POS 6427
Congressional Politics
Professor Lawrence C. Dodd
University of Florida, Spring, 2002





Week One: Introduction (Jan 10)
Week Two: Studying Congress: An Overview (Jan 17)

 PART ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF CONGRESSIONAL STUDIES

Week Three: Patterns of Congressional Development (Jan 24)
Week Four: Constituencies, Parties and Elections (Jan 31)
Week Five: Goals, Careers and Institutional Politics (Feb 7, to be rescheduled)
Week Six: The House in Transition: Reform and Revolution (Feb 14)
Week Seven: The Exceptional Senate: Transformative Patterns (Feb 21)
Week Eight: The Contemporary Legislative Process (Feb 28)
Spring Break (Week of March 7th)

PART TWO: ADVANCED TOPICS IN CONGRESSIONAL ANALYSIS

Week Nine: Discussion of Research Designs (March 14)
Week Ten: Party Government in Congress (March 21)
Week Eleven: Committees in Congress: An Overview (March 28)
Week Twelve: Committees and Policy Decision-making (April 4)
Week Thirteen: Enacting Public Policy (April 11)
Week Fourteen: Discussion of Research Projects (April 18)
 

Seminar Objectives

This course is a graduate-level introduction to the study of the U. S. Congress. It seeks to help students understand Congress, why it is important within our political system, how it changes, and how it sustains and replenishes its constitutional powers. In doing so, the course closely examines the functioning of Congress as a representative and policy-making institution; how it has dealt with one of the great issues of American political development – race relations; how it has developed and adapted its organizational and electoral processes across American history; and what aspects of the institutional design of Congress would appear essential to its on-going maintenance and constitutional authority. While seeking to facilitate this broad understanding, the course also introduces students to the rigorous scholarly study of the Congress.

The American Congress is the most extensively studied political institution in the world. Journalistic coverage of the Congress – by such newspapers and journals as the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Washington Post, Washington Times, Wall Street JournalNew York Times, Los Angeles Times and National Journal provide a daily account of the Congress rich in detail, colorful in its analysis, and unparalleled in thoroughness. The Congressional Record adds a daily record of the speeches and commentaries of House and Senate members. Similarly, the Congress makes available the language of all bills it considers and all laws it passes, the results of roll call votes from committee and floor action, the hearings and reports of committees, and a wide array of information from its caucuses and subcaucuses. And of course there are any number of popular books on the Congress, usually by journalists, that address particular issues of congressional politics. To all of this is then added the scholarly literature on Congress – itself the most voluminous such literature about any political institution in world history.

Our task in this course is to grasp the major trends, themes and theories that characterize the scholarly study of Congress while ensuring that students gain a sufficient general understanding of the institution (aided by popular and journalistic accounts and, if possible, first hand observation). Our "measure" of "sufficient understanding" is students’ ability to assess the explanatory value of specialized scholarly work, see the relevance of scholarly work to the real-world institution, assess the broad strengths and weaknesses of congressional scholarship as a body of knowledge, and contribute to systematic analysis of the Congress in innovative ways through their own scholarly activities. This is both a daunting task – given the voluminous literature on the Congress – and yet also an exciting one.

Because the literature on Congress is so well-developed, there is considerable opportunity for students of the Congress to make methodological, theoretical and interpretive breakthroughs that  not only help clarify congressional politics but also illuminate the broader study of politics. In other words, the study of Congress is sufficiently well-developed, and a broader array of journalistic and popular knowledge is sufficiently accessible, that students are not confined to research efforts that describe the broad outlines of congressional politics. Instead, they can look for explanatory connections among a well-studied array of electoral and institutional processes. In doing so, they can also examine the interpretive implications that congressional politics may have for understanding other political institutions, at home and abroad.

Stated more bluntly, if political science is to develop general theories or paradigmatic perspectives on such topics as elections and representation, political careerism, institutional performance, institutional change and organizational adaptation, agenda evolution and policy responsiveness, or constitutional design and institutional power – such developments could well  come as a result of findings, methods and theories developed in congressional studies. In essence, the information and literature on the Congress are so well-developed that in studying Congress as a scholarly endeavor students are not simply examining one of the world’s most powerful representative assemblies. They also are exploring the cutting edge of data, methods and theories about politics and positioning themselves to contribute to new cutting edge developments.

The course introduces students to the scholarly study of the Congress by immersing them in the literature on Congress and by asking them to conduct an original research paper due during finals week. Because of the quantity of published work on Congress, the course ‘picks and chooses’ among many excellent studies. In the process, a genuine effort is made to introduce students to a pluralistic array of research styles, topics and analytical perspectives. This is not a course in one ‘school’ of congressional studies, but an effort to help students be aware of the different schools and perspectives that have emerged during the development of congressional studies, hopefully thereby enabling them to choose approaches that best fit their own talents and topical interests. At the same time, a major theme of the course is that a critical aspect of understanding Congress is studying it ‘up close and personal,’ so that all students are encouraged to do field work on Capitol Hill or in congressional districts as a part of their research, either during the semester or at a subsequent point in research development. They are also encouraged to consider a summer as an intern on Capitol Hill during graduate school if they plan a dissertation on the Congress.

Following the introduction to "Studying Congress" in Week Two, the course will be divided into two parts. Part One focuses on the "Foundations of Congressional Studies" and provides a broad overview of the development of Congress, its role as an elective assembly composed of autonomous (and often career-driven) representatives, the distinctive politics of the House and Senate, and the general nature of the legislative process. The reading in Part One is heavy, with students expected to immerse themselves in learning Congress by reading about it. A special focus of Part One will include an assessment of Professor Dodd’s effort to construct a theory of congressional change, as seen in theoretical essays by him across Weeks Two through Seven. While the course is designed to facilitate student learning, it is hoped that students will share their critical responses to this theoretical work, helping him to learn as well.

