LIN4656/5657

Dr. MJ Hardman

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TEXTS USED 1999-2006:

Brantenberg, Gerd. Egalia's Daughters: A Satire of the Sexes. The Seal Press. Translated from Norwegian by Louis Mackay.

Elgin, Suzette Haden A FIRST DICTIONARY AND GRAMMAR OF LÁADAN, Second Edition. Society for the Furtherance and Study of

Fantasy and Science Fiction, Inc. SF3.

Frank, Francine and Frank Ashen (1984). Language and the Sexes. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hardman, M.J. A Language Sampler for Language and Perception. Workbook for introductory courses in language and culture. Qillq

Imprenta. 1996.

Russ, Joanna. How to Suppress Women's Writing. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1983.

Vonarburg, Elisabeth. The Maerlande Chronicles. Tesseract Books. 1992.

Wagner, Sally Roesch: Sisters in Spirit: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on Early American Feminists.

Oyewumi, Oyeronke. The Invention of Women: Making an African Sense of Western Gender Discourses. Minneapolis: University of

Minnesota Press. 1997.

M.J. Hardman, Anita Taylor, eds. Hearing Many Voices. Cresskill, N.J. Hampton Press, 2000. The Hampton Press communication

series.

Keller, Evelyn Fox (1985) Reflections on Gender and Science. New Haven: Yale

Tickner, J. Ann Gender in International Relations; Feminist perspectives on achieving global security Univ. of Colombia Press 1992

Elgin, Suzette Haden You can't say that to me! Wiley. 1994.

Cameron, Deborah. Feminism and Linguistic Theory, 2nd edition. St. Martin's Press. 1992.

Elgin, Suzette Haden. The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense at Work. Prentice Hall. 2000.





HOME AND CLASS WORK:

Observations each week: workouts from Elgin books as assigned.

Two short pieces: one on a woman that could have been a role model for you if you had ever heard of her (selections from two books on reserve at the library); one a rewrite of an article changing the point of view to feminine from masculine (nature articles are especially good for this), sample copy from Women and Language.

Abstracts: Each abstract one page. (To be shared with classmates)

Graduate: four (Women and Language, one chapter, one article, class presentation)

Undergraduate: three (Women and Language, one chapter, class presentation)



Works Abstracted 1999-2006:

Tickner, J. Ann. Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Acheving Global Security. University of Columbia Press, 1992.

Keller, Evelyn Fox. Reflections on Gender and Science. New Havn: Yale. 1985.

Roszak, Theodore. The Gendered Atom: Reflections on the Sexual Psychology of Science. Conari Press: Berkeley, CA. 1999.

Alderete, Wara “The Empowerment of Indian Women”
Babb, Florence E.(Winter 1980) “Women and Men in Vicos, Perú: A Case of Unequal Development”
Boxer,Diana “Complaining & commiserating: exploring gender issues”
Delaney, Carol “Abraham, Isaac and some hidden asumptions of our culture”
Gilmore "Sport Sex"
Hardman, M.J. Review of Susan C. Bourque and Kay Barbara Warren Women of the Andes
Hardman, M. J. (1989) “White Woman’s Burden”
Hardman, M. J. (1975) “Aymara Women”
Junker, Marie-Odile. “Metaphors We Live By: The Terminology of Linguistic Theory.”
Maranzana Elisa “Why Mary Can't Glonk - The Gender Bias of Government and Binding”
Martin, Emily “The egg & the Sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles”
Martyna, Wendy “The Psychology of the Generic Masculine”
Merrill, Lisa & Denise Quirk "Gender Media, and Militarism"
Miller, D. Gary “Tripartization, Sexism, and the Rise of the Feminine Gender in Indo-European”
Penelope, Julia SpeakingFreely chapter 9 “The agents within”
Penelope, Julia SpeakingFreely chapter 8 “That’s how it is”
Serbin, Lisa A. & O'Leary, Daniel K. "How Nursery Schools Teach Girls to Shut Up"
Russ, Joanna “This is Your Life”
Williams-Hawkins, María “Who Am I?: Women's conflict with identity, education & science”
Tiptree, James Jr. "Houston Houston Do You Read?" Tiptree, James Jr. "The women men don’t see"
Hopkinson, Nalo, Brown Girl in the Ring
LeGuin, Ursula K. (1972) The Word for the World is Forest
Butler, Octavia E. "Parable of the Sower"
Arnason, Eleanor Ring of Swords
Piercy, Marge "Woman on the Edge of Time"
Vinge, Joan D FIRESHIP /Mother and Child
Felice, Cynthia Downtime

PAPERS:

Graduate: Three medium papers, each of 10± pages.

Undergraduate: Three short papers, each of 5± pages.

