The Scientific Revolution - Scientific Community - Westfall Catalogue:  Categories - Robert A. Hatch:  Presented with Written Permission of G. Westfall
T H E   S C I E N T I F I C   R E V O L U T I O N
Categories & Codes - Richard S. Westfall DSB Catalogue
Robert A. Hatch - University of Florida

Field 1: Status:   character, 1 space. To indicate by a simple code the status of each record--c (complete), i (incomplete), blank (not yet done). In fact all are now marked c; if I get around to it, I will delete this field.

Field 2: Name:  character, 26 spaces. I will never need to sort by first name. This field will include both names. I have counted the longest names; 26 spaces will allow all last names plus at least initials for given names, and are enough for the great majority of names to be included completely.

Field 3:   Date Code: character, 2 spaces. To indicate by a simple code when dates of birth and/or death are uncertain or unknown.

Field 4:   Year of Birth: character, 4 spaces. Precisely what the name says.

Field 5:  Year of Death: character, 4 spaces. Precisely what the name says.

Field 6:  Life Span: numeric, 3 spaces. Precisely what it says. It was my intention to leave this blank when the life span is not known. dBase appears to refuse the blank and inserts a zero. Hence zero here means that the life span is unknown. Life span is simply the year of death minus the year of birth without regard for day and month of birth and death. 3 spaces because Fontenelle hit 100 (according to my method of computation).

Field 7:   Father: 7 spaces. The father's occupation/status. I leave space for two categories because fathers can belong in more than one and because there are cases of scientists reared successively by two fathers, or virtual fathers.

Field 8: Financial Status. 1 space. The father's financial status. In a very large number of cases there is no solid evidence about this, and I am trying to avoid guessing. I do take all physicians to have been affluent or prosperous by assumption. The evidence for this field tends to be more hearsay than substantial. I am collecting what I can find, but I am extremely suspicious of it.

Field 9:  Natality of Birth: character, 2 spaces. Nationality of birth, indicated by 2 character abbreviation. In this heading, as in the following two, I take a colonial society to be part of the national community of the mother country--thus Spaniards in Mexico are listed as Spanish, etc. I use Eu (European) to indicate those, such as the Jesuit missionaries to China, who seem to me to remain essentially in a European or Western culture despite their location. Eu appears very seldom. I also have non-European and Middle Eastern, both also used very seldom.

Field 10:  Natality of Career: character, 11 spaces. Nationality of career--that is, national location where major works of career were accomplished, indicated by 2 character abbreviation. There is room for as many as four countries for career, and there are a number who require four.

Field 11:  National Location of Death: character, 2 spaces. National location of death, indicated by 2 character abbreviation. When someone died in the French army in the Netherlands, to use a concrete example, I list the nationality of death as French.

Field 12:  University: character, 23 spaces. Room to indicate up to six universities attended (not including degrees by incorporation or honorary degrees--Jean Bauhin did hit six), each indicated by an abbreviation of 3 characters, separated by commas.

Field 13: BA Degree: logical, 1 space. To indicate whether scientist earned BA degree. I do not attempt to distinguish the B.A. from other Bachelor degrees. All Bachelor degrees, or their equivalent, fulfill the requirement to make this 'true.'

Field 14:  Advanced Degree: character, 8 spaces. Space to indicate three advanced degrees, by two character abbreviations separated by comma. Again I do not attempt to distinguish degrees except by field, and for medicine and law degrees need not be advanced. All Masters degrees are MA. All medical degrees are MD. All law degrees are LD. Anything like a Ph.D. is PD. A theology degree is DD. That is, I assume that all of these 'advanced' degrees involved study beyond the B.A. or its equivalent.

Field 15:  Religion: character, 7 spaces. Space to indicate two religions (there are those who convert), indicated by 3 character abbreviations, separated by commas. As I have realized that some converted Jews are present in my sample, and as this has come to seem important to me, I have entered the information here. 'Jew' means, here, not necessarily a practicing Jew (indeed almost certainly not, given the realities of the 16th and 17th centuries), but one of Jewish descent.

Field 16:  Prime Discipline:  character, 11 spaces. To indicate up to three primary scientific disciplines in which a scientist worked, by means of 3 character abbreviations.

Field 17:   Subordinate Disciplines: character, 11 spaces. To indicate up to three subordinate disciplines with the same set of abbreviations.