By the end of Part I (and preferably by Week Five) students should have a sufficiently well-developed understanding of Congress and congressional research to choose a topic for original research. The Spring Break will provide a time for students to make a final choice of such a topic and draft an  research design. Part Two of the course then focuses on "Advanced Topics in Congressional Analysis," looking closely at specialized cutting edge work on party government, committee politics, policy decision-making, and roll call analysis. The reading during Part Two will be more selective and limited in nature so that, while parts of it will be difficult, students should have time to focus as well on their specialized research projects.

The hope is that by the end of the course students will have a solid general understanding of the Congress and will have a grasp of congressional scholarship that substantially prepares them for doctoral prelims in the area. It is also hoped that students will have conducted an initial research project that helps them better understand some aspect of congressional studies of interest to them and perhaps thereby helps them connect with a research topic through which they can contribute to the published scholarship in the area. It is also hoped that by the end of this course students will have a grasp of the evolution of political analysis across the past fifty years in the study of Congress and will thereby have an appreciation for the increasingly systematic understanding of politics that is emerging within the discipline – an understanding that has been heavily fostered by the pioneering study of the U. S. Congress evident in the readings for this course.

     Required Readings

The required books for this course are available for purchase at Goerings Bookstore near campus. Most of these are also on reserve in Library West. In addition, virtually all essays and articles used in the course are available in books placed on reserve in Library West, or in appropriate journals. A limited amount of material not available on reserve will be placed in the department library or provided through handouts in class.

Reading Code:
 ***read closely
   **read for the major points
     *read if time permits/or for special interest

Abbreviations:
 1.   CR I - VII refers to Congress Reconsidered, editions one through seven, on reserve.
 2.   Studies refers to Studies of Congress, edited by Glenn Parker, on reserve.
 3.  Two Decades refers to Ralph Huitt and Robert Peabody, eds., Congress: Two Decades of Analysis, on reserve
 4.  APSR refers to the American Political Science Review
 5.  AJPS refers to the American Journal of Political Science
 6.  LSQ refers to the Legislative Studies Quarterly

 Class Assignments

First and foremost, students are expected to complete the reading for each week and participate in class discussion. Because the literature on Congress is so vast, and because this course seeks to introduce you to a broad range of perspectives and topics present in congressional studies, the reading for the course will be extensive. Nevertheless, Professor Dodd has necessarily made a number of choices, leaving out a number of outstanding scholarly works, analytic perspectives and important topics. Even in doing so, a large introductory body of reading remains.

In exploring this reading, students are encourage to make some choices of their own about what to read, and how closely to read it, as seems necessary given available time, energy, and commitment to the study of Congress. To facilitate these choices, Professor Dodd has ‘starred’ the readings. The three-stars (***) designate material that is absolutely essential for the weekly discussion topics, and should be read closely and attentively. The two-stars (**) indicate that the reading is important to the weekly discussion and should be examined before class, looking for its major points. The one-starred reading (*) tends to explore specialized work relevant to a class topic and can be consulted if time and personal interest permit. "Recommended Reading" is intended to guide students to additional work to consider for research projects, prelim preparation, or personal knowledge. Except for ‘background’ studies and descriptive contemporary commentaries, everything assigned in the class can be considered of ‘classic’ status (or in some cases as being short summaries by authors of ‘classic work’ published in books or multiple articles too lengthy for this course). The star system does not indicate the quality of the work at hand, but its centrality to class discussion for a particular week. Appropriate engagement in class discussion, based on completing and mastering the core reading, will be considered in final grade decisions.

To facilitate class discussion, during most weeks students are asked to write a short essay (about a page and a half long) addressing a central question relevant to the reading and to email the essay to Professor Dodd and all other students by Wednesday midnight (or so) before the Thursday class. These email assignments will be ungraded, but will be considered in final grade decisions as a contribute to class discussion.

For selected weeks, students are asked to complete graded papers, which will contribute to the final grade decision, as follows:

1.  First Graded Assignment: Due on or before Friday, 5pm, February 8th (despite the postpone of this class until Monday, Feb 11th). Approximately 5 to 6 double-spaced pages. Due in Professor Dodd’s mailbox or on email. 10% of final grade

Based on the reading thus far in this course, identify one or two general research topics
around which to construct a research project in this course, discuss the nature and
significance of the topic(s), theoretical perspectives that might help illuminate it/them,
and a strategy of research that would allow you to explore it/them.

In thinking about such a topic, pay special attention to the Price book, The Congressional
Experience, which addresses issues such as party government and committee politics that
we have not yet examined.

2.  Second Graded Assignment: Due on or before Friday, 5pm, March 29th. 15% of final grade; 7 to 8 pages double-spaced

 What do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of a goal-oriented perspective on
congressional politics, in what ways does such an approach prove most useful as an
explanatory device in understanding Congress, and how might a goal-oriented approach
be further refined and developed as an explanatory strategy in congressional studies?
How might such a strategy be useful to research questions of interest to you?

