The Darwin Page - Darwin's Friends & Contemporaries - Dr Robert A. Hatch
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida

Agassiz, Jean Louis (1807-1873), Swiss-American zoologist, studied philosophy and medicine.  Agassiz was eventually associated with Cuvier and Humboldt at Paris (1831-32), later became professor of natural history at Neuchatel (1832-45) and professor of geology and zoology at Harvard (1847).  Agassiz spent a good deal of time studying glacial formations and eventually proposed a 10-volume study of American natural history.  Agassiz was a strong and consistent opponent of Darwin until his death.  DSB

Barrande, Joachim (1799-1883), French geologist and paleontologist.  Barrande studied and taught at the University of Padua and became an authority on Silurian formations.  He was famous for his investigation of the Paleozoic fossils of Bohemia.  Barrande published twenty-two volumes of his Systeme Silurian de la Boheme during his lifetime, a work that is still cited by paleontologists.  Darwin spoke highly of 'his admirable labours on the development of Trilobites, and his most important work on his Lower or Primordial Zone'.  Barrande was awarded the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society of London (1855).  DSB DIF.

Bate, Charles Spence (1818-80), English invertebrate zoologist and practicing dentist.  In his day he was counted as an authority on Crustacea. Licentiate Royal College of Surgeons, fellow Linnean Society, Royal Society 1861, president Odontological Society 1885. Works: Catalogue of the Specimens of the Amphipodus Crustacea (1862); with John Obadiah Westwood, History of the British Sessile-eyed Crustacea (1863-68); Report on the Crustacea Macrua dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the Years 1873 and 1876 (1888); professional articles in dental journals.  DIF 

Bateson, William (1861-1926), influential British naturalist who studied at Cambridge and became known for for his work on Mendelism and the general fields of morphology and genetics, especially determination of sex.  Among his works are Materials for the Study of Variation (1894), Mendel's Principles of Heredity (1902), and Method and Scope of Genetics (1908).  DSB 

Bell, Sir Charles (1774-1842), Scottish anatomist who studied medicine at Edinburgh, eventually serving as a surgeon to Middlesex hospital (1812-36).  He later became a professor of surgery, Edinburgh (1836).  His principal work was with experimental techniques with the nervous system.  Discovery of distinct functions of sensory and motor nerves was published in his in Anatomy of the Brain (1811) and his Nervous System (1830).  Bell was a Royal Society medallist in 1829.  He is remembered for Bell's law: the anterior roots of the spinal nerves are motor and the posterior are sensory; Bell's palsy, facial paralysis; Bell's phenomenon: an outward and upward rolling of the eyeball of the attempt to close the eye, on the affected side in peripheral facial (Bell's) paralysis.  DSB DIF

Bence-Jones, Henry (1813-1873), English physician and chemist, friend of Ernst Brucke.  He treated Darwin in 1865. He is remembered for various contributions, among them the Bence-Jones albumium, body, or protein: a peculiar albuminous substance, found in the urine, frequently but not exclusively, in cases of multiple myeloma; Bence-Jones albumosuria: the presence of Bence-Jones protein in the urine; Bence-Jones cylinders: cylindrical gelatinous bodies forming the contents of the seminal vesicles; Bence-Jones reaction: the precipitation of albumose by nitric acid redissolved by boiling and precipitated again on cooling. DIF

Bernard, Claude (1813-1878), illustrious French physiologist, studied initially at Paris and eventually became known as the founder of experimental medicine.  Bernard investigated chemical phenomena of digestion, glycogenic function of the liver, and the sympathetic nervous system.  Bernard was the author of An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865) and eventually became a three-time grand-prize winner of Académie des Sciences award in physiology.  He is remembered for Bernard's canal: a supplementary pancreatic duct; Bernard's glandular layer, a layer of cells lining the acini of the pancreas; Bernard's puncture: puncture on a definite point of floor of the fourth ventricle causing diabetes.  DSB  DIF

Bonnet, Charles (1720-1793), Swiss naturalist, biologist, and philosopher.  Bonnet first studied law and then went on to become an outstanding biologist.  Among his books are Traite d'insectologie (1745) and Contemplation de nature (1794-1765).  DSB DIF

