Frederick Gregory

Fall 2011

MARRIED: Patricia Gregory


B.S. Wheaton College, 1965
B.D. Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, 1968
M.A. University of Wisconsin, 1970
Ph.D. Harvard University, 1973

CORRESPONDING MEMBER of the International Academy of the History of Science, Brussels

MEMBER, History of Science Society:

Newsletter Advisory Committee, 1971
HOSS Council, 1981-1984, 1989-1991
Program Co-Chairman, Norwalk Meeting, 1983
Member, Program Committee, 1982-1986
Chairman, Committee on Honors and Prizes, 1984-1987
Member, Nominating Committee, 1985-1986
Member, Programs and Priorities Committee, 1988-1989
Designated Lecturer, HOSS Visiting Historians of Science Lecture Program, 1988-89
Co-Chair, Local Arrangements, 1989 Annual Meeting
Member, Publications Committee, 1989-1994
Vice President and President Elect, 1995-1996
President, 1996-1997
Program co-chair (with Edith Sylla), 75th Anniversary meeting, 1999
Member, Pfizer Prize Committee, 2002-2003.  Chair, 2003

Chair, Alumni Fund Campaign, NEH Matching Grant, 2007


Visiting Fellow, 1995


Associate Chair, 1984-1988
Chair, 1991-1995


History of Science Editor, The Eighteenth Century: A Current Bibliography,1977-1981.
History of Science Co-Editor (with Robert Hatch), The Eighteenth Century: A Current Bibliography, 1982-90.
Contributing Editor, Science and Culture in the Western Tradition: Sources and Interpretations (Scottsdale: Scarisbrick, 1987)
Contributing Editor in the series, Geschichte der Wissenschaftsphilosophie (Köln: Dinter Verlag).


Grants received from:

Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung
American Philosophical Society (2)
University of Florida, Division of Sponsored Research
National Science Foundation
Dibner Institute
Volkswagen Stiftung


Winner of the 1989 John Mahon Undergraduate Teaching Award
Winner of the 1989 Wilensky Graduate Teaching Award
Recipient (with Robert Hatch) of 2-year (1989-90) $260,000 NSF grant to train secondary teachers of science and of history
    in history of science
Chair, Committee on Teaching, Department of History, 1990-1991.
Recipient, University of Florida Teaching Improvement Program (TIP) award, 1995

Summer School, Florence, Italy, 2005
"History of Science, 1700-1900,"  36 audio/video lectures with The Great Courses (Chantilly, VA, 2004).

"The Darwinian Revolution,"  24 audio-video lectures with The Great Courses, (Chantilly, VA, 2009)



Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth Century Germany. Foreword by Marx Wartofsky. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1977.

Knowledge, Belief, and Aesthetic Sense by Jakob Fries. Edited with an Introduction by Frederick Gregory. Trans. Kent Richter (Düsseldorf: Dinter Verlag, 1989)

Nature Lost? Natural Science and the German Theological Traditions of the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).

History of Science: 1700-1900.  Parts I, II, III.  Transcripts of lectures produced by The Teaching Company.  (Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Co, 2004).

Natural Science in Western Civilization, Vol. I: Ancient Times to Newton.  Vol. II:  Newton to the Present  (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Publishing Co., 2008).

The Darwinian Revolution. Parts I, II.  Transcripts of lectures produced by The Teaching Company.  (Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Co, 2009).


"Scientific vs. Dielectical Materialism: A Clash of Ideologies in Nineteenth Century German Radicalism," Isis, 68(1977),       206-23.

"Die Kritik von J.F. Fries an Schellings Naturphilosophie," Sudhoffs Archiv, 67 (1983), 145-57.

"Regulative Therapeutics in the German Romantic Period," Clio Medica, 18 (1983), 179-89.

"Foundations of Geometry in the German Romantic Era," Historia Mathematica, 10 (1983), 184-201.

"Romantic Kantianism and the End of the Newtonian Dream in Chemistry," Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, 34 (1984), 108-23.

"Trail Blazing," Essay review of Timothy Lenoir, The Strategy of Life: Teleology and Mechanics in 19th Century German Biology, Isis, 75 (1984), 444-448.

"The Historical Investigation of Science in North America," Zeitschrift fur Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, 16 (1985), 151-66.

"The Use and Abuse of the Western Scientific Heritage, " pp. 218-29 in Joseph Konvitz, ed., What Americans Should Know (East Lansing: Michigan State University, 1985).

