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April, 1994            _EJournal_  Volume 4  Number 1             ISSN 1054-1055
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                   An Electronic Journal concerned with the
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              University at Albany, State University of New York


CONTENTS:                                                    [This is line 19]

  Eliza Meets the Postmodern                             [ Begins at line 49  ]
        by Norman N. Holland
                Department of English
                University of Florida

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                  Eliza Meets the Postmodern                         [l. 49]

                       Norman N. Holland

   Already we have a cliche: computers have launched writing into a
   new Gutenberg Age.  But already we have a misunderstanding, as is
   so typical of literary theory.  Theorists have proclaimed that
   hypertext and multimedia prove various postmodern notions of the
   literary work.  This, I think, is not so, but I think the theorists
   do raise a larger question.  What *do* the new computer genres
   imply about the postmodern and literary theory?

   _Postmodern_ calls for an extensional definition, a point-to. In
   postmodern literature, I think of the self-reflexive writings of
   Borges, Barth, and Julian Barnes, to mention only Bs.  When I read
   _Letters_ or _Flaubert's Parrot_, my mind flickers constantly
   between being absorbed in the story and wondering whether I am
   reading literature or some new hybrid of forms celebrating its own
   hybridity.  In the visual arts, I read the Pop Art of Andy Warhol
   or Roy Lichtenstein as asking me to think about the nature of art,
   much as, in a very different way, the "white paintings" of Robert
   Ryman do.  I reflect, in a double sense.  So with conceptual
   sculpture.  Is a set of instructions for making a chair somehow
   artistic in a sense that the chair is not?  I admire postmodern
   architecture with its quotation and off-centering and out-sizing of
   traditional forms.  Perhaps the most accessible example is Philip
   Johnson's AT&T building: straight international style, but with a
   giant Chippendale curlicue on top.  Or Michael Graves' teakettle
   with its deliberate flouting of Bauhaus functionality.  In film one
   could mention Jean-Luc Godard, who has always worked with the
   nature of movies.  Even a popular film like Arnold Schwarzenegger's
   _Last Action Hero_, plays with the relation between clearly
   imaginary filmic reality, "reality" as represented in realistic
   film, and the differently real worlds of onscreen and offscreen
   audiences.  I find it all vibrant, shimmering, disconcerting,
   disorienting-- just fine.                                       [l. 84]

   I like less the usual theories about the postmodern.  Most people
   have adopted Frederic Jameson's criteria.^1 [_New Left Review_,
   1984]  As I read him, Jameson proposes two qualities to define the
   postmodern.  One is the quotation of other material in a spirit of
   "iteration" and parody.  The other is de-centering: focusing on
   what is marginal, on the edges; preferring what is associational
   and random to the logical and hierarchical.  I think that's all
   true, exemplified in the various works I've mentioned.  But I also
   think we can cut deeper.

   We can find a straightforward starting point in that postmodernism
   is a reaction against modernism.  What characterized modernism?  I
   would say, it was a definition of the work of art as a thing in
   itself, not referring to a reality outside itself (as, say,
   nineteenth-century fiction and painting did).  Think of the great
   modernist texts: _Ulysses_, _The Waste Land_, _A la recherche du
   temps perdu_, _The Pisan Cantos_.  Think of modern painting from
   early non-objective art to Abstract Expressionism, the massive
   sculptures of Lipschitz or Chillida, the Bauhaus or international
   style in architecture, or a painting like _Guernica_.  These
   modernist works are solidly *there*, whole and integral and
   complete. They seem almost defiantly to assert themselves against
   the societies or the previous arts to which the artist was

   Postmodernism reacts in turn against that modernist solidity. The
   postmodern artist turns questioner.  What have we here?  Is this
   sculpture?  Is this a painting?  A novel?  Why am I doing art?  How
   do I make it new?  How do *you* complete this skewed work?

   I would sum it up this way.  < In postmodern art, artists use as a
   major part of their material > *our* < ideas about what they are
   working with >.  Postmodern art addresses the very activity that we
   carry on when we perceive art.  It works with our knowledge,
   beliefs, expectations, wishes.  It works with the hypotheses we are
   constantly trying out on the world, including works of art. This is
   a concept of the postmodern that places the postmodern historically
   and, to some extent, explains the phenomenon.                 [l.123]

   Often, the artist evokes our ideas by quotation, as Jameson
   suggests.  Often we feel disoriented or surprised, because the
   artist has used those quotations in a jokey, parodying way.  Often
   the artist upsets our beliefs or explanations by making things
   off-center, marginalizing what would ordinarily be central, or
   violating familiar ideas of logic or order.  In other words,
   Jameson's criteria are sound, but seem arbitrary, even superficial.
   This view provides an underlying rationale for them.