Dohrn, Anton Felix (1840-1909), German zoologist, studied with Gegenbaur and Haeckal at Jena.  His initial interest was in entomology.  He took his doctorate at Breslau and then became lecturer in zoology at Jena 1867-71.  Dohrn corresponded with Darwin 1867-82.  He participated in science expeditions to Scotland and Messina and founded Naples Zoological Station 1874-1909.  He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1899.  His most important work was on the origin and evolution of vertebrates (which he thought traceable to annelids), crustaceans, and other marine animals of Mediterranean and English coasts. Works: Fauna und Flora des Golfen von Neapel, Der Ursprung der Wirbeltiere und das Prinzip des Funktionswechsels (1875, and Studien zur Urgeschichte des Wirbeltierkorpers (1881-1907).  DSB DIF

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard (1867-1941), German biologist and philosopher who studied with Weismann and Haeckel.  Driesch was an advocate of vitalism.  He was professor at Heidelberg (1911), Cologne (1920), and Leipzig (1921).  Among his published works are analytische Theorie der Organischen Entwicklung (1894), Geschichte des Vitalismus (1905), Leib und Seele (1916), and Parapsychologie (1932).  DSB DIF

Elie de Beaumont, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce (1798-1884), French geologist, studied at Paris and eventually made a highly regarded geological map of France begun in 1825.  In his Notice sur les systemes de montagnes (3 vols., 1852) enunciated a theory relating age and orientation of mountain chains.  He taught geology and was a professor at the School of Mines, Paris (from 1829), and the College de France (1832; with Bureau of Mines (from 1824) and as inspector general (from 1847; senator (1852) and perpetual secretary (1853) of the Academy of Sciences.  DIF  DSB

Ewald, Julius Wilhelm (1811-1891), Berlin geologist, wrote on the Jurassic and the chalk formations of northern Germany.  Ewald published a geologic map of the region between Magdeburg and the Hartz, 1864, and was coeditor of The Complete Works of Leopold von Buch, 1867-85. DIF

Forbes, James David (1809-1868), Scottish physicist, professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh 1833-59, dean Faculty of Arts 1837, principal St. Andrew 1859. Forbes had an illustrious career.  He was Co-founder of the British Association 1831, three-time Keith medallist Edinburgh Society, fellow of the Royal Society 1832 (Rumford and Royal medals), secretary 1840-51 of Royal Society of Edinburgh, member of the French Academy of Science 1842. Forbes discovered the polarization of heat 1834, and experimentally established the identity of thermal and luminous radiation.  He was among the first to study glacier movements; Agassiz and Tyndall contested his claim to first observations of the veined structure of glaciers. Author of Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Penine Chain with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843), and memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, the extinct volcanoes of Vivarais (Ardeche), and Cuchillon and Elidon Hills.  DIF DSB

Galton, Sir Francis (1822-1911), English polymath and scientist interested in antropometry, experimental psychology, statistics and heredity.  He was born near Birmingham and graduated from Cambridge in 1844 before taking a position in the British Civil Service.  Here he studied meteorology and published his Meteorographica (1863), the basis of modern weather maps.  Galton is perhaps best known best for his work in anthropology and heredity, and is often credited with having founded the science of eugenics.  His  Hereditary Genius Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (1907 [1883]) referred to in Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), etc.  Notably, Galton was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin and cousin to Charles Darwin. He is remembered also for Galton's law of regression: average parents tend to produce average children, minus parents. . . produce minus children, plus parents. . . produce plus children, but extremes are inherited in a less marked degree.  DSB  DIF

Gegenbauer, Karl (1826-1903), German anatomist and zoologist.  He was professor at Jena (1855-73) and Heidelberg (1973-1901) where he was an influential teacher.  Gegenbaurer emphasized the value of comparative anatomy in the study of evolution and of homologies; he showed (1861) that the eggs of vertebrates are signal cells.  He worked closely with Haeckel on descent theory.  DSB DIF

Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, Etienne (1772-1844), French zoologist who studied at Paris and became professor at the Museum of Natural History (1793-1840), and later was appointed to the Faculty of Sciences (from 1809) and was a member (1798-1801) of Napoleon's scientific staff in Egypt.  He was influential as a comparative anatomist.  His theory in Philosophie anatomique (2 vols., 1818-22) and other works that all animals conformed to a single plan of structure attracted supporters but was opposed by Cuvier.  DSB  DIF

Gratiolet, Louis Pierre (1815-1865), French anatomist and anthropologist.  Gratiolet conducted comparative studies of human and primate brain lobes. He is remembered for Gratiolet's optic radiation: strand of fibers continuous with those of the corona radiata and optic tract.  DSB  DIF

Gray, Asa (1810-1888), influential American botanist, became M.D. in 1831 and then pursued his former hobby as a professional botanist.  Gray was appointed Chair of Natural History at Harvard, director of the Cambridge Botanical Garden (1842-72), and a founder of the National Academy of Arts and Sciences. Gray also devoted a great deal of time to expeditions.  He was a staunch supporter of Darwin's work.  As Sir Joseph Hooker claimed, Gray was 'one of the first to accept and defend the doctrine of National Section. . . so that Darwin, whilst fully recognizing the different standpoints from which they took their departures, and their divergence of opinion on important points, nevertheless regarded him as the naturalist who had most thoroughly gauged the Origin of Species, and as a tower of strength to himself and his cause' (Proc. Roy. Soc. 46 (1890); XV; Letters of Asa Gray, ed Jane Loring Gray [2 vols., Boston, 1893]).  DIF  DSB

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich (1834-1919), prominent German biologist, zoologist, and philosopher.  Haeckel studied medicine and natural philosophy at Wurzburg, Berlin, and Vienna, and became professor of zoology, Jean (1865-1908).  He is famous for his work on a number of scientific expeditions to Canary Islands (1866-67), Red Sea (1873), Ceylon (1881-82), Java (1900-01), among others. Haeckel was the first German advocate of organic evolution and early supporter of Darwin and evolution.  Haeckel enunciated biogenetic law that in the development of the individual animal the stages in the evolutionary history of the postulating species are repeated, postulating as illustration a hypothetical ancestral form (gastraea) represented by the gastrula stage of the individual; first to draw up a genealogical tree relating the various animal orders.  His works include Monographie der Radiolaren (1862), Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866), Naturliche Schopfungsgeschichte Anthropogenie order Entwicklungsgeschichte (1868), des Menschen (1874), Studien zur Gastraeatheorie (1877), Monismus als Band zwischen Religion und Wissenschaft (1892), and Weltratzel (1899). DIF DSB

Heer, Oswald (1809-1883), Swiss botanist, paleontologist, and entomologist.  Heer was professor of botany at the University of Zurich (1855-82) and wrote widely on fossil pants (from 1841).  HE wrote classic works on taxonomic botany; among his works are Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae (1855-59), Flora Fossilis Arctica (7 vols., 1869-83), Die Urwelt der Schweiz (1865), Flora Fossilis Helvetiae (1876-77).  Heer received the Wollaston medal of the Geological Society (1874) and a royal medal (1878).  DSB DIF

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821-1894), illustrious German polymath who did original work as a physicist, physiologist, physician, mathematician, and philosopher.  In 1847 Helmholtz formulated the law of conservation of energy mathematically and he invented the ophthalmoscope 1851.  Helmholtz became professor of physics at the University of Berlin from 1871 and director of the Physicotechnical Institute, Charlotennburg, from 1887. Among his many positive contributions, he is remembered for Helmholtz's ligament: the part of anterior ligament of the malleus attached to the greater tympanic spine; Helmholtz's theory: each basilar fiber responds sympathetically to a definite tone and stimulates the hair cells of Corti's organ resting upon the fiber to send a nerve impulse to the brain creating sound perception.  DIF DSB