3.  Third Graded Assignment: Due on or before Wednesday March 14th at 5 pm, in
Professor Dodd’s mailbox. 15% of final grade; 7 to 8 pages double-spaced

Identify a puzzle about congressional politics that you wish to address in a research project during the remainder of the semester and present an initial research design for exploring the puzzle. This design should (1) clearly state the puzzle as an empirical question that can be addressed through systematic observable evidence (qualitative and/or quantitative); (2) discuss its importance for our understanding of the Congress; (3) address previous research and theorizing relevant to approaching the puzzle; (4) present a general theoretical perspective (or hunch) and relevant hypotheses (or possible answers) that can help guide you in your research process; (5) outline the kinds of research activity you will undertake during the remainder of the semester to explore the puzzle, illustrating it with any data (qualitative or quantitative) you may already have; (6) lay out a timetable for research activity during the remainder of the semester and the type of final project/argument you expect to complete; (7) consider the kinds of conclusions it is realistic for you to reach as a result of this work this semester; and (8) discuss the ways in which this project could lay foundations for a more extended future project.

4.  Fourth Graded Assignment: Due on or before Monday, April 15th, at 5pm. 20% of final grade, divided equally between the two answers. Answer both questions:

a.  Discuss the five or six most important ways that you see congressional politics as having changed since the Founding, discuss why these changes have occurred, and assess their importance for the role of Congress in American politics. @ 8 pages d-s

b.  Discuss the five or six most important ways that you see congressional politics as having remained relatively constant or continuous since the Founding, discuss why such stable patterns have persisted, and assess their significance for the role of Congress in American politics. @ 8 pages double-spaced

5.  Fifth Graded Assignment: Semester Research Project. Due at a time to be announced during finals week. 30% of final grade; page length may vary based on the nature of the project. Probably between 15 and 30 pages double-spaced.

       The  semester Research Project should be built around the research design presented
      as your third graded assignment, or around a subsequent project approved by
       Professor Dodd in lieu of that project.

     Course Grades

As indicated above, the class writing assignments, together, determine 90% of the course grade. The remaining 10% is based on the quality of class participation, including completion of the email assignments. All papers will be graded on a numerical scale, with 92 and above constituting an A, 88 to 91.5 constituting a B+, 80 to 87.5 constituting a B. As this is an advanced graduate research seminar, students receiving a paper grade during the semester below an 80 should speak with Professor Dodd about their progress in the course. No incompletes will be granted in the course unless their are unusual mitigating circumstances, and then only as a result of discussion with Professor Dodd prior to the end of the semester. Unless there are exceptional circumstances, an incomplete will result in a loss of one letter grade (an A becomes a B+, a B+ becomes a B).

      Final Comments

Attached is the reading for the course. I am in the process of restructuring the seminar, and have put considerable time into this redesign process. I reserve the right to make some slight adjustments in the material below, if that proves necessary. The ordering of the weeks and the major assignments should all stay the same, particularly in the first eight weeks. I may yet tinker with the last six weeks, which follow Spring Break. If and as I do so, I will keep you informed.
 
 

Week Two: Studying Congress: An Overview

A.  Introductory Overview:

       ***David Mayhew, Congress: The Electoral Connection, 1973. Read or review. On library reserve. Also read the colloquium discussion of the book in PS: Political Science and Politics, Volume XXXIV, #3, June, 2001.
            *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics: Chapters 1,2,16, on reserve
        ***Polsby and Schickler, "History of the Study of Congress", 2001 APSA
            *Robert L. Peabody, "Research on Congress: A Coming of Age," in Huitt and Peabody, in Congress: Two Decades of Analysis, (hereafter
 referred to as Two Decades) 1969, on reserve

B.  Styles of Research: A Sampler of Some Classics and Contemporary Explorations

1.  Voting data and election analysis

       ***Fiorina, Congress: Keystone of the Washington Establishment, Part I (Review from Scope and Epistemologies, or read if you haven’t
done so before), on reserve
           **Canon, Race, Redistricting and Representation, Preface, Introduction,Chapter One, and Appendices, on reserve

2.  Public Opinion Analysis

         ***Hibbing and Smith, "What the American Public Wants Congress to Be," in Congress Reconsidered, 7th ed.(CR VII), bookstore + reserve
             *Joseph Cooper, Congress and the Decline of Public Trust, in stacks

3.  Case Studies

            *Huitt, "The Congressional Committee: A Case Study" American Political Science Review (APSR), XLVIII (June, 1954, 340-365), and in
Huitt and Peabody, Two Decades
        ***Richard F. Fenno, Jr., "The House Appropriations Committee as a Political System: the Problem of Integration," APSR LVI
(1962): 310-24. Also in Glenn Parker, Studies of Congress (Studies), on reserve.
            *Huitt, "The Morse Committee Assignment Controversy: A Study in    Senate Norms," APSR LI (June, 1957), and in Two Decades.

4.  Participant-observation

        ***Huitt, "Democratic Party Leadership in the Senate," APSR, LV (June, 1961), 331-344, OR "The Outsider in the Senate: An Alternative
Role," APSR LV (Sept, 1961), 566-575, both in Two Decades.
            *Fenno, Home Style, Epilogue

5.  Speeches and Legislative Activity Analysis

        ***Donald Matthews, "The Folkways of the Senate," in U. S. Senators and Their World; also in APSR 53 (1959).
            *Ronald Hatzenbuehler and Robert Ivie, Congress Declares War: Rhetoric,    Leadership, and Partisanship in the Early Republic.

6.  Roll call analysis

        ***V. O. Key, Southern Politics, Chapters 16 and 17; Ch. 1 strongly recommended; on reserve.
           *Julius Turner, Party and Constituency: Pressures on Congress, revised edition by Edward V. Schneier, Jr., Preface, Acknowledgments,
Chapters 1,2,8 and Epilogue; skim remainder.