Field 18:   Primary Means of Support:  character, 11 spaces. To indicate primary means of support. I allow for three equal primary means of support, indicated by 3 character abbreviations. To avoid confusion with abbreviations I will use identical ones in different fields to indicate closely analogous categories--thus 'Med' for the discipline of medicine, for medical practice as a means of support, for a physician as patron (and earlier as a father), and for Medicine as a technological application of science.

Field 19:  Secondary Means of Support:  character, 11 spaces. To indicate up to three secondary means of support, by means of the same abbreviations.

Field 20:  Patronage:  character, 15 spaces. To indicate up to four different sources of patronage by means of a set of 3 character abbreviations. This field will indicate only the source of patronage and not its level of importance or intensity. There will be more abbreviations identical, in this case, to sources of support. (Note that Crt, used here to mean Court, is also, by oversight, used under Discipline and under Technology to mean Cartography. If this generates problems, I will need to change one or the other. So far I have not perceived any trouble.)

Field 21:  Technological Involvement:  character, 39 spaces. To indicate up to ten different fields of technological involvement by three character abbreviations--not talk about useful knowledge, but actual involvement in some enterprise of utilitarian value. I originally had space for four, and expanded by steps to five, six, and seven fields as individuals needing that many appeared, and then (with Christopher Wren) to ten. Medical practice and pharmacology are taken as technological applications of scientific knowledge. More abbreviations identical to scientific disciplines.

Field 22:  Scientific Societies:  character, 14 spaces. Space to indicate as many as five scientific societies (two character abbreviations) to which the man belonged. (Jean Bernoulli belonged to five.)

DSB - Westfall - Codes & Abbreviations

Date Code

ca = both dates uncertain
cb = birth uncertain
cd = death uncertain
fl = flourished (two dates give known period) 
fb = birth unknown
fd = death unknown
No life span for any code beginning with f

Father's Occupation/Status

Acd = Academic
Adm = EstateAdmin
Agr = Peasant/small farmer
Ars = Aristocrat
Art = Artisan
Ecc = Cleric
Eng = Engineer
Gen = Gentry
Gov = Govt Official
Lab = Laborer
Law = Lawyer
Let = Man ofLetters
Mag = Magistrate
Med = Physician
Mer = Merchant
Mil = Soldier 
Min = Miner
Mis = Miscellaneous
Mus = Musician
Sch = Schoolmaster
Sci = Scientist
Scr = Scribe/Amanuensis
Sur = Surgeon
Unk = Unknown

Father's Financial Status

P = Poor
A = Affluent
W = Wealthy
N = No information


Abr = Aberdeen
Aix = Aix
Alc = Alcala
Alt = Altdorf
Ang = Angers
Aug = Augsburg
Avi = Avignon
Bas = Basel
Bol = Bologna
Bou = Bourges
Brm = Bremen
Cae = Caen
Cah = Cahors
Clg = Cologne
Cmb = Cambridge
Coi = Coimbra
Col = Col.Romano
Cop = Copenhagen
Cra = Cracow
Dou = Douai
Edn = Edinburgh
Erf = Erfuhrt
Evo = Evora
FaO = Franfurt an Oder
Fer = Ferrara
Fra = Franeker
Fri = Friburg
Frk = Frankfurt
Gen = Geneva
Ges = Giessen
Hal = Halle
Har = Harvard
Hei = Heidelberg
Hlm = Helmstaedt
Ing = Ingolstadt
Jen = Jena
Kon = Koenigsbrg
Lau = Lausanne
Ley = Leiden
Lip = Leipzig
Lig = Liège
Lis = Lisbon
Lou = Louvain
Luc = Lucerne
Lyo = Lyons
Mar = Marburg
Mex = Mexico
Mil = Milan
Mnt = Montpelier
Mnz = Mainz
Mon = Montaubon
Nap = Naples
Non = No univ.
Nov = Novara
Ord = ReligOrder
Org = Orange
Orl = Orleans
Oxf = Oxford
Pad = Padua
Pal = Palermo
Par = Paris
Pav = Pavia
Per = Perugia
Pis = Pisa
Poi = Poitiers
Prg = Prague (Charles)
Prm = Parma
Reg = Reggio
Rhm = Rheims
Ros = Rostock
SAn = St. Andrews
Sal = Salamanca
Sap = Sapienza(Rom)
Sau = Saumur
Sbg = Salzburg
Sed = Sedan
Sev = Seville
Sig = Siguenza
Slr = Salerno
Str = Strassburg
Thn = Thorn
Tou = Toulouse
Tri = Trinity (Dub)
Tub = Tübingen
Unk = Unknown
Upp = Uppsala
Utr = Utrecht
Val = Valencia
Vlc = Valence
Vld = Valladolid
Vie = Vienna
Wit = Wittenberg
Wrz = Würzburg
Zar = Zaragoza
Zur = Zurich(Carol)


