Sounds of Human Language
(Phonetics & Phonemics)
Spring 1997
Dr. M. J. Hardman


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A Language Sampler for Phonetics & Phonemics by M.J.Hardman Andean Press (1996)
A Practical AIntroduction to Phonetics by J. C. Catford (1988)
Workbook in Descriptive Linguistics G.A.Gleason Henry Holt & Co
(1955; frequent reprintings)
Phonemics by Kenneth Pike Ann Arbor, U of Michigan
(1947; frequent reprintings)
Articulatory Phonetics (1980) by William A. Smalley
University Press of America / on reserve at the language lab for use with tapes

Course requirements:

Attendance at lectures including the daily quizes;
Listening to the Smalley tapes in the Language Laboratory (Dauer hall);
Computer assignments as given;
Handing in assigned problems;
Attendance at Drill Sessions run by the Teaching Assistants
Drill sessions are held in my laboratory, TUR 338 (in the basement)

Semester Schedule

Week 1 & 2 Contoid Parameters
Week 3 Vocoid Parameters
Week 4 Phonetic Symbolization
Week 5 Suprasegmentals
Week 6 – 9 Phonemics
Week 9 –15 Field Methods

Review Sheet/Self test

1. Define & list place of articulation
2. Define & list articulators
3. Define & list manners of articulation
4. Define phonation & list types
5. What is aspiration? Glottal stop?
6. What is pitch? Why is it important for learning languages?
7. What are the major resonating cavities of the vocal tract?
8. What are the two ways speech is perceved?
9. What is the difference between a glide and a step?
10. What are the 3 traps for English speakers producing [i] [e] []
11. What are the stricture types in the vertical dimension? Transverse? Define each type.
12. Where do glottal steps occur in English - in between what phones?
13. What are three ways stress can be realized?
14. How is a uvular trill articulated?
15. What is velaric airstream? What are the 3 sounds we can make using it and how is each articulated?
16. What is the difference between a sibilant and a fricative?
17. Stress in English can indicate what 4 things? (give examples)
18. Draw a facial diagram for [ ] label any movement or changes that occur dufing articulation.
19. Draw a contoid chart overlaid on the mouth, labeled.
20. Do the same for the vocoids.
21. What is the difference between tone and intonation?
22. What is the distinctive feature of double stops & nasals?
23. Which of the following are humanly possible to produce? Explain why or why not. nasalized alveolar tap, pharygneal trill, retroflex approximate, boiced glotal stop (thought question)
24. What is the difference between a monothong & a diphthong?
25. In the context of language, what is ‘meaning’?
26. How many sounds are there in human languages?
27. When we say language is arbirary - what does that mean?
28. What are the universal elements of language structure?
29. What is a glide? What are the glide parameters?
30. What is the function of a phonetic symbol?
31. In the linguistic context what is the difference between ‘emics’ and ‘etics’?
32. What is a phoneme?
33. What is a toneme?
35. Define ‘stress timed’ and ‘syllable timed’ in the context of stress.
36. What is a tonic syllable?
37. Draw and label a chart of the vocal tract. Include adjectives.

Give an example of all of the following:
Coarticulations - simultaneous articulation at 2 different places
Coordinated - same stricture
subordinated - ranked stricture (stop > trill > fricative > approximate > vowel
Sequences - consonantal sequence that functions as a single unit
Homorganic - articulated by same organs
lateral plosion, nasal plosion, pre-nasalized
Heteroganic - articulaters manimpulated independenty
Contiuous - use adjacent parts of the same organ
close - no pause (overlap)
open - pause

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