7.  Events-action data, hearings, newspaper coverage

         ***David Mayhew, Divided We Govern, Chapters 1-4
             *Frank Baumgartner and J. Gold, "The Changing Agendas of Congress and the Supreme Court," Policy Dynamics, forthcoming.

8.  Historical narrative

        ***William Lee Miller, Arguing About Slavery, Part I and Chs. 28-33

9.  Theory construction and formal modeling

       ***Lawrence Dodd, "Congress and the Quest for Power," in CR I and   Parker, Studies, on reserve
         **Gary Jacobson and Samuel Kernell, "Strategic Politicians," in Strategy and Choice in Congressional Elections, 2nd edition, pp. 19-34..
           *Charles Stewart III, Analyzing Congress, Preface and Chapter One

10.  Data Sources:

   Charles Stewart, Analyzing Congress, "Appendix A: Researching Congress."
   Baumgartner, Jones and Wilkerson, "Studying Policy Dynamics," in Baumgartner and Jones, Policy Dynamics, forthcoming.
   N.  Ornstein, T. Mann and M. Malbin, Vital Statistics on Congress.
   The Almanac of American Politics
   The Campaign Finance Institute websites
   http://www.cfinst.org/disc_links/index.html
   http://www.cfinst.org

C. Research by Previous Students in this Course, Using Different Styles

   Sean Kelly, "Divided We Govern?: A Reassessment," Polity (1993).
   Fiona Wright, "The Caucus Reelection Requirement and the Transformation of House Committee Chairs, 1959-94," Legislative Studies Quarterly, August 2000. (roll calls)
   Marian Currinder, "Leadership PACs in the U. S. House" under journal submission
   Elizabeth Oldmixon, "Abortion Politics in the U. S. House", under journal submission
  Josh Gordon, "Tension and Change in the House Appropriations Committee: The Unraveling of the Cohesive Social World," 2001 APSA Convention Paper (using participant observation)
 

Weekly Email Assignment: What three or four topics about Congressional Politics most interest you and how would you see yourself pursuing one or more of these interests in research on the Congress? How might various styles of congressional analysis assist you in this research?
 

Week Three: Patterns of Congressional Development

I.  Studying Congressional History

         **Joseph Cooper and David Brady, "Toward a Diachronic Analysis of Congress," APSR, 1981
       ***Polsby, "Institutionalization of the U.S. House," APSR, 1968, or Parker, Studies
         **Stewart, Analyzing Congress, Chapters 2, 3
           *Dodd and Schott, Congress and the Administrative State, 1979, Chs. 1-4, reserve

II.  The Late 18th and 19th Century Congress

         *"History of Congress," The Encyclopedia of the U. S. Congress, pp. 967-1012, pages 370-374, and pages 1679-1684; in Reference Room, Library West
           *Federalist Papers, 10, 47-51
           *Ellis, Founding Brothers, "The Silence," (The Question of Slavery) Chapter 3
       ***James S. Young, The Washington Community: all
           *Miller, Arguing About Slavery, Part II
         **Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government: at least the ‘Introductory’ and preferably all; as a guide in reading it, see Dodd, "Woodrow Wilson’s Congressional Government and the Modern Congress," in Congress and  the Presidency Journal, Spring, 1987.

III.  The Twentieth Century Congress

           *Encyclopedia of the U. S. Congress, "History of Congress," pages 1012-1045
         **Samuel P. Huntington, "Congressional Responses to the Twentieth Century," in Truman, Congress and America’s Future, first edition.
       ***James Sundquist, The Decline and Resurgence of Congress, Chapters 1,2,8-16; others recommended
           *Kenneth A. Shepsle, "The Changing Textbook Congress." In Chubb and Peterson, eds., Can the Government Govern?
       ***Cooper, "The Twentieth Century Congress," CR VII
           *Canon, Race, Redistricting, and Representation, Chapter Two
         **Robert Mann, The Walls of Jericho, Chapters 1-4
          **I. M. Destler, Congress and Foreign Policy at Century’s End: Requiem on Cooperation?" in CR VII.

IV.  Historical Patterns and Theoretical Perspectives

       ***Mayhew, America’s Congress: all
           *Cooper, "Congress in Organizational Perspective," in CR I.
       ***Dodd, "Congress, the Constitution, and the Crisis of Legitimation," in CRII, 1981; see also, time permitting, Dodd, "Congress, the Presidency and the American Experience," in Thurber, Divided Democracy, book on reserve.1991.
       ***Bernard Manin, The Principles of Representative Government, Chapter 6; remainder is recommended
 

      Highly Recommended:

 Thornton H. Anderson, Creating the Constitution
 Joseph Cooper, The Origins of the Standing Committees and the Development of the Modern House
 Elaine Swift, The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress, 1787-1841
 David Rothman, Politics and Power: The United States Senate, 1869-1901
 David Brady, Congressional Voting in a Partisan Era
 Kenneth W. Hechler, Insurgency: Personalities and Politics of the Taft Era
 Richard Bolling, Power in the House
 James Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal
 James Sundquist, The Decline and Resurgence of Congress
 

Weekly Email Assignment: Write a critique of Mayhew’s book, America’s Congress. What parts of it do you find most intriguing, useful, and compelling, and what parts do you find most questionable. How might you build on aspects of it in a research project?
 

