SYA7933: Death and Dying in Old Age
Class: Fridays 3-6 p.m. in 2303 Turlington
Instructor: Monika Ardelt, Ph.D.
Office: 3350 Turlington
Office Hours: Tuesday and Thursday 1:55-2:45 p.m., and by appointment
What constitutes dying well for older persons, and how can families and institutions make the dying experience less painful and more emotionally rewarding for the dying and those close to them? I define dying well as the maintenance of psychological well-being, even under adverse circumstances. Based on a theoretical orientation that assumes life-long psychosocial development and potential for psychological growth, the dying experience can be considered the last developmental milestone of a person’s life course. However, dying well in old age is still a relatively neglected topic. Unfortunately, dying well also appears to be the exception rather than the norm. Too many older people spend their last days or hours of their lives in places, such as hospitals or nursing homes, that may not spare any expenses to keep them alive but lack the human contact and compassion to facilitate a “good” death.
In this course, we will explore the issues surrounding dying well from multiple perspectives, including sociology, psychology, biology, medical sciences, ethics, history, spirituality/religion, and economics. In particular, we will start by studying dying well from a developmental or life course perspective. Then we will discuss the medical, psychological, social, spiritual/religious, economic, ethical, and legal aspects of death and dying. We will end the course by considering cultural variations in end-of-life issues, examining the grieving process for survivors, and discussing the question of life after death.
Gaughen, Shasta. 2003. Coping with Death. Contemporary Issues Companion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Bauer-Maglin, Nan, and Donna Perry (Eds.). 2010. Final Acts: Death, Dying, and the Choices We Make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
All additional readings are available in the “Ardelt-Death and Dying in Old Age” folder on the S-drive.
Readings and Class Participation: An interaction between students and instructor will be the basis of most classes. Hence, it is absolutely essential that you read the assigned material in advance so that you are able to participate in class discussions.
To prevent the instructor from doing all of the talking during class, each student will serve as the discussion leader for two class sessions, which will be rewarded with 10% of the final grade (5% for each class session). There might be more than one discussion leader for a given topic. As discussion leaders, students will have the privilege to ask their most “burning” questions about the class topic first and add information to the discussion from 1 or 2 recent article(s) or book chapter(s) that are not listed in the class schedule outline. To receive full credit, students need to give the instructor the complete reference(s) and an electronic or hard copy of the additional article(s) or book chapter(s).
Attendance: Attendance of class is required because non-attendance by several students at a time will destroy the dynamic of the class. Students who have to miss all or part of a class session must inform the instructor in advance about their absence.
Service Learning Project: To facilitate learning and to understand the material from an experiential perspective, students are asked to volunteer for 2-4 hours each week (after receiving the appropriate training) either at Haven Hospice of North Central Florida http://www.havenhospice.org/volunteer-opportunities.aspx or at one of the nursing homes in Gainesville (see http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/ardelt/List_of_Nursing_Homes_in_Gainesville.htm). As their volunteering experience, students should assist and/or be a companion to older residents who are near the end of their lives.
To volunteer with Haven Hospice, you will need to complete and mail in the Haven Hospice volunteer application ASAP and attend the ON CAMPUS orientation session on Thursday, January 24 from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. organized by Gators for Haven Hospice (http://www.gators4hh.com/). The required fingerprinting will be ON CAMPUS from 3:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. and the required TB test will also be offered at that time.
Subsequently, you will need to attend the ON CAMPUS Patient and Caregiver training on Saturday, January 26, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. with lunch provided by Haven Hospice. There will be alternate dates for those students who cannot make it to these classes, but please try to make every effort to attend. In exchange for attending the volunteer training, there will be no class on March 15 and 22.
Reflection Journal: For each class, you will write at least three pages (i.e., a minimum of 1000 words) for a reflection “journal.” Reflections should contain a heading that identifies the student and the class topic. To receive credit for the reflection journal entries, you need to submit them by noon on Friday before the class for which the entries were written, so that I have time to compile a list of questions for class discussions. Each set of reflection journal entries is worth 3 points for a total of 33% of your final grade.
