Annotated Bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography? Essentially, an annotated bibliography is an organized way of taking notes. defines annotation as:

  1. The act or process of furnishing critical commentary or explanatory notes.
  2. A critical or explanatory note; a commentary

and defines "bibliography" as:

  1. A list of the works of a specific author or publisher.
  2. A list of writings relating to a given subject: a bibliography of Latin American history.
  3. A list of writings used or considered by an author in preparing a particular work.

Thus, an "annotated bibliography" is a compilation of sources related to a given subject which includes critical or explanatory information.

Annotated bibliographies have many uses...First, they provide a compilation of sources with intelligent commentary; meaning, that not only do you have a summary of the content of an article, but you also have some comment as to why the article is (or is not) of use. Second, ABs provide a quick reference for useful definitions and key ideas (if you've done your job). Finally, ABs help to provide you an overview of the field so that you are not repeating work that's already been done, but can make a genuine contribution (or at least get a better grade on your current project).

Your Assignment: You will prepare an annotated bibliography on a topic of your own choosing -- this topic must be related to your research project and the AB will be the foundation of your research proposal.  You will need a minimum of 10 scholarly sources for this assignment (you may use more, but you only need 10 to fulfill the assignment requirements).  You may use no more than 2 review papers for your research project.

How do you write an annotated bibliography?
    So glad you asked! The four components of an annotated bibliographic entry are as follows:

  1. An APA style reference.  -- Purdue OWL     RefWorks    NoodleTools
  2. A short paragraph of 3 or 4 sentences indicating:
    • The question or problem addressed by the article (the "topic" and RQ);
    • The article's method of analysis (experimental? theoretical?);
    • The article's thesis, conclusions, and/or recommendations.
  3. Your assessment of the article's usefulness (global and specific) to your research goals
    • for example, maybe you need only the bibliography or a specific discussion of a particular theory
  4. Any useful definitions or key ideas, in quotes, with PAGE NUMBER specified!


Bennett, C.W., & Ling, D. (1977). Effects of Voiced-Voiceless Discrimination Training Upon Articulation of

     Hearing-Impaired Children. Language and Speech, 20(3), 287-293[Electronic Version] 

This article questions whether voiced-voiceless discrimination training will aid the articulation in hearing-impaired children. Six severely hearing-impaired children ranging from 8-10 years of age were the subjects. One group of 3 children received discrimination training on the /ba-pa/ distinction and the second group of 3 children received training on the /ba-pa/, /da-ta/, and /ga-ka/ distinctions. A vibro-tactile aid was used so the individuals could feel the voice onset time. Once the individual correctly distinguished between voiced and voiceless stops for a certain criterion, the vibro-tactile cue was reduced in intensity. The next step involved responding to voiced and voiceless syllables by producing them. The results showed that the training in audition alone does result in improved production. Subjects in the first group showed greater generalization perhaps due to the limited set in training. This may have helped the hearing-impaired children focus on the critical variable of voice onset time.

 “Our hypothesis was that by providing training through audition alone we could change the perceptual strategies of children who relied heavily upon vision in such a way that their articulation would be improved with regard to the voicing dimension.” Page 288.

[there were no visual cues in this discrimination training therefore children needed to focus on voice onset time to determine target sound. Supports the auditory method of teaching hearing-impaired children.]


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