Henslow, Revered John Stevens (1796-1861), Cambridge Professor of Mineralogy (1822) and later of Botany (1827-61), famous for his early contact with Charles Darwin, who claimed that Henslow had 'attended to every branch of natural science' (Darwin 1967 [1862 and 1873], p. 222).  It is widely repeated that Darwin was known as the 'man who walks with Henslow.'  Darwin liked his lectures 'much for their extreme clearness, and the admirable illustrations,' particularly those to his pupils and senior university members on the 'rarer plants and animals observed. . . during delightful field excursions, on foot, or in coaches to distant places, or in a barge down the river' (Darwin 1958 [1876-82], p. 60). Darwin, whom he helped obtain the post of naturalist on the Beagle, 'always held him in high esteem' (p. 60 ed. n. 2) and attributed to him in large part his strong attachment to natural history. Founded the Cambridge Philosophical Society with Professor Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) following their 1819 geological tour together of the Isle of Wight. Wrote a clear, somewhat philosophical treaties on The Principles of Descriptive and Physiological Botany (1830), Roman Antiquities found in Norfolk (1844), essays on Diseases of Wheat Dictionary of Botanical Terms (1846).  DIF DSB

Herbert, (Revered) William, (1778-1847), naturalist, English aristocrat, and Dean of Manchester.  English horticulturist and taxonomist whom Darwin called 'the great maker of Hybrids' DIF DSB

Hertwig, Oskar (1849-1922), German biologist and embryologist, studied with Haeckal and Gegenbaur, founder and director (1888-1922) of Anatomical Institute, Berlin, Berlin; in 1875 established that fertilization is the fusion of male and female nuclei; investigated malformations of vertebrate embryos; with brother Richard von Hertwig (1850-1937) developed the germ layer theory. DIF DSB

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817-1911), famous English botanist and important friend and early supporter of Darwin.  Hooker received the M.D. at Glasgow in 1839 and then served aboard HMS Erebus on an expedition to the south pole.  Hooker was one of the most prominent botanists in England.  He published Antarctic Flora (1843), Genera Planetarum (1862-63), Flora of British India (1892-1897), and other works and succeeded his father, Sir William Jackson Hooker, as director of Kew Gardens, London.  DSB DIF
Huxley, Julian Sorell (1887-1975), English biologist and writer, son of Leonard Huxley, brother of the writer Aldous.  Huxley taught at Rice Institute, Houston (1912-16), Oxford (1919-25), and King's College, London (1925-35).  Huxley was eventually president of National Union of Scientific Workers (1926-29); secretary of the Zoological Society of London (1935-42); director-general of UNESCO; wrote Animal Biology with J.B.S Haldane, 1927), Scientific Research and Social Needs (1934), The Living Thoughts of Darwin (1939), Man in the Modern World (1947), and Heredity, East and West (1949); edited T. H. Huxley's Dairy of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake (1935) and The New Systematics (1940).  DIF

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), staunch defender of 'evolution' Huxley was widely known as 'Darwin's Bulldog.'  Huxley was a distinguished English biologist, zoologist, and paleontologist.  He was appointed Hunterian professor, Royal College of Surgeons (1863-69), Fullerian professor, Royal Institution (1863-67) and served as president of the Royal Society (1883-85).  As the foremost advocate of Darwin's theory in England, Huxley published Zoological Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863), Manual of the Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals (1871), . . .of Invertebrated Animals (1877), The Crayfish (1880), Science and Culture (1881), Evolution and Ethics (1893). DSB DIF

Kelvin, (William Thomson), Lord  (1824-1907). Irish mathematician and physicist who came to oppose Darwin's theory on the basis of arguments drawn from physics.  Kelvin was professor of natural philosophy at Glasgow from 1845 established the first British teaching laboratory. He is best known for work on heat and electricity, and he introduced the Kelvin, or absolute, scale of temperature. His work in thermodynamics of coordinating the theories of heat held by various by leading scientists of his time established firmly the law of thermodynamics as proposed by Joule. Invented the reflecting galvanometer and the siphon recorder for telegraphic messages.  Kelvin took measurements of the rate of the earth's cooling and concluded that Darwin's time frame of hundreds of millions of years was far too long and not supported by arguments from physics.  DIF DSB