 Week Four: Constituencies, Parties and Elections

 I. General Perspectives

             *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, pp. 39-64
         ***Fenno, Home Style: all, including epilogue.
         ***Herrnson, Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington:  all
            *Jacobson, "Parties and PACs in Congressional Elections," in CR IV and "The Misallocation of Resources in House Campaigns," in RC V.
         ***Congress Reconsidered VII, Chapter 4: Erikson and Wright, "Voters, Candidates, and Issues in Congressional Elections"  Chapter 5: Paul S. Herrnson, "The Money Maze"
          **Stewart, Analyzing Congress, Chapters 4,5,6
            *Les Benedict, "The Party, Going Strong: Congress and Elections in the Mid-19th Century,"Congress & The Presidency 9 (1981082), 37-60.

 II. The Marginality Puzzle

The Marginality puzzle is interesting both substantively, in terms of what it says about Congress and elections, and analytically as an example of the development of a research program in political science.

**Everyone should read/review the original article by Mayhew in Polity Vol 6 (1974), #3,     which is reprinted in Parker, Studies. Everyone should also review Part I of Fiorina, Congress: Keystone of the Washington Establishment, 1989.

To appreciate the development of the work on marginality, now or in preparation for prelims, read as follows: Part I in Parker, Studies, including the introductory comments by Parker and the articles by Mayhew, Bullock/ Scicchitano, Ferejohn and Fiorina. Then review Fiorina, Congress: Keystone of the Washington Establishment, 1989, Part I (assigned in the Scope and Epistemologies course; this is a reprint of his 1977 book). Then read Cover and Mayhew, "Congressional Dynamics and the Decline of Competitive Congressional Elections," in CRII. Then read Cain, et.al., The Personal Vote: Constituency Service and Electoral Independence, 1987, Chapters 7-9 (remainder recommended). Then read Fiorina, Congress: Keystone..., 1989, Part II. Finally, read:

        ***Fiorina, "Keystone Reconsidered," in Congress Reconsidered VII.
            *Alford and Brady, "Personal and Partisan Advantage in U. S. Congressional Elections, 1846-1990, in CR V.

 III. Campaigns, Elections and Policy Outcomes

         ***Warren Miller and Donald Stokes, "Constituency Influence in Congress," APSR, 1963, and in Parker, Studies.
             *Gerald C. Wright, "Elections and the Potential for Policy Change in Congress: The House of Representatives," in Wright, et. al., Congress and Policy Change.
              *Brady, "Critical Elections, Congressional Parties and Clusters of Policy Changes," British Journal of Political Science, 1978; also in Parker, Studies
             *Marjorie Hershey, "Campaign Learning, Congressional Behavior, and Policy Change," in Wright, Rieselbach and Dodd, Congress and Policy Change, on reserve

IV.  Campaigns and Elections amidst the Politics of Race, Gender and Class

          **Swain, "Women and Blacks in Congress: 1870-1996" in CRVI, Chapter 4. Also strongly recommended is Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests.
           *Miller, Arguing About Slavery, Part III, IV (highly recommended, time permitting)
         **Mann, The Walls of Jericho, Chs. 5-12
      ***Canon, Race, Redistricting, and Representation, Chapter Three
           *Fenno, Congress at the Grassroots, 2000
           *Stonecash, Class and Party in American Politics, read at least Chapters 2, 4-6; others recommended

 V. Theoretical Perspectives:

          **Dodd, "The Cycles of Legislative Change," in Weisberg, Political Science: The Science of Politics: essay on reserve

     Also recommended:

 Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests
 Jacobson, The Electoral Origins of Divided Government
 Fowler and McClure, Political Ambition
 Jacobson, The Politics of Congressional Elections
 Sorauf, Inside Campaign Finance
 Jacobson and Kernell, Strategies and Choice in Congressional Elections

    Weekly Email Assignment: What aspects of congressional campaigns and elections most interest you, why, and with what significance or implications? How might such an interest be translated into a research project of interest to you?

Week Five: Goals, Careers and Institutional Politics

 I. General Perspectives and Classic Theoretical Statements

             *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, pp. 64-73
         ***Review: Mayhew, Congress: The Electoral Connection, and the colloquium on the book in PS: Political Science and Politics, June, 2001. on Reserve
         ***David Price, The Congressional Experience: all, at bookstore
         ***Fenno, Congressmen in Committees, Introduction and Chapter One; on reserve
         ***David Rohde, "Risk-Bearing and Progressive Ambition: The Case of Members of the U. S. House of Representatives," American Journal of Political Science (AJPS) Vol 23, #1.
          **Heinz Eulau, et. al., "The Role of the Representative: Some Empirical Observations on the Theory of Edmund Burke," APSR Vol 53, 1959; also recommended, Roger Davidson, The Role of the Congressman, 1969.

 II. Historical Perspectives

            *Swift, "The Electoral Connection Meets the Past: Lessons from Congressional History,  1789-1899," Political Science Quarterly, Winter, 1987.
            *Miller, Arguing About Slavery, Part V, VI
          **Mann, The Walls of Jericho, Chs. 13-16.
          **Polsby, et.al., "The Growth of the Seniority System in the U. S. House of Representatives,"APSR 1969.
             *H. Douglas Price, "The Congressional Career—Then and Now," 14-27 in Polsby, ed., Congressional Behavior.
              *Price, "Careerism and Committees in the American Congress: The Problem of Structural Change," in Aydelotte, ed., The History of Parliamentary Behavior.