Reflection journal entries for each class are to be submitted via e-Learning in Sakai after the file has been saved either as a Word document (*.doc or *.docx) or as a rich text format (*.rtf) file. I will not be able to download, read, and grade any other file format. For general information about e-Learning in Sakai visit https://lss.at.ufl.edu/sakai-training/student_index.shtml.
To submit your MS Word file or *.rtf file in e-Learning, go to the University of Florida e-Learning Support Services home page at <http://lss.at.ufl.edu/> (bookmark this page). To sign into e-Learning in Sakai, click on the “Continue” link under “Sakai System Entry” using your assigned Gatorlink username and password. If you do not have a Gatorlink ID or if you cannot remember your Gatorlink login information, go to the Gatorlink website at <http://gatorlink.ufl.edu> or to the CIRCA Help Desk in the Hub (phone: 392-HELP) for assistance.
After you have successfully logged into e-Learning, you will be taken to your My Workspace, where you can access the sites you own and/or the sites you belong to. The “?” icon set to the right side of each title bar will bring up a help file associated with that window. Note: You can also access the Help tool in the left tool bar of each site. For further assistance please contact e-Learning Support Services at (352) 392-4357 select option 2 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
To submit a reflection journal entry via e-Learning, navigate to our course and click on Assignments in the menubar. Assignments are displayed in the order they are due. Do the following to submit a reflection journal entry:
Step 1: Click the reflection journal entry you want to submit.
Step 2: Follow the directions.
Step 3: To add an attachment, click the Add Attachments button. Browse for a Local File and click Continue.
Step 4: Click Submit when you are done. Once you have submitted the assignment, you can view it later, but you cannot modify it.
To view your grades, click on Gradebook in the menubar.
Before you start volunteering, the reflection journal entries will consist of one or more questions based on the assigned readings and possible answers to those questions or issues that should be considered when attempting to answer those questions. Reflect on how the readings might be relevant for your personal or professional life.
After you started volunteering, the reflection journal entries will also start with one or more questions based on the assigned readings and possible answers to those questions followed by a detailed description of the service learning experience during the past week. Try to analyze the experience with regard to the current or past class topics and assigned readings. End by reflecting on the relevance of the service learning experience and/or the course content for your personal or professional life. For each set of reflection journal entry, use the following subheadings: (a) current question(s), (b) service learning experience from <date(s)>, (c) analysis of the service learning experience, and (d) application to personal or professional life.
The following are guidelines for writing the description of your service learning experience:
1. Write down the date, time, and location of the service learning experience.
2. Describe the environment (does not need to be repeated if the environment does not change in subsequent visits).
3. Describe all persons in detail, i.e., age, gender, race, physical appearance, etc. (does not need to be repeated if the same persons are encountered in subsequent visits).
4. Make sure that all persons remain anonymous, i.e., use only pseudonyms as names.
5. Describe what people are doing when you arrive. Give a physical description of the people – clothes etc.
6. Give your impression of the resident(s) – (mental alertness, physical demeanor, etc.)
7. Describe your service learning experience in chronological order and in as much detail as possible.
8. Include any information that you think would be noteworthy.
Term Paper: There will be one term paper that is due on April 19 during regular class time. The term paper should be based on your service learning project and your reflection journal. It should be between 15 and 25 pages long. You will present a summary of your term paper during the class meeting on April 19. Detailed instructions for the term paper will be distributed in class.
Cheating: I define copying parts or all of an author’s or another student’s work, allowing another student to copy parts or all of your work, or simply duplicating parts or all of your reflection journal entries as cheating.
WARNING: Students who are caught cheating in this way will fail the class immediately!
Exams: There are no exams in this course.
Accommodations for Students with Disabilities: Students requesting classroom accommodation must first register with the Dean of Students Office. The Dean of Students Office will provide documentation to the student who must then provide this documentation to the Instructor when requesting accommodation.