         

The first paper is on difference: Discover something that women have in a different culture that you would like to have or that is more empowering than anything you have in your culture or that places women in an agent role where yours does not. Two examples are in your Sampler.

 

One paper must be on grammatical treatment of person (with principle categories not marked and description of 
where in the language sex is marked or not marked) in a non-European language:

Undergraduates: noun/pronoun system

Graduates: total system (include how grammatical system interacts with what you discover)



Presentations of assigned readings in class:

Media- videos and audios as assigned (in the Language Lab TUR 1341)



Final Exam Questions 1999-2006:

1. Discuss the concept of structure as based in linguistics and as explained in the Sampler. Of what relevance is that concept to understanding the way in which sexism in language is correlated with sexism in culture?   Begin with:  What is a phoneme and how is the concept of the phoneme related to gender & language?

 

2. How do the derivational thinking packet and the science fiction texts we read this semester work together to illustrate how derivational thinking works/  

How have these texts influenced your perceptions of reality? Give examples of how the novels illustrate derivational thinking.

 

3. Consider the audio and videotapes that you have listened to/watched.  Characterize and analyze them with regard to each other and to the ways in which they relate to the other materials of the course and what they add to the scope of the course.

 

4. Consider the abstracts of the books, articles and of Women and Language together with the class presentations. Include the guest speaker. Characterize and analyze them with regard to each other and to the ways in which they relate to the other materials of the course and what they add to the scope of the course.

 

5. If the research perspectives offered by Oyewùmí were adopted into science in a general way, how would that affect the other works we have read?  How would it alter our perceptions of other cultures?  What changes would you expect in works such as those of Russ and Tickner, for example? Choose any other materials you consider relevant, including your science textbooks and the ways in which material within your major would be handled..

 

6. The Derivational Thinking Packet presents several problems intrinsic to American English-speaking society and language (the CHESAWM crowd).  Consider how Maerlande Chronicles and Egalia’s Daughters portray language. How did each portray the oppression of men?  How were their worlds different?  How were their worlds the same?  Which of the categories in Russ are shown in the treatment of males in Brantenberg and in Vonarburg? How have these books influenced your thinking in respect to femininity/masculinity?  What can these novels contribute to an understanding of current events? 

 

7.  A quote from a student: “When I was writing my ‘Person Paper’ I was talking with a friend of mine about what I had discovered about person in

Mikasuki. After I explained the aspects of person in English gender & number agreement explained that this language had no marking for gender. He asked me

surprised, “O Well, what do you mean? How do you make the distinction?”  How would you answer him? Drawing from Kephart’s lecture, LeGuin’s articles and the Derivational Thinking Packet, include an explanation of how "he" and terms like "American" are neither inclusive nor generic. What language patterns can we create to recognize that some groups are not represented under the "generic"?

 

8. How has introduction to the DT framework affected how you perceive the language and situations you are surrounded by every day? How does it affect your perception of other voices? How could the existence of DT account for the general ignorance of the material in Wagner? How does DT affect the way in which people of other countries are perceived? How has the introduction to the DT framework affected your perception of people not of your culture? Give specific examples from class discusssion, readings, observations, and media that helped you recognize these patterns in your daily life and in the political life of the nation.

 

9. What are some ways in which white males claim to be negatively affected by the advancement of women and minorities (aka ‘reverse-discrimination’)? Using examples from the sources read this semester, explain why this notion of reverse-discrimination is false.

 

10. Tickner examines the exclusion of women from international relations and foreign policy decisions while Russ recounts the many various ways in which women’s writing has been excluded from the “mainstream” body of canonical writings that form the foundation of the shared experience of most western-educated students regardless of their gender, race or socioeconomic status.  Cameron offers a way to proceed toward a solution, which includes an integrated feminist perspective inclusive of all forms of feminism.  She also suggests paying special attention to the way language is used in specific contexts in order to begin to change the feelings of as well as the actual alienation and exclusion from important discourses experienced by women.  Elgin gives us an alternate language & a way of talking that sets aside violence. Choosing from the above arenas in which women’s voices are muted and silenced, using resources of the course so that you are totally unrestricted by the boundaries of the real world (that is free draw on Science Fictional possibilities such as we1ve seen in Brantenburg, Vonarburg and Elgin), suggest ways in which all humans can achieve an equal voice.


11. Discuss the concept of derivational thinking. How does it relate to the material of this course? Of what value is it to understanding sexism in English? Of separating English sexism from other linguistic structures?


12. How does the structure of (Indo–)European languages contribute to (&/or lead to) the omission of women from historical accounts? How does this affect women today? How is your world vision changed by what little you have learned in this course of women’s history?