III.  Contemporary Developments and Research

         **John F. Manley, "Wilbur D. Mills: A Study in Congressional Influence," APSR 63 (1969): 442-64; and Randall Strahan, "Dan Rostenkowski: A Study in Congressional Power," in CR V.
          *Cooper and West, "The Congressional Career in the 1970s," in CR II
        **Charles Bullock and Burdette Loomis, "The Changing Congressional Career" in CR III
        **Fenno, Senators on the Campaign Trail, (on reserve) Intro, Chs 1,2,7,8, Conclusion; the rest recommended
          *Fenno, Adjusting to the U. S. Senate," in Wright, et. al., Congress and Policy Change.
         *Canon, "Political Amateurism in the U. S. Congress," in CR IV
       **Hibbing, "Careerism in Congress: For Better or For Worse?" in CR V
       **Cooperman and Oppenheimer, "The Gender Gap in the House of Representatives," CR VII; review Swain, "Women and Blacks in Congress: 1870-1996," in CR VI.

 IV. Theoretical Perspectives: Member Goals and Institutional Change

       **Dodd, "A Theory of Congressional Cycles," in Wright, Rieselbach and Dodd, Congress and Policy Change.
         *Glenn Parker, Institutional Change, Discretion, and the Making of Modern Congress

Discussion Question (NO Email assignment) to think about this week: What do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of a ‘goal-oriented’ perspective on the study of Congress, and how might such a perspective be of use in your own research interests?

First Graded Assignment: (Due February 8th by 5 pm by email or in office mailbox).
 Based on the reading thus far in this course, identify a general research topic around which to construct a research project in this course, discuss the nature and significance of the topic, theoretical perspectives that might help illuminate it, and a strategy of research that would allow you to explore it.
 In thinking about such a topic, pay special attention to the Price book, The Congressional Experience, which addresses issues such as party government and committee politics that we have not yet examined.

Week Six: The House in Transition: Reform and Revolution

 I. Historical Perspectives

         ***Schickler, Disjointed Pluralism: all
             *Miller, Arguing About Slavery, Parts VII-X
             *Jones, "Joseph G. Cannon and Howard W. Smith: An Essay on the Limits of Leadership in the U. S. House of Representatives, 1887-1968," Legislative Studies Quarterly 4 (1979), 381-407.
        ***Cooper and Brady, "Institutional Context and Leadership Style: The House from Cannon to Rayburn." APSR 75 (1981).

 II. The Modern House

             **Mann, The Walls of Jericho, Chs. 17-18
             **John Manley, "The Conservative Coalition in Congress," CR I; David Brady and Charles Bullock, "Coalition Politics and the House of Representatives, CR II; and David Brady and Melissa Collie, "The Decline of Partisan Voting Coalitions in the House of Representatives," in CR III.
          ***Fenno, Congressmen in Committees, Chapters Two- Four
          ***Rohde, Parties and Leaders in the Post-reform House: all
              *Canon, Race, Redistricting, and Representation, Chs. Four-Six

 III. The Republican Revolution and Its Aftermath

           *Douglas Koopman, Hostile Takeover, Introduction and Chapters 1-3, 6
       ***Congress Reconsidered VI, Chapter 2 and Congress Reconsidered VII, Chapter 2. To see the modern evolution of the House,  survey the second essay in the previous five editions of CR.
          *Congress Reconsidered VI, Chapters 7, 8, 10, 12, 15
          *Ron Peters, "Institutional Context and Leadership Style: Newt Gingrich," in New Majority or Old Minority? Ed. by Nicol Rae and Colton Campbell.
       **Dodd and Oppenheimer, Congress and the Emerging Order: Party Government or Constructive Partisanship?", Chapter 17 in CR VI.
         *Richard F. Fenno, Jr., Learning to Govern
        **Bruce Oppenheimer, "Abdicating Congressional Power," in CR VI.

IV.  Theoretical Perspectives

      ***John Aldrich and David Rohde, "The Logic of Conditional Party Government: Revisiting the Electoral Connection", in CR VII.
          *Dodd, "Congress and the Politics of Renewal: Redressing the Crisis of Legitimation," in CR V, 1993
       ***Dodd, "Re-Envisioning Congress" in CR VII

Weekly Email Assignment: What is the central thesis of Disjointed Pluralism, how convincing do you find the argument, and how well does it apply to developments in the House of Representatives over the past decade or so?

Recommended Reading:

 Richard Bensel, Sectionalism and American Political Development
 Connelley and Pitney, Congress’ Permanent Minority? Republicans in the U. S. House New Majority or Old Minority?, edited by Rae and Campbell.

 Week Seven: The Exceptional Senate: Transformative Patterns

 Required Reading:

I.  Historical and Analytical Perspectives

        ***Swift, The Making of an American Senate: Introduction, Chs. 1,5,7, and the rest are recommended
            *Ripley, Power in the Senate, "Chapter Two: Competitors for Power: The Development of Party Leadership and Standing Committees."
          **Mann, The Walls of Jericho, Chapters 19-21
            *Carmines + Dodd,"Bicameralism in Congress: The Changing Partnership,"CR III
           **John R. Alford and John R. Hibbing, "The Electorally Indistinct Senate," Conference paper
         ***Lee and Oppenheimer, Sizing Up the Senate: all

II.  The Modern Senate

         ***review Matthews, "The Folkways of the United States Senate: Conformity to Group Norms and Legislative Effectiveness," ARSR 53 (1959), 1064-89; see also  Matthews,  U. S. Senators and Their World, selected chapters.
           **Fenno, The Emergence of a Senate Leader: Pete Domenici and the Reagan Budget, 1991, on reserve; read at least the Introduction and first three chapters, preferably all chapters; read also the essays in "Making Sense Out of the Senate:The Narratives of Richard F. Fenno, Jr.," in Extension of Remarks, Legislative Studies Section Newsletter, November, 1992.
        ***Fenno, Congressmen in Committees, Chapter Five
         **Ornstein, Peabody and Rohde, "The Changing Senate." Review their opening essays in Congress Reconsidered from the first through the sixth edition, particularly the first and last
            *Sinclair, The Transformation of the U. S. Senate: all
        ***Sinclair, "The New World of U. S. Senators" (CR VII) and "The 60-Vote Senate" (reserve)."

 III. Theoretical and Analytical Perspectives

       ***Dodd, "Making Sense Out of Our Exceptional Senate," on reserve.

Also recommended:

Essays for  U.S. Senate Exceptionalism, edited by Bruce Oppenheimer
David J. Rothman, Politics and Power: The United States Senate, 1869-1901
Charles Stewart III and Barry R. Weingast, "Stacking the Senate, Changing the Nation:  Republican Rotten Boroughts, Statehood Politics, and American Political  Development," Studies in American Political Development 6 (1992), 223-71.

Weekly Email Assignment: What is the central thesis of The Making of An American Senate, how convincing do you find the argument to be, and how well does it apply to developments in the Senate over the past several decades?
 

 Week Eight: The Contemporary Legislative Process

I.  General Overview

      *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, Chapters 8-13
  ***Barbara Sinclair, Unorthodox Lawmaking: all

 II. Generating and shaping legislation:

  ***Kingdon, Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policy, Chapters 1, 7,8
    **Berkman, The State Roots of National Politics, Chapters 1,2, 6, 7
    **Douglas Arnold, The Logic of Congressional Action: Chapters 1-6
  ***Binder, "Congress, the executive, and the Production of Public Policy: United We Govern?" in CR VII.

III.  Operating according to the legislative rules of the game:

    **Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, Chapters 5 and 6
     *Walter Oleszek, Congressional Procedures and the Policy Process
      *Steven S. Smith, Call to Order: all
    **Binder, "The Partisan Basis of Procedural Choice: Allocating Parliamentary Rights in the House, 1789-1991," APSR 90 (1996): 8-20.
    **Congress Reconsidered: Fifth Edition: Chapters 9 and 13; Fourth edition: Chapters 10 and 13 Third Edition: Chapters 14 and 17; Second Edition, Chapter 12; First Edition: Chapter 5*

IV.  Operating within a separation of powers system

      *Mathew Shugart and John Carey, Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics, Chapters 1 and 7; all is recommended
      *Jon Bond and Richard Fleisher, The President in the Legislative Arena
      *Dodd and Schott, Congress and the Administrative State, Chapters 4-8; see also Joel Aberbach, Keeping a Watchful Eye (On Congress and the bureaucracy)
      *Robert Scigliano, The Supreme Court and the Presidency (which presents an argument of an inherent alliance of these two institutions against Congress).
      *The Encyclopedia of the U. S. Congress, pages 1185-1204, on Congress and the Federal Judiciary.
      *Mayhew, Divided We Govern

 3. Case studies:
 
 ***Fenno, Congressmen in Committees, Chapter Six and Epilogue
     *Miller, Arguing About Slavery, Part XI-Part XIII
   **Mann, The Walls of Jericho, Chs. 22-24, Epilogue, Appendices and Acknowledgments
 ***Carmines and Stimson, Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics: all
    * Polsby, Political Innovation in America

 Weekly Discussion Questions: (No Email Assignment):

(1)  What does Sinclair mean by Unorthodox Lawmaking, why has it arisen, and what is its significance for Congress and for public policy?

(2)  Having read and discussed the material for the first eight weeks of this course, what are the strengths and weaknesses of Issue Evolution, by Carmines and Stimson. How adequate and compelling do you find it as an explanation for the emergence of civil rights legislation in the postwar era? How might you have improved on their study?

Second Graded Assignment: What do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of a goal-oriented perspective on congressional politics, in what ways does such an approach prove most useful as an explanatory device in understanding Congress, and how might a goal-oriented approach be further refined and developed as an explanatory strategy in congressional studies? How might such a strategy be useful to research questions of interest to you?
 

 Week Nine: Discussion of Research Designs
 

Week Ten: Party Government in Congress

           *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, Chapter 7
           *Review: Rohde, Parties and Leaders in the Post-Reform House
         **Stewart, Analyzing Congress, Chapters 1, 7
       ***Cox and McCubbins, The Legislative Leviathan: all
           *Review: Dodd and Oppenheimer, "Revolution in the House: Testing the Limits of Party Government" in CR VI.
       ***Congress Reconsidered VII
  Chapter 11: Smith and Gamm, "The Dynamics of Party Government..."
  Chapter 12: Aldrich and Rohde, "The Logic of Conditional Party Government: Revisiting the Electoral Connection" (review)
  Chapter 16: Dodd and Oppenheimer, "Congress and the Emerging Order"
       ***Krehbiel, "Where’s the Party?" British Journal of Political Science 23 (1993), 234-66.
           *Rohde, "Parties and Committees in the House: Member Motivations, Issues, and Institutional Arrangements," Legislative Studies Quarterly 19 (1994), 341-59.
         **Shepsle and Weingast, "Positive Theories of Congressional Institutions," Legislative Studies Quarterly 19 (1994), 149-79.
           *Review: Dodd, "The Cycles of Legislative Change," in Weisberg, Political Science: The Science of  Politics.

Weekly Email Assignment: Write a critique of Cox and McCubbins’ argument in The Legislative Leviathan. What parts of the argument do you find most intriguing, useful, and compelling, and what parts do you find most questionable? How might you revise and extend their argument in your understanding of Congress?
 

 Week Eleven: Committees in Congress: An Overview

I.  General perspectives
           *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, Chapter 4
       ***Christopher Deering and Steven S. Smith, Committees in Congress: all
        **Stewart, Analyzing Congress, Chapter 8
          *Gamm and Shepsle, "Emergence of Legislative Institutions: Standing Committees in the House and Senate, 1810-1825,:" Legislative Studies Quarterly 14 (1989), 39-66.
       ***Canon and Stewart, "The Evolution of the Committee System in Congress," in CR VII.
       ***David E. Price, "Congressional Committees in the Policy Process" in CR III
         **Dodd and Oppenheimer, "Consolidating Power in the House," particularly pages46-50; and Dodd and Oppenheimer, "The New Congress: Fluidity and Oscillation," both in CR IV.
         **Smith and Lawrence, "Party Control of Committees in the Republican Congress" in CR VI

II. Specialized concerns

       ***Review Fenno, "The House Appropriations Committee as a Political System: The Problem of Integration," APSR 56 (1962), 310-24, and then read:
a.  Adler, "The House Appropriations Committee and the Guardian Role," on  reserve.
b Josh Gordon, "Tension and Change in the House Appropriations Committee: The Unraveling of the Cohesive Social World,"
   2001 APSA Convention Paper
NOTE: All serious students of Congress must eventually read closely Fenno, The Power of the Purse
          *Bruce Oppenheimer, "The Rules Committee: New Arm of Leadership in a Decentralized House" in CR I.
         **John Ellwood and James Thurber, "The New Congressional Budget Process" in CR I; + John Ellwood, "The Great Exception: The Congressional Budget Process in an Age of Decentralization" in CR III.
           *Catherine Rudder, "Fiscal Responsibility, Fairness, and the Revenue Committees," CRIV
           *Garry Young and Joseph Cooper, "Multiple Referral and the Transformation of House Decision Making in CR V
         **Richard Hall, "Participation, Abdication and Representation in Congressional Committees," in CR V; Hall and McKissick, "Institutional Change and Behavioral Choice in House Committees," in CR VI; and see for further analysis, Hall, Participation in Congress,
         **Lawrence Evans, "Committees, Leaders, and Message Politics," in CR VII

Weekly Email Assignment: How and why has the role and power of committees changed in Congress over the preceding thirty years?

Also Recommended:

Joseph Cooper, "The Origins of the Standing Committees and the Development of the
Modern House," Rice University Studies, Vol 56, #3 (1970).
Charles Stewart III, "Does Structure Matter? The Effects of Structural Change on Spending Decisions in the House, 1871-1922," American Journal of Political Science 31 (1987), 584-605.
Stewart, "Committee Hierarchies in the Modernizing House, 1875-1947," AJPS 36 (1992), 835+
Shepsle, The Giant Jigsaw Puzzle.
Randall Strahan, New Ways and Means: Reform and Change in a Congressional Committee
 

Week Twelve: Committees, Policy-making and Power

       ***Kenneth Shepsle, "Institutional Equilibrium and Equilibrium Institutions," in Weisberg, Political Science: The Science of Politics
       ***Kenneth A. Shepsle and Barry R. Weingast, "The Institutional Foundations of  Committee Power," APSR 81 (1987): 85-104
      ***Maltzman, Competing Principals: Committees, Parties and the Organization of Congress
      ***Groseclose and King, "Committee Theories Reconsidered," in CR VII
          *David King, Turf Wars, selected chapters
           *Baumgartner, Jones and MacLeod. "The Evolution of Legislative Jurisdictions," Journal of Politics, forthcoming.
         **Keith Krehbiel, Information and Legislative Organization, selected chapters
           *Parker and Parker, "Factions in Committees," APSR, March, 1979
           *Deering and Smith, "Subcommittees in Congress," in CR III
        **James Thurber, "Centralization, Devolution, and Turf Protection in the Congressional Budget Process, in CR VI

Weekly Email Assignment: Describe the progress on your seminar research project and discuss the additional work you now plan to conduct to craft a final paper by the end of the semester.
 

Week Thirteen: Enacting Public Policy

           *Rieselbach, Congressional Politics, Chapters 7,8
         **Julius Turner, Party and Constitutency: Pressures on Congress, revised edition by Edward V. Schneier, Jr., Preface, Acknowledgements, Chapters 1,2,8 and Epilogue; look at the remainder if time and interest. On reserve
          *Review: John Manley, "The Conservative Coalition in Congress," CR I; David Brady and Charles Bullock, "Coalition Politics and the House of Representatives, CR II; and David Brady and Melissa Collie, "The Decline of Partisan Voting Coalitions  in the House of Representatives," in CR III.
          *Aage Clausen, How Congressmen Decide:
         **John Kingdon, "Models of Legislative Voting," Journal of Politics, 1977
       ***Poole and Rosenthal, Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting
       ***Stewart, Analyzing Congress, Chapter 9
      ***Cooper and Young, "Partisanship, Bipartisanship, and Crosspartisanship in Congress Since the New Deal," in CR VI.
         *Dodd, "Coalition-Building by Party Leaders," Congress and the Presidency, 1983.
       **Krehbiel, Pivotal Politics, selected chapters

Weekly Email Assignment: How have the patterns of roll call voting changed in the Congress (or in one house) over the past sixty years or so, why have they changed, and to what extent do you see them as consequential indicators or aspects of historic developments in the operation of Congress? Why?