Presentation of paper
% of Final Grade
I will not grade on a curve, i.e. your grade will depend on your absolute performance, not your performance compared to other students. The points that you will earn can be translated into letter-grades as follows:
92.5 - 100.0 = A
90.0 - <92.5 = A-
87.5 - <90.0 = B+
82.5 - <87.5 = B
80.0 - <82.5 = B-
77.5 - <80.0 = C+
72.5 - <77.5 = C
70.0 - <72.5 = C-
67.5 - <70.0 = D+
62.5 - <67.5 = D
60.0 - <62.5 = D-
<60.0 = E
For information on current UF grading policies for assigning grade points, see http://www.registrar.ufl.edu/catalog/policies/regulationgrades.html
Tentative Class Schedule
01/11 - Introduction: Preparing to Become a Compassionate Companion
01/18 - Living with Death and Dying
Coping with death: pp. 15-20
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych.
Rolheiser, Ron. 2005. “Life’s Key Question.” Good News 12, Oct. 15-16.
Chinen, Allen B. 1995. “The Mortal King.” Pp. 335-36 in The Path Ahead. Readings in Death and Dying, edited by L. A. DeSpelder and A. L. Strickland. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Attig, Thomas. 1995. “Coping With Mortality: An Essay on Self-Mourning.” Pp. 337-41 in The Path Ahead. Readings in Death and Dying, edited by L. A. DeSpelder and A. L. Strickland. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Killilea, Alfred G. 1995. “The Politics of Being Mortal.” Pp. 342-47 in The Path Ahead. Readings in Death and Dying, edited by L. A. DeSpelder and A. L. Strickland. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Bertman, Sandra L. 1995. “Bearing the Unbearable: From Loss, the Gain.” Pp. 348-54 in The Path Ahead. Readings in Death and Dying, edited by L. A. DeSpelder and A. L. Strickland. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Enck, Graves. 2003. “The Dying Process.” Pp. 457-67 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
“World Death Rate Holding Steady At 100 Percent.” The Onion 31, January 22, 1997.
01/25- Biological, Psychosocial, and Spiritual Perspectives of the Dying Process
Coping with death: pp. 11-14
Final acts: pp. 139-148
Nuland, Sherwin B. 1994. How We Die. Reflections on Life’s Final Chapter. New York: Knopf, Chapters 3-5.
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. 1969. On Death and Dying. New York: The Macmillan Company, Chapters 11‑12.
Edgley, Charles. 2003. “Dying as Deviance. An Update on the Relationship between Terminal Patients and Medical Settings.” Pp. 448-56 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. 1999. “The Cocoon and the Butterfly.” Pp. 41-76 in The Tunnel and the Light. Essential Insights on Living and Dying, edited by G. Grip. New York: Marlowe & Company, pp. 41-56.
Dass, Ram. 2001. Still Here: Embracing Aging, Changing, and Dying. New York: Riverhead, Chapter 7.
Singh, Kathleen Dowling. 2000. The Grace in Dying: How We Are Transformed Spiritually as We Die. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins, Chapter 1.
02/01 - Hospice and Palliative Care
Coping with death: pp. 51-54, 114-125
Final acts: pp. 163-203
Byock, Ira R. 1996. “The Nature of Suffering and the Nature of Opportunity at the End of Life.” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 12:237-52.
NHPCO. 2008. Facts and Figures: Hospice Care in America. Alexandria, VA: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, October 2008.
Connor, Stephen R. 2000. “Hospice Care and the Older Person.” Pp. 227-38 in Death Attitudes and the Older Adult. Theories, Concepts, and Applications, edited by A. Tomer. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner-Routledge.
Brabant, Sarah. 2003. “Death in Two Settings. The Acute Care Facility and Hospice.” Pp. 475-84 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Zerzan, Judy, Sally Stearns, and Laura Hanson. 2000. “Access to Palliative Care and Hospice in Nursing Homes.” Journal of the American Medical Association 284:2489-94.
Life Before Death website about pain control and end of life issues: http://www.lifebeforedeath.com/movie/about.shtml and http://www.lifebeforedeath.com/movie/short-films.shtml
02/08 - Being with Dying
Terminal illness: pp.115-127, 134-141
Final acts: pp. 19-90
Wray, Elizabeth. 2003. “Learning to Let Go.” Alternative Medicine 57, May 2003: 88-126.
Bruce, Anne, and Betty Davies. 2005. “Mindfulness in Hospice Care: Practicing Meditation-in-Action.” Qualitative Health Research 15 (10):1329-44.