13. What are some of the specific ways in which sexism is realized within the structure of English? Use the concept of derivational thinking as a framework for your discussion. Use as many sources as you wish, including some of the insights from science fiction, the abstracts, and the videos, as well as lecture notes.


14. Ursula LeGuin discusses science fiction as being “thought experiments” rather than utopias. Based on the readings you have done in this course, both fiction and non–fiction, what kind of a thought experiment would you like to carry out? For examples, if you were to write a science fiction novel set, say, in the 23rd century, how would you handle the language aspects thereof?


15. Ursula Le Guin discusses science fiction as being “thought experiments” rather than utopias. Based on the readings you have done in this course, both fiction and non–fiction, what kind of a thought experiment would you like to carry out? For examples, if you were to write a science fiction novel set, say, in the 23rd century, how would you handle the language aspects thereof?


16. Discuss Keller’s concepts of dynamic autonomy & dynamic objectivity.


17. Compare/contrast these concepts with the “traditional” versions of autonomy and objectivity. Discuss implications for science of changes in these concepts. Possible areas to include in this discussion are language, scientific theory, methods, practice science as an institution, the structural replication of science. (Gaskin)


18. Explain Geodel’s proof and Suzette Haden Elgin’s adaptation of the proof to languages. Discuss how this phenomenon was manifested in the Native Tongue trilogy and an example of how it could have an effect in your life. (Phillips)


19. Taking together the work of Keller and Ticknor, contrast and compare the way in which they discuss the language used to depict nature. How does the language used within the two universes relate to such topics as the role of the IMF in the “third” world? How do these concepts relate to our attitude toward the planet in contrast to that of others? (Rinaldi, Unger, Chitauro)


20. Describe how the data source postulate, together with other characteristics and postulates of the Jaqi languages differ from postulates in English and what the implications of this difference are. (Sevelius)


21. It has been claimed by some theorists that all women have been oppressed in all times and places in the same way. Is the sexism of, say, Japan the same as the (Indo–)European sexism? Is sexism

universal?


22. Discuss language contact. Consider what happens when two languages meet giving specific examples. How is language contact related to language and perception and the export of sexism? How can naming be a political act?


23. What is a glotolog? What kinds of distortions in the language used to discuss someone/something does the glotologgish person use to keep “the wrong people” from doing/getting credit for things reserved for the “whelk–finned”? Please give examples for each category you mention (a minimum of six). (You may use examples that were brought to class during the course.)


24. Write an essay in which you discuss what the abstracts have added to the information available to you from this course.


25. How has your language behavior and your perception of others’ language behavior changed as a result of this course? E.g. describe some experiences that have occurred in your life throughout the course of this semester or in retrospect that you have perceived in a different light because of the materials presented in this course. Utilize at least three sources.


26. What are some of the specific ways in which sexism is realized within the structure of English? Use the concept of derivational thinking as a framework for your discussion. Use as many sources as you wish, including some of the insights from science fiction, the abstracts, and the videos, as well as lecture notes.


27. How does the structure of (Indo–)European languages contribute to (&/or lead to) the omission of women from historical accounts? How does this affect women today? How is your world vision changed by what little you have learned in this course of women’s history?


28. Discuss the relationship between the linguistic postulates of a language and cultural patterns. E.g. describe how the data source postulate, together with other characteristics and postulates of the Jaqi languages differ from postulates in English and what the implications of this difference are; discuss the postulates of Japanese, what you’ve learned of Japanese in Hearing Many Voices and the claims of some theorists that all women have been oppressed in all times and places in the same way; discuss the postulates of Yoruba and the current and past structure of Yoruba culture. Is the sexism of, say, Japan or Nigeria the same as the (Indo–)European sexism? Is sexism universal?


29. Considering Cohn’s definition of an expert language and its ability to build walls in which the speaker becomes trapped, and Oyewùmí’s descriptions of the ways in which the Yoruba culture changed because of Westernization, discuss how English can be considered an expert language. Specifically show that through the spread of English, the Western World has changed the thinking patterns of many cultures but is still able to act exclusionary toward them.


30. Discuss the construction of history. E.g. using sources from class instances where ‘history’ was incorrect or an invalid representation. How do these texts question how society constructs history and who creates knowledge? For example in ED who questioned the story of the menwim? Or how did Lisbei’s discovery change how history was understood? Or what does Oyewùmí say about the historical record of different cultures? Include three examples of women holding power & then having it taken away by colonizers.


31. Consider the abstracts of the books, articles and of Women and Language together with the class presentations. Include the guest speakers. Characterize and analyze these materials with regard to each other and to the ways in which they relate to the other materials of the course and what they add to the scope of the course.


Resources