Kolliker, Albert von (1817-1905), Swiss anatomist, histologist, and zoologist; professor of physiology and of microscopic and comparative anatomy at Wurzburg from 1847; his researches on animal tissue contributed to the development of embryology and histology; about 1870 visited Darwin, who 'liked [him] extremely' (Darwin, More Letters, 2:359). Kolliker's fibrous layer: the mesiric, the substantia propria of the iris.  DIF

Lamarck, Chevalier, Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Antoine de Monet de (1744-1829), influential French naturalist, paleontologist, botanist, and evolutionary thinker.  Lamarck is noted for his study and classification of invertebrates and the introduction of evolutionary theory.  In his day he was also a noted botanist who studied chemistry.  Lamarck is perhaps best remembered for his theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, which Darwin hoped to replace with the concept of natural selection.  Darwin, however, continued to use aspects of Lamarck's theory, notably the principle of 'use and disuse'.  With the assistance of Buffon, Lamarck traveled as royal botanist (1781-82) collecting for the Academy of Sciences.  He was keeper of the herbarium at the Jardin du Roi for a time and after 1793 professor of zoology at the Museum of Natural History.  Lamarck introduced the term Invertebrata and is considered founder of invertebrate paleontology. Cuvier's opposition to his theory of the gradual evolution of new species was influential in discrediting Lamarck during his lifetime.  DSB DIF

Leuckart, Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolf (1822-1898), German zoologist and  founder of the science of parasitology.  Leuckart studied medicine and became a pioneer in animal ecology.  He made important discoveries in animal physiology and in comparative morphology and classification of invertebrates, particularly marine animals.  He published works on parasitic forms, including worms and insects. DIF DSB

Leydig, Franz (1821-1908), German comparative anatomist and zoologist, first studied medicine and wrote Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Thiere (1857) and Zelle und Gewebe (1885). He is remembered for Leydig's cells: interstitial cells of the seminiferous tubules and of the mediastinum and connective tissue septa of the testes, believed to furnish the internal secretion of the testicle, or mucous cells that do not pour their secretion out over the surface of the epithelium; Leydig's cylinders: bundles of muscular fibers separated by partitions of protoplasm; Leydig's duct: the Wolffian duct.  DIF DSB

Lubbock, Sir John (1834-1913), first Baron Avebury, amateur scientist, botanist, entomologist, banker, and not least, Darwin's neighbor. Writer of popular science books in archaeology and entomology; also published on botany and zoology, and ingenious works on social insects.   DSB DIF

Meckel, Johann Friedrich (1781-1833), did work on embryology and comparative anatomy, and was professor of anatomy and physiology at Halle.  Meckel was known especially for work on comparative anatomy and is remembered for Meckel's cartilage or rod: that of the firs t branchial arch; Meckel's plane: a plane passing through the auricular and alveolar points.  DIF DSB

Mendel, Johann Gregor (1822-1884), genetics and meteorology, Mendel is the famous but unsung Austrian Roman Catholic priest who conducted work in plant hybredization.  Mendel's systematic records of  inherited characters of several generations of garden peas (in his now famous book (Experiments in plant Hybridization 1866) established the basic laws of genetics.  For all that, Mendel's work went unrecognized for some time.  Mendel argued that separate characters (that is, height in peas) are inherited independently of one another and  that each reproductive cell receives only one of a pair of alternative factors existing in the other body cells (the law of segregation.  He also made clear that some factors are dominant over others (the law of dominance).  DIF DSB

Milne-Edwards, Henri (1800-1885), French zoologist and naturalist, he studied medicine in Paris and was professor at the Sorbonne and at the Museum of Natural History, Paris (director from 1864).  He published works on the Crustacea, Mollusca, and corals and a noted textbook in zoology (1834).  He published a voluminous study on comparative anatomy and physiology (14 vols., 1857-81). DSB DIF

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866- 1945), influential American embryologist, geneticist, and zoologist.  Morgan did important work on heredity.  He is particularly remembered for his work with the fruit fly Drosophila.  In 1933 he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his theory that hereditary unit characters are dependent upon certain factors, or genes, in the chromosomes. Having moved from Kentucky to Boston and elsewhere, Morgan became  professor of experimental zoology at Columbia (1904-28) and from 1928 director of the laboratory of biological sciences at the California Institute of Technology.  DIF DSB

Muller, Fritz Johann Friedrich Theodor (1822-1897), Berman naturalist and zoologist received his Ph.D at Berlin and in  1852 moved to south Brazil where he taught mathematics at Gymnasium. He was a noted defender of Darwin and Darwinism.  He published  Fur Darwin (1864), published for Darwin in English as Facts and Arguments for Darwin (1869).  DSB DIF

Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey (1792-1871), highly regarded British geologist, Murchison enjoyed a private income which assisted his interests in geology.  He investigated the previously undifferentiated rock strata below the old red sandstone (1830s) and established the Silurian as a new geologic system (The Silurian System, 1838).  Murchison later established the Devonian system with Darwin's Cambridge teacher Adam Sedgwick.  Murchison collaborated in the Geology of Russian and the Urals (1845), was knighted in 1846, and appointed (1855) director general of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.  DSB DIF

Nageli, Carl Wilhelm (1817-1891), botanist and microscopist, Nageli was born near Zurich and eventually accepted a position at Munich (1857) where he remained for the rest of his life.  He is considered one of the foremost botanist of his century.  At Jean Nageli came under the influence of Schleiden, with whom he edited (1844)-46) the single volume of the Zeitschrift fur Wiss enschaftlichen Botanik, in which he insisted on 'development as a whole' as the only sound basis for classification; in Uber den Einfluss ausserer Verhaltnisse auf die Varientenbildung expressed his belief that the causes of variability are external to the organism.  He published widely, among his works are Theorie der Bastardbildung (1866) and Die Mechanisch-physiologische Theorie de Abstammungslehre (1844). Professor of Botany at Freiburg in Breisgar 1852-57, Munich 1857-91.  DIF DSB

Nordamann, Alexander von (1803-1866), Ph.D. and professor of Zoology, Kaiser Alexanders University in Finland.  Nordamann described non-nauplius early stage in several parasitic Crustacea. Edited Lamarck's Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres (1835-45); author of two-volume Mikrographische Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der wirbellosen Thiere (Berlin, 1832), Palaeontologie Sudrussaldns (Helsinki, 1858-60), and Beitrage zur kentniss des knochen-baues der Rhytina stelleri (Helsinki, 1863). DIF

Oken, Lorenz (1779-1851), German naturalist and philosopher.  Oken taught at a number of institutions and was a prolific and controversial writer.  One of his major concerns was to unify the natural sciences, and his speculations foreshadowed theories of cellular structure of organism and of the protoplasmic basis of life.  He made important contributions to comparative anatomy and is remembered for Oken's body (Wolffian body): the mesenephron or primitive kidney, the excretory organ of the embryo. D.I.F.

Paley, William (1743-1805), English natural theologian and utilitarian philosopher.  Paley studied at Cambridge and was eventually archdeacon of Carlisle (1782) and subdeacon of Lincoln (1795).  He was an influential writer on the issue of natural theology and the concept of design.  Paley published a number of works, among them The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785) and Views of the Evidence of Christianity (1794).  DSB DIF

Pouchet, Felix Archimede (1800-1872), French biologist and naturalist, he held a position in natural history at Rouen.  He published widely on topics in natural history, in botany, and on the anatomy and physiology of mollusks.  In his Heterogenie ou Traite de al Generation Spontanee (1859) Pouchet argued for the doctrine of spontaneous generation which led to a controversy with Pasteur, whom he consistently opposed.  DSB DIF

Pringsheim, Nathaniel (1823-1894), German botanist interested in plant pathology.  Pringsheim was one of the first to demonstrate sexual reproduction in algae; investigated algoid fugi.  Independently wealthy, his private research led to a number of insights and he published a number of works, among them a paper alternation of generations in mosses and thallophytes.  He also helped to found a journal.  DIF DSB

Quatrefages de Breau, Jean Louis Armand de (1810-1892), French physician, naturalist and ethnologist.  An opponent of Darwinism, he undertook extensive zoological research, though his work was largely anthropological,  Later living in Paris, his writings opposed evolutionary ideas, though he appears to have had a strong personal respect for Darwin and supported his election at the Institut.  Quatrefages published  Histoire de l' Homme (1867), Charles Darwin et ses Precurseurs Francais (1870), and Histoire Generale des Races Humaines (1886-89).  DIF DSB

