nevertheless these dedications do not sound like patronage to me.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; He discovered the medicinal water at East Throp (or Astrop) in 1664, and with Willis he promoted it actively.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Intimate friendship and cooperation with Thomas Willis, from Oxford period until Willis'death in 1675. This relationship belonged to the larger circle of the Oxford physiologists of the 50's and early 60's. He studied chemisty under Sthael in company with Wren and Millington and others of the circle. Friendship and correspondence with Anthony Wood. Royal Society, 1667. Lower ceased to be active in 1668 and resigned in 1678. Royal College of Physicians, 1675.

Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 12, 203-4. Ebbe C. Hoff & Phebe M. Hoff, ' The Life and Times of Richard Lower' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 4 (1936), 517-35. K.J. Franklin, 'Biographical Notice' in R.T. Gunther's Early Science in Oxford, 9, xv-xxix. John F. Fulton, A Bibliography of Two Oxford Physiologists, (Oxford, 1935). (See Oxford Bibliographical Society, Proceedings & Papers, 4 (1934-5), 1-62.). Francis Gotch, Two Oxford Physiologists: Richard Lower (1631-1691), John Mayow (1643-1679), (Oxford, 1908).  Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 3009-10. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 379-82. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 297-9. Robert G. Frank, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists: A Study of Scientific Ideas, (Berkeley, 1980).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: K.J. Franklin, 'The Work of Richard Lower (1631-91),' Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 25 (1931), Section of the History of Medicine. _____, 'Some Notes on Richard Lower (1631-91), and his De corde, London, 1669,' Annals of Medical History, n.s. 3 (1931), 599-602.

Lusitanus, Amatus (Rodrigues, Joao)

1. Dates: Born: Castelo Branco, Port, 1511; Died: Salonika, Greece,21 January 1568; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: Belgian, Italian, Turkish (Middle East); Death: Turkish (Middle East)
4. Education: University of Salamanca; M.D. Sent to Salamanca in 1525 or 26. I assume B.A. Maybe that was in 1529 or 30. Stayed until 1532 studying medicine and surgery. Became a licentiate in medicine but not M.D. (but I list this as M.D.)
5. Religion: Catholic, Jew
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine, Pharmacology, Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy, Surgery; He published extensively on plants, with special attention to their medicinal values. He also published seven volumes of case histories. He also participated in an important anatomical discovery and was an innovator in surgery.
7. Means of Support: Medical practice; Secondary Means of Support: Academic position, patronage; Lusitanus was from a Marrano family that fled from Spain in the late 15th century. Because of the Inquisition (which was being instituted in Portugal), he did not remain there long after his university education. He migrated to Antwerp in 1533, where he had a successful practice that included prominent patients such as Luis Vives, the mayor of Antwerp, and the Portuguese Consul. In 1540 or 41 he was invited by the Duke of Ferrara to be the professor of anatomy at University of Ferrara. He was the physician to Diana d'Este. In 1547, he moved to Ancona, probably for reasons of religious persecution. He had an extensive practice with highly placed patients in major Italian cities, including Pope Julius III (and his nephew, the mayor of Ancona), Mendoza, the ambassador of Charles V, and Cosimo de' Medici. He dedicated books to a Portuguese aristocrat, to Cosimo, to Cardinal d'Este, and later to the Senate of the republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnic). In 1555, because of religious persecution, he fled Italy. For perhaps three years in Ragusa. Finally to Salonika in 1559, where returned openly to Judaism, and where he died.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; City Magistrate; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; In addition to the items above, in Ancona he treated the sister of Julius III, and Julius himself called Lusitanus to Rome to treat him. For a few months he was under the protection of Duke Guido Ubaldo in Pesaro.
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice, pharmacology
10. Scientific Societies: He had a controversy with Mattioli in which Mattioli accused him of plagiary.

J. Lopes-Dias, 'Dr. Joao Rodrigues de Castelo Branco. Amato Lusitano,' Congresso do mundo portugues. Publicacoes, 13 (1940), 91-175. This work contains a detailed discussion of the literature (mostly in Portuguese) about Lusitanus. Jarru Friedenwald, 'Amatus Lusitanus,' in The Jews and Medicine, 2 vols. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1944), 1, 322-80. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 414-17.

Not Available and Not Consulted: M. Salamon, 'Amatus Lustinus in seine Zeit,' Zeitschrift fur flinishce Medizin, 41-2 (1910). M. de Lemos, Amato Lusitano, a sua vida e a sua obra, (Porto, 1907). Everyone seems to receive this as the authoritative work. F. Segret, 'Amatus Lusitanus, témoin de son temps.' Sefarrad, 23 (1968), 285-309. IV Centenario de Joao Rodrigues-Amato Lusitano (Estudios Castelo Branco, 1968). 

Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall