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FALL, 1998

Norman N. Holland
ver. 980625
ENG 6016 Psychological Approaches to Literature
Meets in: Leigh 104
My office: Turlington 4221
My secretary, Mrs. Moreno: Turlington 4730
on Wednesdays at 4:05-7:05 p.m.
But please use the telephone
392-7332 (O) or 377-0096 (HO)
or e-mail:

    This class memorandum is long, but I hope you will be able to use it as a sort of manual to the seminar. Hence I have tried to include all the information you need, and I have tried to anticipate and answer all the questions you might ask. This is a totalizing effort, I am happy to say, doomed to deconstruct, and I look forward to talking with you about the particular questions you have. Nevertheless, I hope that you will find this memo useful and that you will look it over repeatedly before and during the semester.

    As to office hours, please don't feel shy about telephoning me at my home office, 377-0096. I mostly work at home, and, instead of keeping empty office hours, I prefer to settle small questions by telephone and to meet by appointment for more complex matters. I will, in any case, be available in my office for the hour before seminar, and immediately after.

    In that connection, we are going to repeat something this semester that earlier groups have group liked. Part of our class discussion will be online. I will deal with the mechanics of this in the first class period.

    We gain several things by going on-line. You will be able to pose questions or discussion points to the group at any time during the week, and the rest of the seminar will be able to respond quickly. We can add to our three-hour class period time for all the discussion that, for whatever reason, did not happen face to face. Those shy in class need not be shy online. If I, because I am (let's face it) opinionated, have cut short a topic, you can reopen it online.

    On-line discussion will contribute as importantly to what you learn and to your final grade as class discussion. You are responsible for checking your on-line mailbox regularly (at least once a day). And I expect you to participate to the best of your ability.

    In addition, I will subscribe you to the Internet list-conference PSYART, maintained by IPSA (the Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts, the research arm of the literature-and-psychology track in the English Department). PSYART has more than 650 subscribers from around the world, who discuss in an ongoing way all kinds of topics related to psychoanalysis. Please feel free to contribute as you wish to PSYART.

    You can reach PSYART, the discussion group and the online journal, from the IPSA Web site ( You can also obtain useful materials from my own Web site ( Feel free to explore both sites and download anything you find.


    This seminar is the first in a two-seminar sequence: 1) Psychoanalytic Psychology, 2) Psychoanalytic Criticism (to be given in Spring 1999). This first seminar will deal almost entirely with psychoanalytic psychology. Literary criticism and theory will come in incidentally, however, and we will use some literary texts and films for purposes of illustration. Students interested in the psychology only may take the first seminar without the second, but no one, repeat no one, may take the second seminar without having taken the first, either in 1998 or earlier.

    My aim in this first seminar is to give you a substantial introduction to psychoanalytic psychology on which to base the second seminar or other work in psychoanalytic literary criticism and theory. Topics to be considered are: dreams, slips, libidinal phases, defenses, character and identity, cultural issues, and the relation of psychoanalysis to cognitive psychology and brain studies.

    This course is offered in the English Department. Why? The negative reason is that psychoanalytic psychology has been in disrepute in psychology departments, almost from both their beginnings. The issue for the wannabe scientists in psychology departments has been, Is psychoanalysis scientific? Interestingly, psychiatry departments have had no such qualms. It is a question that we shall discuss.

    On the positive side, though, why might students of literature take a course in psychology? Because, I believe, one cannot talk about literature without making assumptions about human nature: how creation works; how readers and audiences respond; what accounts for the appeal of a given work, and so on. Whatever its limitations as a sicnec, psychoanalytic psychology offers us useful--even indispensable--ideas. Literary criticism and theory always rest on a psychology, but often it is a rather simple-minded stimulus-response behaviorism. We can do better.

Papers and Grades

    After much soul-searching and experiment, I do not ask for a long paper in this seminar. I think it is not reasonable to ask you to write a psychoanalytic paper on the basis of one seminar. Instead, I've decided to give a three-hour final exam on the last day of the seminar. This will count for 50% of your final grade.

    Some previous students have asked that the exam on which your grade rests be spread out, either by a practice exam or a midterm. This is certainly a possibility. Let's discuss it after a few weeks.

    In order to cover as much ground as possible, the seminar will use student summaries of some texts instead of everyone's reading them. You will see alongside various items, some articles, some books, in the reading schedule below, "student summary."

    Your grades on these summaries will count for 30% of your final grade. The remaining 20% will represent my estimate of your performance in discussion and on-line and my estimate of how much I think you have learned in the seminar.

Instructions for Writing Summaries

    The summary must be sent on-line to me and the other members of the seminar by noon Tuesday before class meeting (in order to give us time to read and assimilate it). It must be no longer than one typewritten page (one side) single-spaced. In computer terms, that translates to 56 lines of 65 characters each, or a file of 3640 bytes.

    Keep in mind the purpose of these summaries: to give people who have not read the book or article its essentials. Think of what you write as reading notes that would give you the gist long after you have forgotten the details. Do not write an evaluative book review--that does not help your colleagues. Do not cram. Synthesize. Outline. Get at the essence.

    Upper left: your name; beneath it, the date due; beneath that, put in the author, title, etc., of what you are reporting on in proper MLA bibliography form. (See the MLA Handbook.)

    Skip a line and put down the essentials of what you would like your audience to be able to recall about this item. Outline--that really helps.

    Send your summary online to the rest of of the seminar.


    This seminar presumes no previous knowledge of psychology or psychoanalysis, although, obviously, either would help.

    I know, unfortunately, of no wholly satisfactory introduction to psychoanalysis that you could use for background reading. The problem is that I want an introduction to psychoanalysis to be firmly based in clinical experience and examples. Most state a series of abstract propositions or quote other authors in lieu of case histories.

    If you read Freud's introductions, read both the old (1915-16) and the New Introductory Lectures (1933). Both, however, represent Freud's highly opinionated view of "classical" psychoanalysis. They are really original contributions as much as introductions. In many ways, Freud's brief Outline of Psycho-Analysis ([1938] 1940) is his best introduction, but he left it unfinished at his death. His "The Question of Lay Analysis" (1926) has a short, useful summary, and then there are his two encyclopedia articles (see Standard Edition 18.

    A good introduction to classical psychoanalysis and ego psychology (but not to third-phase psychoanalysis) is Robert Waelder's Basic Theory of Psychoanalysis (Schocken, 1960). Another, often used in psychiatry departments and psychoanalytic institutes, is Charles Brenner, An Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis (Doubleday Anchor, 1955, rev. ed. 1973) or its later version, The Mind in Conflict (International Univ. Press, 1982).

    A couple of more up-to-date introducitons are Introducing Psychoanalytic Theory, ed. Sander L. Gilman (Brunner/Mazel, 1982) and Anne E. Bernstein and G. M. Warner, An Introduction to Contemporary Psychoanalysis (Jason Aronson, 1981). Less clinical, more philosophical in tone, and certainly more profound is Jonathan Lear, Love and Its Place in Nature (Noonday, 1990).

    Three books that deal at an introductory level with a lot of contemporary psychoanalytic theory are: Stephen A. Mitchell and Margaret J. Black, Freud and Beyond: A History of Modern Psychoanalytic Thought (Basic, 1995), and Frank Summers, Object Relations Theories and Psychopathology: A Comprehensive Text (Analytic Press, 1994). Many of the textbooks on contemporary literary criticism cover such psychoanalytic theorists as Bloom, Cixous, Iragaray, Kristeva, Lacan, etc.

    For our purposes, I think the best introductions today are two long chapters in psychiatry textbooks: William W. Meissner, "Theories of Personality" in The New Harvard Guide to Modern Psychiatry (Harvard, 1988); Stephen S. Marmer, "Theories of the Mind and Psychopathology," American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry (1988). We will read Marmer's chapter in the first weeks of the seminar.

    You will also find, I hope, that the Appendix to The I can serve somewhat as a general introduction to psychoanalysis as will Holland's Guide. The Guide, unfortunately, is out of print, but we will provide you with a photocopy or else put it online.

Book List

    This next group of books is required reading, and all should be purchased from Goerings' Book Center.

Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering. California, paperback.

Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Avon, paperback.

Gay, Peter, ed. The Freud Reader. Norton, paperback.

St. Clair, Michael. Object Relations Theories and Self-Psychology. Brooks/Cole, paperback.

    Also required is my book, The I (Yale, 1985). It is, alas, out of print, so we will photocopy sections as necessary. I have also put it online at my Web site, and you can consult it or download it from there. It develops many, but by no means all, of the ideas in the seminar. It should help.

    In addition to the introductions suggested above, the following books are of interest, but not required. They can be obtained at Goerings' Book Center.

Bollas, Christopher. Forces of Destiny: Psychoanalysis and Human Idiom (1991). Free Association Books, paperback. A fine example of today's psychoanalytic thought.

Eagle, Morris. Recent Developments in Psychoanalysis: A Critical Evaluation (1984). McGraw-Hill, paperback. This is an excellent restatement of recent points of view and a vigorous recapture of id-ego psychoanalysis.

Erikson, Erik. Childhood and Society (1950, 1963). Norton, paperback. Now out of fashion, Erikson nevertheless offers one of the clearest pre-feedback discussions of the relation of culture and the individual as well as an interesting restatement of Freud's theory of development. He is particularly useful in forming a workable diction for writing psychoanalysis.

Freud, Sigmund. Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious (1905). Norton, paperback. Freud's most interesting study of defenses is buried in this, Freud's longest work on literature.

Freud, Sigmund. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901). Norton, paperback. This text is full of fine clinical and everyday examples of free association.

Gardner, Howard. The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution. Basic, paperback.

Greenberg, Jay R., and Stephen A. Mitchell. Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory (1983). Harvard, paperback. This study deals with a variety of recent points of view: Malanie Klein, several British object-relations people, Kohut, Kernberg, and others.

Laplanche, Jean, and Pontalis, J.-B. The Language of Psycho-Analysis (1973). Norton, clothbound and paper. This dictionary is more abstract, more theoretical than I would like, but very thorough. It gives comprehensive references to Freud (and Lacan).

Mitchell, Stephen A., and Margaret J. Black. Freud and Beyond: A History of Modern Psychoanalytic Thought. Basic, 1995. They cover very effectively many of the contemporary schools.

Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct. Harper paperback, 1995. A superb, highly readable introduction to modern theories of language.

Rycroft, Charles. A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. (Penguin Reference Books.) Penguin, 1995. Wise definitions of elusive terms.

Summers, Frank. Object Relations Theories and Psychopathology: A Comprehensive Text. Analytic Press, 1994. This is a much longer, more thorough introduction to object-relations theory than St. Clair. Use it to enlarge your knowledge of the topic.

    Books at the Library. I have put on reserve those books on which I hope to get student reports. I have not put more on reserve, since most students find that the above two lists are more than enough. However, the books listed below might be of interest if you want to pursue a particular psychoanalytic writer, school or topic.

Benvenuto, Bice, and Roger Kennedy. The Works of Jacques Lacan: An Introduction. St. Martin's Press, 1986.

Bollas, Christopher. Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self Experience. Hill and Wang, 1992.

Bollas, Christopher. Forces of Destiny: Psychoanalysis and Human Idiom. Free Association Books, 1991.

Bollas, Christopher. The Shadow of the Object: Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. Columbia, 1987.

Eagle, Morris. Recent Trends in Psychoanalysis. McGraw-Hill, 1984.

Erikson, Erik H. Childhood and Society. 2d ed. Norton, 1963.

Fisher, Seymour, and Roger P. Greenberg. The Scientific Credibility of Freud's Theories and Therapy. Basic, 1977.

Fisher, Seymour, and Roger P. Greenberg. Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy. Wiley & Sons, 1996.

Freud, Sigmund. The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, 1877-1904. Trans and ed. Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson. Harvard, 1985.

Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Trans. and gen. ed. James Strachey. Hogarth, 1953-75.

Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. Norton, 1988.

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Harvard, 1982.

In Dora's Case: Freud--Hysteria--Feminism. Ed. Charles Bernheimer and Claire Kahane. Columbia, 1985.

Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. 3 vols. Basic, 1953-57.

Kernberg, Otto F. Aggression in Personality Disorders and Perversions. Yale, 1992.

Kernberg, Otto F. Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. J. Aronson, 1975.

Kernberg, Otto F. Internal World and External Reality: Object Relations Theory Applied. J. Aronson, 1980.

Kernberg, Otto F. Love Relations: Normality and Pathology. Yale, 1995.

Kernberg, Otto F. Object-relations Theory and Clinical Psychoanalysis. J. Aronson, 1976, 1984.

Kline, Paul. Fact and Fantasy in Freudian Theory. Methuen, 1972.

Kohut, Heinz. How Does Analysis Cure?. Ed. Arnold Goldberg. Chicago, 1984.

Kohut, Heinz. Self Psychology and the Humanities: Reflections on a New Psychoanalytic Approach. Ed. Charles B. Strozier. Norton, 1985.

Kohut, Heinz. The Analysis of the Self; A Systematic Approach to the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders. International UP, 1971.

Kohut, Heinz. The Kohut Seminars on Self Psychology and Psychotherapy with Adolescents and Young Adults. Ed. Miriam Elson. Norton, 1987.

Kohut, Heinz. The Restoration of the Self. International UP, 1977.

Kohut, Heinz. The Search for the Self: Selected Writings of Heinz Kohut, 1950-1978. Ed. Paul H. Ornstein. International UP, 1978.

Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Norton, 1977.

Lacan, Jacques. Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the École Freudienne. Ed. Juliet Mitchell and Jaqueline Rose. Trans. Jacqueline Rose. Norton/Pantheon, 1982.

Lacan, Jacques. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-analysis. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Norton, 1978.

Lichtenstein, Heinz. The Dilemma of Human Identity. Aronson, 1977.

Mahler, Margaret S., et al. The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and Individuation. Basic, 1975.

Michaels, Joseph J. Disorders of Character: Persistent Enuresis, Juvenile Delinquency, and Psychopathic Personality. Charles C. Thomas, 1955.

Pankejeff, Sergius. The Wolf-Man. Ed. Muriel Gardiner. Basic, 1971.

Rycroft, Charles. The Innocence of Dreams. Pantheon, 1979.

Rycroft, Charles. Imagination and Reality. Introd. M. Masud R. Khan and John D. Sutherland. International UP, 1968.

Stern, Daniel N. The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. Basic, 1985.

Thomas, Alexander, and Stella Chess. Temperament and Development. Brunner/Mazel, 1977.

Winnicott, D. W. Playing and Reality. Basic, 1971.

Doing the Reading

    Most of you in this seminar are exploring a new discipline. I think you will do best if you adopt a tactic of total immersion. In the opening weeks of the seminar, read very hard and read everything you can manage. I think you will find that, after you have mastered the vocabulary and some of the basic concepts and issues, the rest of the reading will come easier. Notice in the Reading Schedule that the readings ease up toward the end of the semester. Work hard at the beginning, and you will have a much easier time at the end.

    I know the reading for this seminar is unusually heavy, but you should remember there is no final paper. To help you, I am following a suggestion from a previous seminar and giving an indication (A, B, C) of the weight to give the various readings. Try to develop techniques for skimming.

    Always, in this seminar you should try to get at and remember the essence of the material. I say that because I treat psychoanalysis as a psychology, that is, as a science (sort of), not a philosophy. Therefore you should always read for the gist, the propositional content you can outline and remember. Reading word by word, as you would read poetry or theory, is important for me only as it leads to or clarifies discussion of that gist.

Reading Schedule

    Readings should be done before the seminar meeting date. Also, I think these readings work best if done in the order given.

1.  August 26 Overview/Hysteria/Early Psychoanalysis

    I will try to give you an overview of the seminar and also of psychoanalysis. We will outline the problems Freud set himself as a life's work.

    Try, if at all possible, to get and read this package of readings before the first meeting of the seminar. Notice, however, that you should have finished reading The Interpretation of Dreams by September 4. If you could not read this packet before August 28, read The Interpretation of Dreams first and catch up on this batch during the weeks of September 9 and 16, when the reading is somewhat lighter.

    In this packet, the Lear essay should answer some of the current Freud-bashing. "Carol" might give you some feeling for what goes on in an analysis, while "Katherina" shows Freud at work. Marmer and Holland offer summaries of current psychoanalysis.

Lear, "A Counterblast in the War on Freud" (A) (handout)
Katherina in The Freud Reader (B)
Reiser, "Carol," "More About Carol" (B) (handout)
Holland's Guide, Chs. 3-4 (B) (handout)
Marmer, "Theories of the Mind and Psychopathology" (handout, A)
Holland, "Appendix: The I, the Ego, and the Je" in The I (handout) (B)

2.  September 2 The Interpretation of Dreams I

    This book is unquestionably Freud's masterpiece, and it has shaped incalculably the intellectual life of the twentieth century. It offers excellent examples of free association and holistic interpretive method, as well as Freud's first model of the mind. It is also well worth reading simply as an example of first-class scientific writing.

    We will be concerned this first week with Freud's model for dreaming and its application to ordinary life. First read my memo on how to proceed. Please, if possible, read the whole book or at least skim it before we start discussing this first part.

Holland, memo on reading The Interpretation of Dreams (handout, A)
The Interpretation of Dreams, chs. I-VI. Skim ch. 1 (C, but note that the organization of this chapter outlines the structure of the book as a whole). Concentrate on chs. II and III (A), ease up on chs. IV-VI (B). But, at all times, keep the structure of the whole in mind.

3.  September 9 The Interpretation of Dreams II

    This second week on dreams, we will be considering, first, dream analysis as an example of holistic method, second, related theories of dreaming and, third, Freud's first theory of the mind (ch. VII) and its implications for desiring, perceiving, or regressing. Concentrate on part B and the key definition of a wish in part C. Ease up on A and D-F.

We will also critique Freud's theories in the light of some current neuroscientific work on dreams
Holland, The I, Part I (A) Rycroft, The Innocence of Dreams (student summary)
Sharpe, "The Dream as a Typical and Individual Psychical Product" (A)
Sharpe, "Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor" (A)
Blakeslee, "Scientists Unraveling Chemistry of Dreams" (handout, B)
Holland, Notes on Hobson (handout, B)
Leonard, "Dream-Catchers" (handout, A)

4.  September 16 Extension to Normal Psychology

    Psychoanalysis as a general psychology dates from Freud's discovery that his theory of mental processing would work not only for neurotic symptoms but for dreams, jokes, slips of the tongue or memory, and creative writing. Ultimately he concluded that it applied to all normal behavior. (The "iceberg" principle.)

    We will be considering just how this early model applies. It is most clearly stated in the "Creative Writers" essay. And we will glance at today's theories of slips of the tongue.

Freud, Jokes (student summary)
Freud, Psychopathology of Everyday Life (student summary)
Freud, "Creative Writers and Daydreaming" in The Freud Reader (A)
Motley, "Slips of the Tongue" (handout, B)
Blakeslee, "Traffic Jams in Brain Networks" (B)

5.  September 23 The First Year of Life / Orality

    This section will go on for the next four sessions. Our theme here is the traditional psychoanalytic paradigm for the way a child grows, but we will contrast it throughout with the more modern object-relations paradigm. Think of development in the first instance as a series of overlapping and interacting stages (oral, anal, urethral, phallic, oedipal). For the adult, however, think of development more as setting up in our minds, as a result of our historical experience of those stages, a kind of paralogic. We associate things by other than the familiar rules of logic. We make connections like money to excrement or eyes to mouth.

    Incidentally, improbable though it may sound, this classical "libidinal stage" account of development has received strong experimental confirmation. That is, one can find these clusters of behaviors in statistically significant numbers. Whether they are based in the body, as Freud thought, is another question. Also, the later, object-relations accounts of the first year rest on widely repeated child observations.

    For this section overall (sessions 5-9), read (as soon as possible) Buxbaum, "Psychosexual Development" (handout, B) and Holland, The I, Part III (handout, A). I am sorry for the crude way Buxbaum states all this, but she does cover the ground with copious examples, and I don't know any other source for this purpose. Remember, though, our primary interest will be the vestiges of infantile development in the adult.

    This first week, we are looking at early infancy. Psychological research in this area has exploded in the last two decades, with radical new discoveries for psychoanalysis. We are discovering how you become who you are.

    Lacan represents an altogether different theory of the first year. Because of the difficulty of his prose, we will read a secondary source.

Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents, excerpt on earliest ego (handout, C)
Daniel Stern, "Micro-Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction" (handout, A)
Lynne Murray, "Effects of Postnatal Depression on Infant Development" (handout, A)
Michael St. Clair, Object Relations, chs. 7 and 5, "Margaret S. Mahler" and "D. W. Winnicott" (B)
Joseph Reppen (ed.), Beyond Freud, ch. 9, "Margaret Mahler" (handout, A)
Winnicott, "Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena" (handout, A)
Winnicott, "Location of Cultural Experience" (handout, A)
Eagle, Recent Developments, ch. 3, "Object Relations . . . Mahler" (handout, B)
Benvenuto and Kennedy, Jacques Lacan, "The Mirror Stage" (handout, C)

6.  September 30 Anal (Nomic) and Urethral (Projective) Phases

    We will be considering the classic account of three later stages, still within dyadic object-relations. We will glance at two of Freud's five major case histories.

    The Pailthorpe essay is a curio: the earliest attempt I've found to do a psychoanalytic study of a poem. It uses these libidinal stages.

Abraham, "Contributions to . . . Anal Character" (handout, A)
Freud, "Character and Anal Erotism" in The Freud Reader (A)
Freud, "The Acquisition and Control of Fire" (handout, A)
Michaels, Disorders of Character (student summary)
Holland, The I, ch. 9 (A)
Freud, "Notes Upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis" ("Rat Man") in The Freud Reader (B)
Freud, "From the History of an Infantile Neurosis" ("Wolf Man") in The Freud Reader (B)
Pailthorpe, "Analysis of a Poem" (C)

7.  October 7 Phallic (Intrusive) Phase / Primal Scene
/ Little Hans / Gender Development

    This week we will take a look at Freud's one case history of a child as well as the character-type that seems most "American."

    Bannerman's famous story is another instance of infantile fantasies at work.

Holland, The I, ch. 12 (A)
Reich, "Phallic Character" (handout, A)
Lewin, "The Body as Phallus" (handout, A)
Fenichel on primal scene (handout, A)
Konner, "Body and Mind; Homosexuality: Who and Why?" (handout, B)
Bannerman, Little Black Sambo (C)

8.  October 14 Oedipal (Genital) phase / Gender Development

    We shift into triadic object-relations and Freud's first and most important discovery in infantile sexuality.

Fenichel, "Specific Forms of the Oedipus Complex" (handout, A)
Freud, "A Special Type of Choice of Object" in The Freud Reader (B)
Freud, "On the Universal Tendency to Debasement" in The Freud Reader (B)
Holland, The I, ch. 10 (Handout, A)
Parsons, "Is the Oedipus Complex Universal?" (student report)
Freud, New Introductory Lectures XXXI-XXXII (handout, B)

9.  October 21 Feminine Development

    We will be contrasting Freud's shaky account of female development with other possibilities, notably, the substitution of an idea of difference for that of lack. If there is time, we will critique another of Freud's case histories.

Mead, "Freud's View of Female Psychology" (handout, C)
Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering (purchase), chs. 6-10 (but I highly recommend the whole book, A)
Goleman, "Sex Fantasy Research Said to Neglect Women" (handout, A)
Lewis, "Self-Knowledge:     Gender Identity and Sex-Role Development" (handout, B)
Hudson and Jacot, The Way Men Think (review; handout, C)
Wade, "Method and Madness: How Men and Women Think" (handout, C)

10.  October 28 Structural Theory / Ego Psychology / Lacan

    We will discuss Freud's shift from his first, Cs.-Ucs. model of the mind to the "structural," id-ego-superego model. What are the reasons for the shift? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this second model? What happens to this model in Lacanian thinking?

Freud, New Introductory Lectures XXXI-XXXII (reread/review this)
Freud, "Beyond the Pleasure Principle" in The Freud Reader (A)
Freud, "Group Psychology" in The Freud Reader (B)
Freud, "The Ego and the Id" in The Freud Reader (B)
Lacan, "The Agency of the Letter" (handout, B)
Joseph Reppen (ed.), Beyond Freud, ch. 13, "Jacques Lacan" (handout, A)

11.  November 4 Defenses / Character / Identity

    The structural model allows for a more sophisticated concept of defense mechanism, and this is what the psychoanalytic concept of "character" rests on. "Identity" (in my sense) goes farther, drawing on Lichtenstein's concepts. What is the justification for concepts of "character" and "identity"? What justifies the contrary (postmodern) view of the fragmented or absent subject?

Freud, "Some Character-Types" in The Freud Reader (B)
Fenichel, definitions of "character" (handout, A)
Waelder, "Principle of Multiple Function" (handout, B). Begin by reading references to Waelder in The I--use the index or the Find command in your browser.(A)
Lichtenstein, "Identity and Sexuality" and "Identity Configuration" (student summaries). Begin by reading the sections on Lichtenstein in The I--use the index or the Find command in your browser.(A)
Holland, The I, review Part I and read Part II (A)
Holland, excerpt from Poems in Persons, pp. 44-51 (handout, A)

12.  November 11 Object Relations Theory / Kohut / Kernberg

    We shall be looking at early and recent versions of object-relations theory.

Freud, "Mourning and Melancholia" (excerpt) in The Freud Reader (B)
Freud, "Group Psychology" in The Freud Reader (B)
Joseph Reppen (ed.), Beyond Freud, chs. 8 and 10, "Heinz Kohut" and "Otto Kernberg" (handout, A)
Michael St. Clair, Object Relations Theories, chs. 2, 8, and 9, "The Freudian Starting Point," "Otto Kernberg," "Heinz Kohut" (A)

13.  November 18 Cognition I

    This is where I think the future of psychoanalysis lies, in the synthesis of the psychoanalytic account of the individual with cognitive science as it is developing today. That is why we are spending two weeks on it, my way of saying I think these things are now as important as The Interpretation of Dreams.

    We will spend the first week on studies of the brain, the second on what neuroscience and modern linguistics tell us about the ways we use language.

    The Pally articles are a useful summary of current brain science and how it touches psychoanalysis. Blakeslee is a newspaper article that shows how we go from the brain toward language. Fodor offers an introduction to evolutionary psychology in the form of a rebuttal.

Holland, The I, Part II, reread.
"Your Child's Brain," Newsweek (B)
Pally, "How Brain Development is Shaped" (handout, A)
Pally, "How the Brain Actively Constructs Perceptions" (handout, A)
Pally, "Memory" (handout, A)
Pally, "Emotional Processing" (handout, A)
Blakeslee, "Brain Yields New Clues On Its Organization for Language" (handout, A)
Fodor, "The Trouble with Psychological Darwinism" (A)

November 25 Day before Thanksgiving.

    Since we have met November 11, we won't meet on the 25th. I will, however, be available in my office, and if enough people express interest, we can have a class in which you ask questions and carry on the discussions we often have not had time for.

14.  December 2 Cognition II

    This week we consider what modern linguistics, combined with brain science tells us about how we use language. The Pinker book is a superb popularization. It is a summary of contemporary linguistics, a difficult subject, yet eminently readable. I recommend the whole book as well as the sections assigned.

    The Lakoff materials develop the new theories of metaphor, which, I'd say, imply a great many more consequential things.

Pinker, The Language Instinct, chs. 1, 4-7.(handout, A)
Holland, "Cognitive Linguistics" (handout, A)
Lakoff, "The Neurocognitive Self" (handout, A)
Lakoff, "How Metaphor Structures Dreams" (handout, A)

15.  December 9 Final Examination

    Good luck! Get a good night's sleep the night before.

You can find full bibliographical references for the assigned readings at