Steinhauser, Karen E, Elizabeth C Clipp, Maya McNeilly, Nicholas A Christakis, Lauren M McIntyre, and James A Tulsky. 2000. “In Search of a Good Death: Observations of Patients, Families, and Providers.” Annals of Internal Medicine 132 (10):825-32.
Kovacs, Pamela J. and David P. Fauri. 2003. “Formal and Informal Caregiving at the End of Life.” Pp. 502-10 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gross, Jane. 2006. “For the Families of the Dying, Coaching as the Hours Wane.” The New York Times, May 20, 2006.
Gross, Jane. 2009. “Sisters Face Death with Dignity and Reverence.” The New York Times, July 9, 2009.
Fahnestock, Deborah T. 1999. “A Piece of My Mind: Partnership for Good Dying.” Journal of the American Medical Association 282:615-16.
Orr, Robert D. 2001. “A Piece of My Mind: You Have the Power.” Journal of the American Medical Association 286:2067-68.
Sachs, Greg A. 2000. “A Piece of My Mind: Sometimes Dying Still Stings.” Journal of the American Medical Association 284:2423.
Simpson, Mona. 2011. “A Sister’s Eulogy for Steve Jobs.” The New York Times, October 30, 2011.
02/15 - The Role of Religion and Spirituality at the End of Life
Terminal illness: pp. 128-133
Coping with death: pp. 38-43, 108-113
Final acts: pp. 126-138
Daaleman, Timothy P. and Larry VandeCreek. 2000. “Placing Religion and Spirituality in End-of-Life Care.” Journal of the American Medical Association 284:2514-17.
Thibault, Jane. 2003. “How Can Health Care Professionals Meet the Spiritual Needs of Dying Older Patients.” Geriatric Times I:6pp.
Doka, Kenneth J. 1993. “The Spiritual Need of the Dying.” Pp. 143-50 in Death and Spirituality, edited by K. J. Doka and J. D. Morgan. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood.
Morgan, John D. 2003. “Spirituality.” Pp. 110-16 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Leming, Michael R. 2003. “Religion and the Mediation of Death Fear.” Pp. 117-25 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Siegel, Karolynn and Eric W. Schrimshaw. 2002. “The Perceived Benefits of Religious and Spiritual Coping Among Older Adults Living With HIV/AIDS.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41:91-102.
Landes, Scott D. and Monika Ardelt. 2011. "The Relationship between Spirituality and Death Fear in Aging Adults." Counselling and Spirituality 30(2):87-111.
02/22 - The Cost of Health Care and End-of-Life Care for Older Adults
Coping with death: pp. 55-60
Final acts: pp. 123-125
Brogden, Mike. 2001. Geronticide. Killing the Elderly. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley, Chapter 2.
Callahan, Daniel. 1990. “Why We Must Set Limits.” Pp. 23-36 in A Good Old Age? The Paradox of Setting Limits, edited by P. Homer and M. Holstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Holstein, Martha. 1990. “Voices of the Old.” Pp. 37-43 in A Good Old Age? The Paradox of Setting Limits, edited by P. Homer and M. Holstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Wetle, Terrie and Richard W. Besdine. 1990. “Letting Individuals Decide.” Pp. 53-57 in A Good Old Age? The Paradox of Setting Limits, edited by P. Homer and M. Holstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Perry, Daniel and Robert N. Butler. 1990. “Aim Not Just for Longer Life, but Expanded ‘Health Span’.” Pp. 91-94 in A Good Old Age? The Paradox of Setting Limits, edited by P. Homer and M. Holstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Somers, Anne R. 1990. “Setting Limits or Promoting Health?” Pp. 101-5 in A Good Old Age? The Paradox of Setting Limits, edited by P. Homer and M. Holstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Reagan, Michael D. 1993. “Is Global Budgeting the Way to Set Limits on Health Care for the Elderly?” Pp. 125-35 in Facing Limits. Ethics and Health Care for the Elderly, edited by G. R. Winslow and J. W. Walters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Menzel, Paul T. 1993. “Counting the Costs of Lifesaving Interventions for the Elderly.” Pp. 137-49 in Facing Limits. Ethics and Health Care for the Elderly, edited by G. R. Winslow and J. W. Walters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Schneider, Edward L. 1993. “Changing the Debate about Health Care for the Elderly.” Pp. 161-74 in Facing Limits. Ethics and Health Care for the Elderly, edited by G. R. Winslow and J. W. Walters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Spielman, Bethany. 1993. “Achieving Equity and Setting Limits: The Importance of Gender.” Pp. 177-89 in Facing Limits. Ethics and Health Care for the Elderly, edited by G. R. Winslow and J. W. Walters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culpepper, Emily Erwin. 1993. “Ageism, Sexism, and Health Care: Why We Need Old Women in Power.” Pp. 191-209 in Facing Limits. Ethics and Health Care for the Elderly, edited by G. R. Winslow and J. W. Walters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Winslow, Gerald R. 1993. “Exceptions and the Elderly.” Pp. 231-43 in Facing Limits. Ethics and Health Care for the Elderly, edited by G. R. Winslow and J. W. Walters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Holmes, Holly M., Déon Cox Hayley, G. Caleb Alexander, and Greg A. Sachs. 2006. “Reconsidering Medication Appropriateness for Patients Late in Life. Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (6):605-609.