Reichert, Karl Bogislaus (1811-83), German zoologist, anatomist, embryologist, and histologist, Reichert studied at Berlin and eventually taught anatomy.  He is important for his work in cell theory, and is remembered for  Reichert's canal: Hensen's canal; Reichert's cartilages: cartilaginous bars in the outer side of the embroyonical tympanum, from which develop the styloid processes, the styloid ligaments, and the lesser cornua of the hyoid bone; Reichert's membrane: Bownman's membrane; Reichert's recess: the cochlear recess; Reichert's scar: an area on the impregnated ovum consisting of a fibrinous membrane in place of the decidual tissue; Reichert's substance: the posterior portion of the anterior perforated space. DIF DSB

Romanes, George John (1848-1894), Canadian-born experimental biologist, physicologist, who did work in comparative psychology and was a supporter of evolutionary ideas.  He was an early an intimate friend of Charles Darwin.  He studied at Cambridge and met Darwin in 1874, and later did work at University College, London.  Romanes  applied Darwin's theory of evolution to development of mind in Animal Intelligence (1881), Mental Evolution in Animals (1883), and Mental Evolution in Man (1888).  Romanes was professor of physiology, Royal Institute of London (1888-91) and he upheld hereditability of acquired characteristics in Examination of Weismanism (1892).  He also founded annual (1891) Romanes lecture at Oxford.  He sided with SPencer in arguing that natural selection is not the only element in evolution.  In his book Darwin and After Darwin (3 vols., 1892-97) Romanes developed a theory of physiological selection arguing for the possibility of a distinct species evolved from an isolated group of an original species.  DIF DSB

Roux, Wilhelm (1850-1924), German anatomist and embryologist, Roux was a leader in experimental embryology.  He was professor (1895-1921) at the University of Halle and a student of both of Virchow and Haeckel.  His most noted work was with frog's eggs.  He called his field 'developmental mechanics' and founded the Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik (1894) where he became a well-known advocate for his position and an active self-supporter.  DIF DSB

Rutimeyer, Ludwig (1825-1895), Swiss naturalist focusing on vertebrate paleozoology with interests in geography.  Rutimeyer took a degree in medicine at Bern and became known for work in craniology and investigations in the mammalian paleontology of Switzerland.  HE was an authority in interpreting mammalian fossils and in this lent support to Darwin's earlier work.  DIF DSB

Saint Simon, Etienne Jules Adolphe Desmier de, Vicomte d'Archiac (1802-1868), French geologist; author of Historire des Progres de la Geologie. DIF

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775-1854), famous German Naturphilosophe and epistemologist, Schelling studied at Tubingen and was greatly influenced by the philosophical works of Kant and Fichte.  He taught at University of Jena (1798), Wurzburg (1803-08), Erlangen (1820-26), Berlin (1841-46), and was appointed a member of the  Royal Academy of Arts Munich (1808-20). Schelling's philosophy of nature focused on questions of free will and natural law, and the philosophy of history; his work represents a response to Romanticism and the development of a new realism.  He published widely and his influence can not be too easily over estimated.  DSB DIF

Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903), English 'philosopher' with interests in biology, psychology, and sociology.  Spencer was largely self-taught though he came to enjoy a wide influence.  He was subeditor of the London Economist (1848-53) and moved in circles that included Huxley, Tyndall, George Eliot, and John Stuart Mill.  His work has always been controversial.  Spencer advocated extreme an individualism in Social Statis (1851), and he became famous for applying the concept of evolution to sociology in his Principles of Psychology (1859).  He elaborated further on his speculations by applying Malthusian notions and the principle of 'survival of the fittest' in his Systems of Synthetic Philosophy (1862-96) which included speculative connections between physics, biology, psychology, and ethics in 8 volumes.  It might be consider a 'total global' account of the human and natural condition.  Huxley suggested that Spencer's idea of a tragedy is a deduction killed by a fact.  DIF DSB