"The Impact of Darwinian Evolution of Protestant Theology in the Nineteenth Century," chapter 16 in God and Nature, ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).

"Isaac Newton and the Magic of Science," chapter 2 in Makers of Modern Europe, ed. William J. Baker (Lexington: Ginn Publishing Co., January, 1987).

Introduction to "Progress and Rationality in Science," in Science and Culture in the Western Tradition, John G. Burke, ed., (Scottsdale: Scarisbrick, 1987).

"Kant's Influence on Natural Science in the German Romantic Period," pp. 53-66 in New Trends in the History of Science, (Dordecht: Reidel, 1988).

"Kant, Schelling and the Administration of Science in the German Romantic Era, Osiris, 5 (1989), pp. 17-35.

"Theology and the Sciences in the German Romantic Period," pp. 69-81 in Romanticism and the Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

"Darwin and the German Theologians," pp. 269-278 in William Woodward and Robert Cohen, eds., World Views and Scientific Discipline Formation (Amsterdam: Kluwer Publications, 1991).

"Hat Müller Wirklich die Naturphilosophie Aufgegeben?", pp. 143-154 in Michael Hagnar and Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt, ed. Johannes Müller und die Philosophie (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1992).

"Theologians, Science, and Theories of Truth in Nineteenth-Century Germany," pp. 81-96, The Invention of Physical Science (Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992).

"'Nature is an Organized Whole: J. F. Fries's Neo-Kantian Reformulation of Kant's Philosophy of Organism", pp. 91-102 in Maurizio Bossi and Stefano Poggi, Romanticism in Science: Science in Europe 1790-1840 (Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994).

"G.H. Schubert and the Dark Side of Natural Science," NTM: International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Science, Technology, and Medicine, III, No. 4 (1995), pp. 255-69.

"The Neo-Kantian Vitalism of J.F. Fries," pp. 85-96 in Vitalisms: From Haller to Cell Theory, 1450-1850. Ed. G. Cimino and F. Duchesneau (Rome: Enciclopedia Italia, 1995).

"Science and Religion In Western History." pp. 35-70 in Henry Steffens, ed., in Topical Essays for Teachers (Seattle: History of Scince Socieity, 1995).

"Embracing Polarization,"  Essay Review of The Flight from Science and reason, ed. by Paul gross, Norman Levitt, and Martin Lewis in Isis, 88(1997), pp. 312-15.

"The Neo-Kantian Vitalism of J.F. Fries," pp. 85-96 in G. Cimino and F. Duchesneau, eds. Vitalisms: From Haller to Cell Theory, (Florence: Olschki, 1997).

"Two Dogmas of Historiography," pp. 211-21 in R. Dodel, E. Seidel, and L. Steindler, eds. Ideengeschichte und Wissenschaftsphilosophie (Cologne: Dinter verlag, 1997).

"Materialism," pp. 176-81 in Gary Ferngren et al, eds. Encyclopedia of the History of Science and Religion (New York: Garland Publishing Co., 2000).

"The Mysteries and Wonders of Natural Science: Bernstein's Naturwissenschaftliche Volksbücher and the Adolescent Einstein", pp. 23-41 in John Stachel and Donald Howard, eds.Einstein: The Formative Years 1879-1909 (Boston: Birkhauser, 2000).

"Naturalism's Historical Assault on Religion," pp. 19-37 in Hyung S. Choi, David F. Siemens, Jr., and Shirley Williams, eds., Naturalism: Its Impact on Science, Religion and Literature (Phoenix: Canyon Institute for Advanced Studies, 2001).

"Intersections of Physical Science and Religion in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," in Mary Jo Nye, ed., Cambridge History of Science, Vol. 5: Modern Physical Science (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 36-53.

"Science and Religion," Chapter 11 in David Cahan, ed. From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), pp. 329-58. 

“Immanuel Kant,” in Encyclopedia of Science and Religion (Chicago: Macmillan Reference, 2004).

"Naturphilosophie,"  New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons).

"Entstehung und Voraussetzungen alternativer Wissenschaften," pp. 83-97 in Klaus Vondung and Ludwig Pfeiffer, eds.  Jenseits der enzauberten Welt: Naturwissenschaft und Mystik in der Moderne  (Paderborn :Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2006).

“Extending Kant: The Origins and Development of J.F. Fries’s Philosophy of Science,”  pp. 81-100 in Michael Friedman and Alfred Nordman, eds., The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006).

"Mystik methodisch maskieren," pp. 97-114 in Christoph F. E. Holzhey, ed. Biomystik: Natur - Gehirn - Geist.  (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2007). 

"Hans Christian Oersted’s Spiritual Interpretation of Natural Science," pp. 399-416 in R. M. Brain and O. Knudson, eds.,  Hans Christian Oersted and the Romantic Quest for Unity (New York: Springer Verlag, 2007).

"Questioning Scientific Faith in the Late Nineteenth century," Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, 43(2008), pp. 651-664.

With Neal Dawson, "Correspondence and Coherence in Science: A Brief Historical Perspective," Judgment and Decision Making, 4, No. 2(2009), pp. 126-33.

"German Post-Darwinian Biology Reassessed," Essay review of Lynn K. Nyhart, Modern Nature: The Rise of the Biological Perspective in Germany. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009 and Robert J. Richards, The Tragic Sense of Science: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008 in Modern Intellectual History, 8(2011), 227-36.

"Proto-Monism in German Philosophy, Theology, and Science, 1800-1845,"  in Todd Weir, ed., Monism: Science, Philosophy, Religion, and the History of a Worldview (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 45-69.

"Der Preis der Verwissenschaftlichung," in Giovanni Maio, ed., Macht und Ohnmacht des Wortes: Ethische Grundfragen einer personalen Medizin (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2012), pp. 78-96.


J.F. Fries: An Intellectual Biography


Scholar in Residence, Virginia Tech, Science Studies Center, March 2-6, 1987
HOSS Visiting Lecturer:
    Loyola University of New Orleans, March, 1988
    Birmingham Southern College, March, 1988
    University of Houston, November, 1988
    University of Arkansas, November, 1988
    Shorter College, November, 1989
    Lamar University, November, 1989
Madison, Wisconsin, November, 1991: "Is There an Integrated History of Science?" (HSS Annual Meeting)
Harvard University, April, 1993: "G. H. Schubert and the Dark Side of Natural Science" (Conference - "Science nd Religion:
Yale University, April, 1993: "Natural Science and the Theater of Political Dissent: Early Years of Oken's Isis" (Conference -
    "Crisis of German Romantic Science")
MIT, November, 1995: "Naturphilosophie as Alternative Science" (Dibner Institute)
Boston University, December, 1995: "Who Were the Naturphilosophen?" (Boston Colloquium)
Yale University, December, 1995: "Naturphilosophie and the Crisis of Reason" ( Yale Seminar)
University of Leeds, September, 1997: "An American View of British Historiography," (BSHS Annual Meeting)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 1998: "The World of 1848" (AAAS Annual Meeting)
University of Southern Mississippi, March, 1999: "Where We've Been and Where We're Going" (Southern Regional Meeting,
    History of Medicine)
Templeton Foundation Seminars on Science and Religion
    Tallahassee, Florida, January, 1998: "19th Century Scientists and Theologians on Divine Action in the World"
    Raleigh, North Carolina, April, 1998: "Historical Narratives of Creation"
    Waco, Texas, October, 1998: "The Discovery of Origins"
    Tallahassee, FLorida, 1999 "Historical Writing about Science and Religion"
    New Orleans, Louisiana, March, 1999: "History's Surprising Dialogue Between Science and Religion"
    Berkeley, California,  June,1999: "When (and Why) did Theology Lose Nature to Science?"
    Toronto, Ontario, July, 1999: "The Science Wars as Holy Wars"
    Houghton, New York, November, 1999 "The Science Wars as Holy Wars"
    Phoenix, Arizona, April, 2000: "Naturalism's Historical Challenge to Religion"
University of Leeds, June, 2001: "The Science Wars as Holy Wars"

Stanford University, May 2008, May 2009


"Darwin and the Creationists," Conversations, WUFT-TV, 1981.
"Galileo Galilei and Tycho Brahe," (with Robert Hatch), Conversations, WUFT-TV, 1986.
"Enlightenment and Industrialization," half-hour commentary in telecourse, Science and Culture in the Western Tradition, South Carolina ETV, 1986.
"Scientific Medicine and Social Statistics," 15 minute commentary in telecourse, Science and Culture in the Western Tradition, South Carolina ETV, 1986.
"Darwinism as Science and Ideology," 15 minute commentary in telecourse, Science and Culture in the Western Tradition, South Carolina ETV, 1986.


Klaus-Dietwardt Buchholtz. Isaac Newton als Theologe. Ein Beitrag zum Gesprach zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Theologie, in Zygon, 5 (1970), 93-95.

Jacques Monod. Chance and Necessity. An Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology, in The Christian Scholar's Review, 5 (1976), 413-15.