Be = Belgian area
Cz = Czechoslovak
Dn = Dane
Du = Dutch
En = English
Eu = European culture (e.g., Jesuits in China)
Fr = French
Ge = German
Hu = Hungarian
Ir = Irish
Iy = Italian
ME = Middle East
No = Non-European
Po = Polish
Pt = Portuguese
Ru = Russian
Sc = Scot
Sp = Spanish
Sv = Swede
Sw = Swiss
Un = Unknown
Yu = Yugoslav area


Ang = Anglican
Cal = Calvinist
Cth = Catholic
Het = Heterodox
Lth = Lutheran
Ort = Russian O.
Prt = Protestant
Sct = Sect
Unk = Unknown

Scientific Discipline

Alc = Alchemy
Ant = Anatomy
Asl = Astrology
Asn = Astronomy
Bot = Botany
Chm = Chemistry
Com = Sci Communcn
Crt = Cartography
Chm = Chemistry
Dem = Demography
Elc = Electricity
Emb = Embryology
Eng = Engineering
Ent = Entomology
Gog = Geography
Gol = Geology
Hyd = Hydraulics
Iat = Iatrochemstry
Int = Instrumentn
Mag = Magnetism
Mth = Mathematics
Mch = Mechanics
Mtr = Meteorology
Med = Medicine
Mtl = Metallurgy
Mcr = Microscopy
Mnl = Mineralogy
Mus = Music
NHs = Natl Hist
NPh = Natl Phil 
Nav = Navigation
OPh = Occult Phil 
Opt = Optics
Org = Sciic Orgn
Pal = Paleontology
Phr = Pharmacology
Phc = Physics
Phl = Physiology
SPh = Scholas Phil 
Org = Sciic Orgn 
Com = Sci Communcn 
Srg = Surgery
Zoo = Zoology

Scientific Discipline Grouped by General Categories





Natural Philosophy
Occult Philosophy
Scholastic Phil. Medicine

Natural History




Scientific Orgn.
Scientific Comm. 

Means of Support

Agr = Agriculture
Acd = Acad Posn
Adm = EstateAdmin
Art = Artisan
Asl = Astrology
Cal = Calendars
Ecc = Church Liv
Eng = Engineer
Gov = Govtl Posn
Int = Instruments
Law = Lawyer
Med = Med Pract
Mer = Merchant
Mil = Military 
Mis = Miscellan
Mus = Musician
Org = Posn with Sciic Socy
Pat = Patronage
Per = Pers Means
Phr = Apothecary
Pub = Publishing
Sch = Schoolmstr
Sai = Sailor
Unk = Unknown


Acd = Academic
Ars = Aristrocracy
Crt = Court
Ecc = Eccl Official
Gen = Gentry
Gov = Govt Official
Mag = City Magistr.
Med = Physician
Mer = Merchant
Non = None known
Sci = Scientist
Unk = Unknown


Agr = Agriculture
Arc = Architecture
Crt = Cartography
CEn = Civil Engr
Chm = Chemistry
Dev = Mech Devices
Hyd = Hydraulics
Int = Instruments
Med = Medical Pract
MEn = Military Engr
Mth = Applied Math
Mtl = Metallurgy
Nav = Navigation
Non = None known
Phr = Pharmacology

Scientific Societies

AR = Academie Royale
BA = Berlin Academy
CA = Copenhagen Academy
Cm = Acad del Cimento
DP = Dublin Philosoophical Society
IB = Instit. Bologna
In = Acad. degli Investigant(Naple)
Ln = Acad dei Lin Lp = Leopoldina
MC = Medical  College (any one)
Ox = Oxford Philosoophical Society
RA = Russian Acdademy (St.Pete)
RS = Royal Soceity (London)
SA = Soc of Apoth (any one)

With Permission,
G. Westfall (Dec.98)