   What then are hypertext and multimedia?  Modern or postmodern?  Just
   for the record, hypertext means an electronic text such that, when
   you are reading, say, _Great Expectations_ on your computer screen,
   you can "click" on a word in the text and bring up a short essay on
   religion or the penal system in Victorian England or display the
   Marcus Stone illustrations or portraits of Dickens or critical
   essays.^2 [Landow/ Intermedia]  In hypertext, the medium is mostly
   text.  Multimedia means that, when you are listening to Beethoven's
   Ninth, you can call up the score or related pieces by Beethoven or
   rock and roll versions or a description of life in Vienna in
   1820.^3 [Robert Winter/ Voyager CD/ 1989]  With multimedia, you get
   text plus sound plus photographic-quality images.  Fundamentally,
   though, hypertext and multimedia are the same, and people combine
   them in the portmanteau word, *hypermedia*.

   Hypermedia have become remarkably rich.  _Perseus_ combines
   classical texts with dictionaries, glosses, maps, and architectural
   diagrams, spanning much of ancient Greek literature.  _A la
   rencontre de Philippe_ allows the student to enter into (quite
   literally!) the search for an apartment in Paris-- newspaper
   advertisements, answering machines, telephoning, an angry plumber,
   and all.  With _Interactive Shakespeare_, the student can "read"
   _Hamlet_ as folio, quarto, gloss, or the cinema versions of
   Laurence Olivier and Franco Zeffirelli.                        [l. 157]

   Labeling hypermedia as postmodern rests on two claims.^4 [Landow/
   _Hypertext_, etc.]   One, hypertext equals webs of text rather than
   linear text.  There is no center, no particular starting point.
   That perhaps exaggerates a bit, since we did, after all, start with
   the linear structure called _Great Expectations_.  But, it is
   argued, because hypermedia do not require us to follow a centering,
   hierarchical, logical-outline structure, they are postmodern.
   Second, in some forms of hypertext, one reader can annotate the
   text so the next reader can get what the first reader said.  This
   electronic co-authorship, it is said, also de-centers, because it
   cancels the centrality of the original author.  Here, too, though,
   this is not as exotic as it seems.  It is rather like finding a book
   in the library all marked up by a previous user.

   In general, hypermedia simply do electronically what a reader or
   researcher might do "by hand" in a library.  That is, one could
   interrupt one's listening to Beethoven's Ninth in a music library
   to consult a score, a biography, or criticism.  In a way,
   hypermedia are simply a variorum or a Norton Critical Edition done
   electronically.  They are by no means as radical a departure from
   familiar forms as claimed.

   In fact, the hypermedia author can be even more dictatorial than
   the print author.  The hypermedia author can control not only the
   visible text, but the very jumps the reader makes within that text
   or to other texts.  The author can make unavailable to the reader
   connections or interpretations or intertextualities other than
   those the author chooses.

   For all these reasons the claim that hypermedia somehow validate
   popular notions of the postmodern seems exaggerated. The mere fact
   that you *can* make a text toward which people *can* make
   associative rather than logical, hierarchical connections doesn't
   mean that the text in some intrinsic sense *is* that way.  It may
   very well be just the opposite.

   The confusion arises because of the error, endemic in the world of
   literary theory, of attributing to texts what is really action by
   the reader.  Texts, finally, are inert objects.  They are
   inanimate, powerless, and passive.  They don't *do* things. Readers
   act, texts don't.

   One would think this obvious enough, but I hear endlessly in the
   drone of modern literary theory that texts deconstruct their
   apparent meanings or impose other texts or marginalize people or
   de-center themselves.  Claims that texts determine our perceptions
   of them fly in the face of modern perceptual psychology and
   cognitive science, which include the very large field of the
   psychology of reading.  I once asked our reference librarian to
   check the computer index of the psychological literature (PSYCLIT)
   to see how many articles in psychological journals used _reading_
   in their titles or as keyword.  5000 in eight years!  This is not a
   field where one can simply say the text de-centers or deconstructs
   or determines its meaning.  5000 articles say that matters are not
   that simple.                                              [l.213]