Robert Cohen and Marx Wartofsky, eds. Methodological and Historical Essays in the Natural and Social Sciences, in Annals of Science, 33 (1976).

Frank Turner, Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England, in Zygon, 11 (1976), 75-76.

Maurice Crosland, ed. The Emergence of Science in Western Europe, in The Eighteenth Century: A Current Bibliography, n.s. 2 (1976), 111-12.

Michael Hoare. The Tactless Philosopher: Johann Reinhold Forster, in The Eighteenth Century: A Current Bibliography, n.s. 2 (1976), 124-25. This journal is hereafter cited as ECCB.

Alan Kors. D'Holbach's Coterie: An Enlightenment in Paris, in Isis, 68 (1977), 331-32.

Reinhard Riese. Die Hochschule auf dem Wege zum wissenschaftlichen Grossbetrieb, in Annals of Science, 35 (1978).

John O'Manique. Energy in Evolution, in The Christian Scholar's Review, 1 (1970), 92-93.

Roy Meador. Franklin - Revolutionary Scientist, in ECCB, n.s. 2 (1976), 275-76.

Owen Chadwick. The Secularization of the European Mind in the 19th Century, in The Christian Scholar's Review, 8 (1979), 266-68.

Richard Burckhardt. The Spirit of System: Lamarck and Evolutionary Biology, in ECCB, n.s. 3 (1977), 77-78.

Roy Porter. The Making of Geology: Earth Science in Britain 1600-1815, in ECCB, n.s. 4 (1978), 165.

Rita Shenton. Christopher Pinchback and His Family, in ECCB, n.s. 4 (1978), 178-79.

Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Vol. 1, in Isis, 71 (1980), 305-06.

Joachim Thiele. Wissenschaftliche Kommunikation. Die Korrespondenz Ernst Machs, in Isis, 71 (1980), 689.

John Heilbron. Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries, in ECCB, n.s. 5 (1979), 174-75.

Kurt Biermann, ed. Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Heinrich Christian Schumacher, in Isis, 72 (1981), 323-24.

Rudolf Schmitz, ed. Die Naturwissenschaften an der Philipps-Universitat Marburg, in The History of Universities, 2 (1981), 154-55.

Michael Ruse. The Darwinian Revolution. Science Red in Tooth and Claw, in Zygon, 16 (1981), 296-97.

Reinhard Low. Die Philosophie des Lebendigen. Der Begriff des Organischen bei Kant, in Journal of the History of medicine and Allied Sciences, 37 (1981), 344-46.

Eric Forbes. Tobias Mayer: Pioneer of Enlightened Science, in Archives Internationales d'histoire des sciences, 32 (1982), 337.

E. Mendelsohn and Y. Elkana, eds. Sciences and Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Studies of the Sciences, in Archives Internationales d'histoire des sciences, 32 (1982), 294-95.

Lester D. Stephens. Joseph LeConte, Gentle Prophet of Evolution, in Florida Historical Quarterly, 62 (1983), 220-221.

Nelly Tsouyopoulos. Die Philosophischen Grundlagen der Modernen Medizin, in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 38 (1983), 234-35.

Harry Paul. The Edge of Contingency. French Catholic Reaction to Scientific Change from Darwin to Duhem, in Sudhoffs Archiv, 67 (1983), 234-35.

Karl Hufbauer. The Formation of the German Chemical Community, in ECCB, n.s. 8 (1982), 200-01.

Lothar Knatz. Utopie und Wissenschaft im Fruhen Deutschen Socialismus, in Isis, 77 (1986), 197-98.

J. Uberoi. The Other Mind of Europe. Goethe as a Scientist, in Isis, 78 (1987), 132.

Gunter Mann, Jost Benedum, Werner F. Kummel, eds. Samuel Thomas Soemmerring und die Gelehrten der Goetheziet, in Isis, 77 (1986), 723-24.

Frederick Amrine, et. al., eds. Goethe and the Sciences: A Reappraisal,ISIS, 78 (1987), 638-39.

Collin Russell. Science and Social Change in Britain and Europe, 1700-1900, in ECCB, n.s. 10(1989), pp. 289-90.

Robert Spaemann, et. al., eds. Evolutionismus und Christentum, in ISIS, 79(1988), 149-50.

Michael John Perty, ed. Hegel und die Naturwissenschaften, in ISIS, 80(1989), 188-89.

Peter Bowler, Evolution: The History of an Idea, in ECCB (1989), pp. 233-34.