Thomson, Sir Charles Wyville (1830-1882). Irish naturalis, oceanographer, and marine biologist.  Thomson became professor of natural history at Edinburgh (1870), lecturer in botany at Aberdeen (1850-51), and Marischal College (1851-52), and at Cork (1853).  He was interested in deep-sea life, and among his works are included The Voyage of the Challenger (1877). Using temperature variations as indicators, he produce evidence to suggest the presence of a vast mountain range in the depths of the Atlantic-the Mid-Atlantic Ridge-confirmed by 1925-27 German expedition.   DIF DSB

Tyndall, John (1820-1893), Irish natural philosopher, physicist, geologist, microbiologist, and popularizer of science, Tyndall was friend of Huxley and Faraday, and he helped to extinguish belief in spontaneous generation.  Tyndall studied  mechanics institute at Carlow, and Cambridge (1865), Edinburgh (1866), Oxford (1873), University of Tubingen (1877) and was admitted as a Fellow of Royal Society (1852), council member (1856), and was finally president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1874). DIF DSB

Vogt, Karl (1817-1895), German physician, naturalist and physiologist, Vogt studied at Giessen under Liebig and at Berne.  He eventually worked with  Louis Agassiz and he became a staunch supporter of evolution and the work of Charles Darwin.  Vogt wrote a number of books in Darwin's support and was one of the first anthropologists.  His specialty was marine biological research. DIF DSB

Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823-1913), English naturalist, Wallace did not receive a formal education other than grammar school, and was largely self-taught, most notably reading the works of Humboldt, Malthus, Chambers, Lyell, and Darwin.  Wallace, of course, is considered to have been a 'co-discoverer' of the principle of 'descent with modification through natural selection.'   In 1848 Wallace went on an expedition to South America where he eventually travelled most of the Amazon basin.  Here Wallace became convinced that species develop by means of natural laws.  Upon his return to England in 1852 Wallace soon set out on another expedition, this time to the Malay Archipelago, a voyage that lasted for over a decade (1854-1862).  Here Wallace developed his own concept of the mechanism of natural selection and he published his thoughts in The Malay Archipelago (1869).  Wallace collected an immense amount of information and data during his voyage but much of it was lost.  His views were summarized, as he later wrote:  'Every species has come into existence coincident both in space and time with a preexisting closely allied species.'  Wallace also published another famous article, 'On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely From the Original Type' (1858)  Wallace received little attention for his work, at least in comparison to his more famous contemporary, Charles Darwin, whom he supported vigorous all of his life. DSB DIF 

Walsh, Benjamin Dann (1808-1869), London-born American entomologist, Walsh was Cambridge classmate of Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin's work. HE published a number of articles in Proceedings of Boston Society of Natural History and Transactions of American Entomological Society. DIF

Weismann, August (1834-1914), German zoologist, biologist, and originator of the germ plasm theory.  Weismann took his M.D. at Gottingen (1856) and soon came under the influence of Darwin's work.  He sought to develop a theory arguing for the centrality of natural selection and opposed the inheritance of acquired characteristics; to do this, he defended a theory of of the germ plasm to help account for heredity and development.  Weismann used Dipter and small crustaceans to support his views.  Among his works in English are The Germ Plasm (1892) and Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (2 vols., 1891-92).  DSB DIF

Wilberforce, Samuel (1805-1873), lovingly known as 'Soapy Sam' (due to his apparent felicity -- Slick Sammy?) Wilberforce was by most accounts a man of ability, as even T.H. Huxley admitted.  Indeed, 'Soapy Sam' is perhaps best remembered for his famous encounters with Huxley, especially the great debate at Oxford when Wilberforce queried Huxley about his simian ancestry.  Wilberforce was an Anglican prelate and Bishop of Oxford (1845) and Winchester (1869).  Wilberforce was also the author of various criticisms of Darwin and evolution in the Quarterly Review, July 1860.  DIF

{After: DIF: Lucille B. Ritvo, Darwin's influence on Freud, Yale, 1990; Adrien Desmond & James Moore, Darwin, Warner Books 1991; DSB:  The Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 16 vols, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972.