   Those who experiment with actual readers and actual texts do come
   to a fairly unanimous conclusion.  Most cognitive scientists hold a
   *constructive* view of perceiving, knowing, remembering, and
   reading.  That is, you *construe*.  You act.  You do something.
   More specifically, you do something in two stages.  One, you bring
   hypotheses to bear on what you are reading (or perceiving, knowing,
   remembering).  You bring pre-existing ideas to bear, and two, you
   get feedback from what you are addressing.  Then, are you pleased,
   bored, annoyed, anxious?  How you feel about that feedback
   determines how you continue the constructive process.^5 [see Taylor
   and Taylor, 1983]

   If one views reading as the psychologists do, then a lot of
   contemporary literary theory sounds nonsensical.  Almost any
   sentence in which the text is the subject of an active verb begins
   to seem silly.  Even sentences which separate properties of a text
   (like structure or meaning) from some human's perception of those
   properties sound fishy.  Most turn out to be quite confused.
   "Foundationalist" would be an appropriate and fashionable epithet.

   Where does this notion of the active text come from?  I think it
   mostly comes from a misreading of Saussure.  Postmodern theorists
   have adopted his model of language: a totality of signs in which a
   sound-of-word or signifier produces a meaning or signified.^6
   [Culler, 1976]  But this is to take poor old Saussure to a place he
   never intended to go.  As he tells us early in his lectures, he was
   trying to produce an account of language free of psychology,
   sociology, anthropology -- a purely linguistic account.  Today's
   theorists, however, translate him back into a psychological
   statement about how readers read.

   As a result, most of today's theorists substitute supposed
   activities or properties of the text for what are really activities
   by the reader.  This newest idea, that hypermedia are postmodern,
   also mixes up text and reader this way.  The theorist focuses on
   the de-centered look and feel of what is on the screen and ignores
   the activity of author and reader that does the de-centering.  It
   is, after all, the reader who has to click on a word or choose from
   a menu or stop to listen to the music.  All the author does is
   automate choices that readers have always had.  If we chose to read
   _Great Expectations_ without interruption or listen to Beethoven's
   Ninth from beginning to end, we would not get the look and feel of

   Even the active, annotating reader is only functioning like another
   author.  The annotator provides a text for subsequent readers just
   as any other author does.  It is a text that subsequent readers can
   read, skim, or ignore-- like any other.                         [l. 262]

   In short, hypermedia simply use a computer to assist in tasks that
   have always been open to readers.  There is no radical change here
   in the nature of literary texts, nor even much change in readers'
   activities.  What differences there are are differences in degree,
   not kind.  One could, after all, sit down in a college library to
   read _Great Expectations_ and laboriously surround oneself with
   treatises on Victorian prisons, religion, or lawyers.  The computer
   just makes that easier.

   Are there electronic texts, though, that are definitively
   postmodern?  I think there are, although they are far less
   razzle-dazzle than the hypermedia.  Consider the familiar ELIZA
   program.  Joseph Weizenbaum invented it back in 1963, naming it for
   the heroine of Shaw's _Pygmalion_.^7 [ACM, 1966]  Like Henry
   Higgins, Weizenbaum had taught the computer to talk-- sort of.  As
   the "reader" types text onto the screen, the program scans it for
   key words.  Then it turns around and displays various texts in
   response to those key words as if it were answering the "reader."

   Although, in principle, ELIZA could be sensitive to thousands of
   such words, it was designed to imitate a Rogerian ("uh-huh") kind
   of psychotherapist.  That way, demands on its seeming ability to
   answer would be small.  The responses can simply be canned
   sentences.  "Yes."  "Tell me more."  Or the program can respond by
   substituting a word for the key word.  The machine hears "mother,"
   perhaps, and asks about "family."  At its most sophisticated level,
   the program can reverse or incorporate a typed-in sentence so as to
   make a reply apparently based on an understanding of what has been
   said by the "reader."  This is a sample of its dialogue (the
   computer is in capitals):                                        [l. 293]

          I need some help, that much seems certain.


          Perhaps I could learn to get along with my mother.


          My mother takes care of me.


          My father.

          YOUR FATHER.

          You are like my father in some ways.^8
                                                [Boden, _AI_, 1977]

    As in that last response from the "reader," people relate to ELIZA
    as though it were another human being, because it *says* things.

    That is why I call it (her?) postmodern.  These programs-- texts,
    really --create the illusion that they are animate beings.  The
    writer writes them, then takes hands off and leaves them to run on
    their own, just as writers usually do.  But the ELIZA programs,
    once their writers let go, then create the illusion of acting more
    or less of their own free will.