Kaufman, Sharon, R. 2009. “Life-Extending Treatments for the Oldest Patients.” The Hastings Center Health Care Cost Monitor, May 26, 2009.
Singer, Peter. 2009. “Why We Must Ration Health Care.” The New York Times, July 19, 2009.
Murray, Ken. 2011. “How Doctors Die. It’s Not Like the Rest of Us, But It Should Be.” Nexus, November 30, 2011.
03/01 - Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide
Terminal illness: pp. 91-101, 144-188
Coping with death: pp. 126-136
Final acts: pp. 91-122, 238-313
Quill, Timothy E. 1993. “Doctor, I Want to Die. Will You Help Me?” Journal of the American Medical Association 270:870-73.
Angell, Marcia. 1997. “The Supreme Court and Physician-Assisted Suicide - The Ultimate Right.” The New England Journal of Medicine 336:50-53.
Foley, Kathleen M. 1997. “Competent Care for the Dying Instead of Physician-Assisted Suicide.” The New England Journal of Medicine 336:54-58.
Eddy, David M. 1994. “A Piece of My Mind: A Conversation with My Mother.” Journal of the American Medical Association 272:179-81.
Muskin, Philip R. 1998. “The Request to Die: Role for a Psychodynamic Perspective on Physician-Assisted Suicide.” Journal of the American Medical Association 279:323-28.
Hardwig, John. 1997. “Is There a Duty to Die?” Hastings Center Report 27:34-42.
Osgood, Nancy J. 2000. “Ageism and Elderly Suicide: The Intimate Connection.” Pp. 157-73 in Death Attitudes and the Older Adult. Theories, Concepts, and Applications, edited by A. Tomer. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner-Routledge.
Ganzini, Linda, Elizabeth R. Goy, and Steven K. Dobscha. 2008. “Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety in Patients Requesting Physicians’ Aid in Dying: Cross Sectional Survey” [Electronic Version]. BMJ 337: a1682. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
Gastmans, Chris and Jan De Lepeleire. 2009. Living to the Bitter End? A Personalist Approach to Euthanasia in Persons with Severe Dementia” [Electronic Version]. Bioethics. Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00708.x
Meier, Diane E. 1998. “A Change of Heart on Assisted Suicide.” The New York Times, April 24, 1998.
McNeil, Donald G. Jr. 2003. “First Study on Patients Who Fast to End Lives.” The New York Times, July 31, 2003.
03/08 – Spring Break
03/15 - No class
No regular class: Work on final papers
03/22 - No class
No regular class: Work on final papers
03/29 - Legal Preparations for the End-of-Life
Terminal illness: pp. 36-48
Coping with death: pp. 44-50
Final acts: pp. 204-237
Pevey, Carolyn. 2003. “Living Wills and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care.” Pp. 891-98 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. II: The response to death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Glass, Anne P. and Lusine Nahapetyan. 2008. “Discussions by Elders and Adult Children about End-of-Life Preparation and Preferences [Electronic Version]. Preventing Chronic Disease. Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy 5:8 pp. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
Phipps, Etienne, Gala True, Diana Harris, Umi Chong, William Tester, Stephen I. Chavin, and Leonard E. Braitman. 2003. “Approaching the End of Life: Attitudes, Preferences, and Behaviors of African-American and White Patients and Their Family Caregivers. Journal of Clinical Oncology 21 (3):549-54.