F. W. J. Schelling, Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, in Isis.
 81(1990), 355-56.

Frederick L. Holmes. Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life: An Exploration of Scientific Creativity, in ECCB, n.s. 11 (1990), 217-19.

Ian Inkster and Jack Morrell, Metropolis and Province: Science in British Culture (1750-1850), in ECCB, n.s. 11 (1990), 224-25

Johann Heinrich Lambert, Texte zur Systematologie und zur Theorie der Wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis, in Isis, 81(1990), 575-76.

Jon H. Roberts, Darwinism and the Divine in America: Protestant Intellectuals and Organic Evolution, 1859-1900, in Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 27(1991), 185- 86.

Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Schelling und Hegel's Verhältnis zur Naturwissenschaft, in Isis, (1991), 572-73.

Robert Gascoigne, A Chronology of the History of Science, 1450-1900, in ECCB, m.s. 13 (1992), 163-64.

John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991) in Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 29 (1993), 177-78.

Nancy Smith Midgette, To Foster the Spirit of Professionalism: Southern Scientists and State Academies of Sciences, in The Florida Historical Quarterly, (1993) pp. 215-16.

Kenneth Caneva, Robert Mayer and the Conservation of Energy, in Isis, 85(1994), pp. 341-42

Ronald L. Numbers, The Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism, in The Historian (1994), pp. 176-177.

David J. Chalmers, The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, in International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 66(1998), pp. 107-08.

Anne Harrington, Reenchanted Science: Holism in German Culture from Wilhelm II to Hitler, in American Historical Review, (February, 1998), pp. 216-17.

Hans Christian Oersted, Selected Scientific Writings of Hans Christian Oersted, trans. and ed. by K. Jelved, A.D. Jackson, and O. Knudson (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1999), in Annals of Science, 57(2000), pp. 197-98.

John R. Williams, The Life of Goethe: A Critical Biography. [Blackwell: Critical Biographies, 10.] (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) in Isis, 92(2001)pp. 188-89.

Peter Bowler, Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early Twentieth-Century Britain, in Catholic Historical Review, (October, 2002), pp. 793-94.

Robert Richards, The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002) in Journal of the History of Biology, (2003), pp. 618-19.

David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., When Christianity and Science Meet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), June 16, 2004; 291: 2875 - 2876.

Thomas Howard, Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2006 in American Historical Review Vol. 112 (2) (April, 2007), pp. 604-05.

Helge S. Kraugh, Entropic Creation: Religious Contexts of Thermodynamics and Cosmology.  Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2008 in Journal for the History of Astronomy, 40(2009), 238-39.

Nelly Tsouyopoulos, Asklepios und die Philosophen: Paradigmawechsel in der Medizin im 19. Jahrhundert.  Stuttgart-Bad Cannstadt: frommann-holzboog, 2008 in Isis, 100(September, 2009), 681-82.

James T. Costa, The Annotated Origin: A Facsimile of the First Edition of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin. Annotated by
James T. Costa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Belknap), 2009, in BioScience, 59(November, 2009), 2-3.

Martin J. S. Rudwick, Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008,  in the Journal of Modern History, 82(March 2010), 161-63..

(With John R. Sabin and Naja Jeppesen) Sheilla Jones, The Quantum Ten: A Story of Passion, Tragedy, Ambition and Science.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008 in International Journal for Quantum Chemistry, 110(2010), 960-61.

Richard Holmes, The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science.  New York: Pantheon Books, 2008 in American Scientist, 98(2010), 250-52.

Sander Gliboff,  H.G. Bronn, Ernst Haeckel, and the Origins of German Darwinism: A Study in Translation and Transformation.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008 in NTM: International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Science, Technology, and Medicine, 18(2010), 257-59..

Tilman Matthias Schröder, Naturwissenschaften und Protestantismus im Deutschen Kaiserreich.  Die Versammlungen der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte und ihre Bedeutung für die Evangelische Theologie.  Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2008 in Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 61(2010), 877-78.

Conor Cunningham, Darwin's Pious Idea: Why the Ultra-Darwinists and Creationists Both Get It Wrong.  Grand Rapids, MI/ Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmanns, 2010 in Isis, 103, No. 2(June, 2012), pp. 429-31.

Forthcoming reviews in press:

Ian Hesketh, Of Apes and Ancestors: Evolution, Christianity, and the Oxford Debate.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009 in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences.

Susanne Lettow, Reproduction, Race, and Gender in Philosophy and the Early Life Sciences.  Albany: SUNY Press, 2014 in Isis.