    Although very simple, these programs have fooled a lot of people.
    In fact, PARRY, designed to imitate a paranoiac, fooled most of
    the psychiatrists who read its dialogues.  Since 1991, the Boston
    Computer Museum has been holding a competition for these humanoid
    programs.  The contest stages a "Turing test," the classic
    behaviorist criterion for artificial intelligence.  In a
    conversation, can you tell the difference between responses typed
    in by a person and responses generated by a machine?  In 1991 and
    1992 more than half the judges mistook one program for a human
    being.  Yet the program had been developed by one man in Queens
    and now sells for a couple of hundred dollars.  (Interestingly, in
    1993 journalists substituted for lay judges, and nobody was

    The original ELIZA program was also very simple.  It ran in BASIC.
    Even a novice like me could modify it.                          [l. 339]

    Yet we readily take these relatively uncomplicated programs for
    human.  We trust them, so long as they behave fairly reasonably.
    There are many anecdotes.  One of the earliest concerns
    Weizenbaum's secretary, who asked him to step outside because she
    was beginning to discuss personal matters with the seeming
    therapist.  Conversely, there is a negative Eliza-effect.  People
    get quite frustrated and angry when the program fails to behave
    naturally.  This tells me (as a psychoanalytic critic) that we are
    dealing with a failure of basic trust.  We trust the program
    because it "feeds" us satisfying answers.  If it doesn't, we get
    angry.  We are experiencing the boundary merger (associated with
    early oral experiences) that we allow in all literary "suspension
    of disbelief."

    As that analogy suggests, readers begin to treat ELIZA programs as
    a kind of literature, particularly as they become more complicated
    than the original, very simple ELIZA.  Consider the
    _CONVERSATIONS/ CHARACTER MAKER_ program developed by Janet Murray
    in her creative writing class at MIT.^9   The program offers the
    prospective writer a template on which to create a character.
    That is, the student chooses keywords to which the ELIZA-type
    program is to respond.  Then the student specifies answers which
    the program can make (plus priorities for different answers,
    default answers, and so on).  The student writer can thus create a
    character: an evasive politician who dodges your questions; a
    Jewish mother who keeps trying to feed you; a lover who is dumping

    The reader of such a program creates a conversation that is like a
    little short story.  The writer, having completed authorship, may
    only have created what amounts to some stock phrases and some
    computer code.  The final "work of art" is the conversation that
    results from what the reader puts into the program.  This final
    text will be variable, different for every reader and different
    for every "reading" by the same reader. This work of art has no
    clear boundaries between reader, writer, and text.  It is, it
    seems to me, completely de-centered.  It is finally and
    definitively postmodern in that it works wholly with what its
    "reader" brings to bear.                                      [l. 379]

    Murray is edging her program toward greater sophistication. She
    hopes to be able to vary answers according to semantic context, so
    that the program will "know" whether _B-I-L-L_ refers to a dun, a
    bird, or the President.  She hopes to be able to supply the
    program with "knowledge," in the form of scripts, so that it will
    know what to expect in a restaurant, say, or a department store.
    Then, by using story grammars (such as those of Propp or Lakoff),
    she can allow the "reader" to move progressively through pieces of
    a standard plot like: meet, be tested, overcome obstacle, achieve
    goal, receive reward.  The plot, again, can depend partly on the
    "writer," partly on the "reader," and it will vary for each

    Murray's program is relatively simple.  Yet, from the point of
    view of literary theory, it seems to me to go beyond much so-
    called "Interactive Fiction."  One of I.F.'s most talented
    practitioners, Robert Coover, described a number of such programs
    in the _New York Times Book Review_ (Aug. 29, 1993).  Most are like
    hypermedia.  You choose.  You may choose to "click" on this word
    or that.  As a result, you may get this or that text.  You may
    choose this ending or that.  You may be offered forking paths, and
    then you can choose different ways through an otherwise fixed text
    from a repertoire of routes. Given permutations and combinations,
    that repertoire can become very large.

    Basically, though, most interactive fictions are not as fully
    interactive as the ELIZA programs.  We expect a fixed sequence in
    a literary text, and I.F. does change that.  But most I.F. texts
    allow the reader no more input than the privilege of selection.
    Today's I.F. is midway, perhaps, between ELIZA and hypermedia,
    between modern and postmodern.

    My criterion is, Does the text *do* things, as if it had a will of
    its own, when it responds to the reader?  If so, then definitely
    postmodern.  Or does it simply offer a reader choices?  If so,
    modern.  One would have to judge interactive fictions one by one,
    but clearly ELIZA and CONVERSATIONS allow readers more input than
    merely choosing among passive alternatives.  In fact they open up
    startling possibilities.                                       [l. 419]

    Suppose one were to combine these programs that "talk back" with
    virtual reality.  That is, you put on a helmet and "see" a space
    in which you "move" right and left, up and down, in and out,
    through different rooms and passages.  Suppose that in that space
    there were computer-simulated people.  Suppose you could talk to
    them in an ELIZA way, and they would talk back, responding
    variously to your various words.

    What I am describing is "interactive drama" or the OZ project
    (under Joseph Bates at Carnegie-Mellon).  The technology is very
    difficult, even more so than for hypermedia and interactive
    fiction, but some of it will almost certainly be feasible within
    the next few years.  The Boston Computer Museum has a continuing
    demonstration of virtual reality (VR), and in October 1993 the
    Guggenheim Museum Soho exhibited VR works by a variety of video
    and visual artists.  You may remember Boopsie doing virtual
    shopping in _Doonesbury_ --the goods are virtual but the bills are
    real.  (An image for late capitalism?)

    In one of Project OZ's scenarios, you enter a bus station.  You
    manage to buy a ticket from a recalcitrant clerk.  (ELIZA-type
    dialogue here.)  A man nearly blind from recent surgery is told by
    the surly clerk to fill out forms.  (More dialogue.  Do you help
    him or not?)  As he (and you?) work on the forms, a young tough
    comes in with a knife and harasses the blind man. (Further
    dialogue.  Do you intervene?)  If you call the clerk's attention
    to this, she gives you a gun.  (Do you shoot?)

    This is a play, and the authors have written lines.  But what
    lines you hear depend on what you say and do.  You are being asked
    to make choices, open-ended moral choices, like those of life, not
    the multiple-choice options of interactive fiction or hypermedia.
    Moreover, your choices have consequences that could frighten you
    or reassure you or make you proud.  You are acting in a play, like
    a character in Pirandello, but the words and actions of this play
    change in response to your words and actions.  You are being asked
    to discover yourself, just as you always are in literature.^10
    [Bates, "VR ....," _Presence_, 1992]                            [l. 458]

    The programs and machines to accomplish interactive drama will be
    very large and complex.  They will happen, I would say, by 1997,
    but they have not happened yet.  In the meantime, to test out the
    ideas behind interactive drama, Bates and his colleagues have
    hired human actors to impersonate the machines (which are, of
    course, impersonating humans).^11 [Kelso, Weyhrauch, Bates;
    "Dramatic Presence," _Presence_, 1993]  Surely this is the
    ultimate postmodern, de-centered irony.

    Whatever the technological problems, though, we can now see that
    the ELIZA genre, even the most rudimentary one back in 1963, had
    already changed the nature of literature.  Why? Because the text
    *says* things.  Like other literature, the program is created by
    an author, and then the author stands back.  *Un*like all other
    literature, however, this writing then creates the illusion that
    it is another human being with a will of its own, independent of
    the author whose hands are now off.

    The postmodern, properly understood, represents a real shift in
    world-view from the modern.  Postmodern artists use as their
    medium our beliefs, expectations, and desires toward the work of
    art.  Literature on the computer sometimes adds to such a
    postmodernism and sometimes doesn't.  Today's hypermedia, for
    example, and interactive fiction don't really change anything.
    They are dazzling, to be sure, but they are just texts in the
    traditional sense.  They don't *do* things-- they offer finite
    choices.  By contrast, the ELIZA programs allow the reader an
    infinity of possible responses.  Then the ELIZAs speak and act,
    seemingly on their own.  As a result they differ profoundly from
    any literature we have hitherto known.  Truly, we are seeing
    something new under the sun, something that may even be beyond our
    notions of the postmodern.

                            NOTES                               [l. 493]

^1  "Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism,"
_New Left Review_ 146 (1984): 53-92.

^2  _The Dickens Web_,  Developer: George P. Landow, Environment:
Intermedia 3.5 (Providence RI: Institute for Research in
Information and Scholarship, 1990).

^3  CD Companion to Beethoven Symphony No. 9: A HyperCard/CD
Audio Program_, Developer: Robert Winter, Environment:
HyperCard (Santa Monica CA: Voyager, 1989).  Other
multimedia webs deal with Chinese literature, _In
Memoriam_, and the moon.