Fagerlin, Angela and Carl E. Schneider. 2004. “Enough. The Failure of the Living Will.” Hastings Center Report 34:30-42.
Landro, Laura. 2011. “New Efforts to Simplify End-of-Life Care Wishes.” The Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2011.
Miller, Robert K. Jr, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, and Stephen J. McNamee. 2003. “The Disposition of Property. Transfers between the Dead and the Living.” Pp. 917-25 in Handbook of Death and Dying, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
04/05 - Cultural Variations in End-of-Life Issues
Terminal illness: pp. 58-75
Meagher, David K. and Craig P. Bell. 1993. “Perspectives on Death in the Africa-American Community.” Pp. 113-30 in Death and Spirituality, edited by K. J. Doka and J. D. Morgan. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood.
Mouton, Charles P. 2000. “Cultural and Religious Issues for African Americans.” Pp. 71-82 in Cultural Issues in End-of-Life Decision Making, edited by K. L. Braun, J. H. Pietsch, and P. L. Blanchette. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Talamantes, Melissa A., Celina Gomez, and Kathryn L. Braun. 2000. “Advance Directives and End-of-Life Care: The Hispanic Perspective.” Pp. 83-100 in Cultural Issues in End-of-Life Decision Making, edited by K. L. Braun, J. H. Pietsch, and P. L. Blanchette. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yeo, Gwen and Nancy Hikoyeda. 2000. “Cultural Issues in End-of-Life Decision Making Among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States.” Pp. 101-25 in Cultural Issues in End-of-Life Decision Making, edited by K. L. Braun, J. H. Pietsch, and P. L. Blanchette. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Long, Susan Orpett. 2004. “Cultural Scripts for a Good Death in Japan and the United States: Similarities and Differences.” Social Science & Medicine 58 (5):913-928.
Krakauer, Eric L., Christopher Crenner, and Ken Fox. 2002. “Barriers to Optimum End-of-Life Care for Minority Patients.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 50:182-90.
04/12 - Grieving
Coping with death: pp. 61-65, 67-72, 80-83, 97-100, 141-147
Doka, Kenneth J. 1993. “The Spiritual Crisis of Bereavement.” Pp. 185-93 in Death and Spirituality, edited by K. J. Doka and J. D. Morgan. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood.
Neimeyer, Robert A. and Louis A. Gamino. 2003. “The Experience of Grief and Bereavement.” Pp. 847-54 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. II: The response to death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rosenblatt, Paul C. 2003. “Bereavement in Cross-Cultural Perspective.” Pp. 855-61 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. II: The response to death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wada, Kaori, and Jeeseon Park. 2009. “Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling. Death Studies 33 (7):657-683.
04/19 - Is There Life after Death? and Class Presentations of Papers
Coping with death: pp. 21-36
Dillon, Jane. 2003. “Reincarnation. The Technology of Death.” Pp. 65-76 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gowan, Donald E. 2003. “Christian Beliefs Concerning Death and Life after Death.” Pp. 126-36 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rodabough, Tillman and Kyle Cole. 2003. “Near-Death Experiences as Secular Eschatology.” Pp. 137-47 in Handbook of Death and Dying. Vol. I: The presence of death, edited by C. D. Bryant et al. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Betty, L. Stafford. 2006. “Are They Hallucinations or Are They Real? The Spirituality of Deathbed and Near-Death Visions.” Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 53 (1/2):37-49.
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. 1999. “Life, Death and Life after Death.” Pp. 79-106 in The Tunnel and the Light. Essential Insights on Living and Dying, edited by G. Grip. New York: Marlowe & Company.
Rolheiser, Ron. 2004. “The Law of Karma.” February 8, 2004, http://www.ronrolheiser.com/