^4  See, for example, George P. Landow, _Hypertext: The
Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology_
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992), or Edward M. Jennings,
"The Text is Dead; Long Live the Techst" (Review of Landow,
_Hypertext_), _Postmodern Culture_ 2.3 (1992), available on
Internet: PMC-LIST through LISTSERV@ncsuvm.cc.ncsu.edu.

^5  Of the many textbooks in the field, I usually recommend
Insup Taylor and M. Martin Taylor, _The Psychology of
Reading_ (New York: Academic, 1983).

^6  Jonathan D. Culler, _Ferdinand de Saussure_, Modern
Masters Series (London: Fontana, 1976).

^7  "ELIZA--a Computer Program for the Study of Natural
Language Communication Between Man and Machine,"
_Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery_
9 (1966): 36-45.

^8  Margaret A. Boden, _Artificial Intelligence and Natural
Man_  (New York: Basic, 1977), 107.

^9  Developers: Janet H. Murray, Jeffrey Morrow, and Stuart
A. Malone.  Cambridge MA: Laboratory for Advanced Technology
in the Humanities, MIT, under development.  Environment:

^10  Joseph Bates, "Virtual Reality, Art, and Entertainment,"
_Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual
Environments_ 1.1 (1992): 133-38.

^11  Margaret Thomas Kelso, Peter Weyhrauch, and Joseph Bates,
"Dramatic Presence,"  _Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators
and Virtual Environments_ 2.1 (1993): 1-15.

                                              Norman N. Holland
                                          Department of English
                                          University of Florida
                                Gainesville FL 32611-2036 U.S.A.
* This essay in Volume 4 Number 1 of _EJournal_ (April, 1994) is (c) copyright*
*1994 by _EJournal_.  Permission is hereby granted to give it away.  Any and  *
*all financial interest is hereby assigned to Norman N. Holland.  This notice *
*must accompany all copies of this text.                                      *

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   free to Bitnet/ Internet/ Usenet addressees.  Recipients may make
   paper copies; _EJournal_ will provide authenticated paper copy from
   our read-only archive for use by academic deans or others.

Writers who think their texts might be appreciated by _EJournal_'s audience are
invited to forward files to EJOURNAL@ALBANY.bitnet .  If you are wondering
about starting to write a piece for to us, feel free to ask if it sounds
appropriate.  There are no "styling" guidelines; we try to be a little more
direct and lively than many paper publications, and considerably less hasty and
ephemeral than most postings to unreviewed electronic spaces.  Essays in the
vicinity of 5000 words fit our format well.  We read ASCII; we look forward to
experimenting with other transmission and display formats and protocols.
                                                                       [l. 603]

Board of Advisors:
                        Stevan Harnad     Princeton University
                        Dick Lanham       University of California at L. A.
                        Ann Okerson       Association of Research Libraries
                        Joe Raben         City University of New York
                        Bob Scholes       Brown University
                        Harry Whitaker    University of Quebec at Montreal

Consulting Editors - April, 1994

ahrens@alpha.hanover.bitnet    John Ahrens            Hanover
ap01@liverpool.ac.uk           Stephen Clark          Liverpool
dabrent@acs.ucalgary.ca        Doug Brent             Calgary
djb85@albany                   Don Byrd               Albany
donaldson@loyvax               Randall Donaldson      Loyola College
ds001451@ndsuvm1               Ray Wheeler            North Dakota
erdtt@pucal                    Terry Erdt             Purdue-Calumet
fac_askahn@vax1.acs.jmu.edu    Arnie Kahn             James Madison
folger@watson.ibm.com          Davis Foulger          IBM - Watson Center
george@gacvax1                 G. N. Georgacarakos    Gustavus Adolphus
gms@psuvm                      Gerry Santoro          Penn State
nrcgsh@ritvax                  Norm Coombs            RIT
pmsgsl@ritvax                  Patrick M. Scanlon     RIT
r0731@csuohio                  Nelson Pole            Cleveland State
richardj@bond.edu.au           Joanna Richardson      Bond
ryle@urvax                     Martin Ryle            Richmond
twbatson@gallua                Trent Batson           Gallaudet
userlcbk@umichum               Bill Condon            Michigan
wcooper@vm.ucs.ualberta.ca     Wes Cooper             Alberta

Editor:                             Ted Jennings, English, University at Albany
Managing Editor:                Chris Funkhouser, English, University at Albany
Editorial Asssociate:              Jerry Hanley, emeritus, University at Albany

University at Albany Computing and Network Services:  Ben Chi, Director

University at Albany      State University of New York    Albany, NY 12222 USA